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  • 1. Global warmingWhat is global warming?Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). Ithappens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrousoxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’satmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people,animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.Effects of Global WarmingThe planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and everywherein between. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degreeFahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive PolarRegions. And the effects of rising temperatures aren’t waiting for somefar-flung future. They’re happening right now. Signs are appearing allover, and some of them are surprising. The heat is not only meltingglaciers and sea ice; it’s also shifting precipitation patterns and settinganimals on the move.Some impacts from increasing temperatures are already happening.* Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth’s poles. This includesmountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arcticsea ice.* Researcher Bill Fraser has tracked the decline of the Adélie penguins onAntarctica, where their numbers have fallen from 32,000 breeding pairs to 11,000in 30 years.* Sea level rise became faster over the last century.* Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved farther north or to higher,cooler areas.* Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased across the globe, on average.* Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warmsummers. The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees.Other effects could happen later this century, if warming continues.* Sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches (18 and 59 centimeters)by the end of the century, and continued melting at the poles could add between 4and 8 inches (10 to 20 centimeters).* Hurricanes and other storms are likely to become stronger.* Species that depend on one another may become out of sync. For example,plants could bloom earlier than their pollinating insects become active.* Floods and droughts will become more common. Rainfall in Ethiopia, wheredroughts are already common, could decline by 10 percent over the next 50 years.* Less fresh water will be available. If the Quelccaya ice cap in Peru continues tomelt at its current rate, it will be gone by 2100, leaving thousands of people whorely on it for drinking water and electricity without a source of either.* Some diseases will spread such as malaria carried by mosquitoes.
  • 2. * Ecosystems will change—some species will move farther north or become moresuccessful; others won’t be able to move and could become extinct. Wildliferesearch scientist Martyn Obbard has found that since the mid-1980s, with less iceon which to live and fish for food, polar bears have gotten considerably skinnier.Polar bear biologist Ian Stirling has found a similar pattern in Hudson Bay. Hefears that if sea ice disappears, the polar bears will as well.Global WarmingAn Introduction to Climate Change* Climate change is changing our economy, health and communities in diverseways. Find out what it could mean for you and your family. Read more »A Step in the Right Direction for Clean AirEach year American power plants pump more than two billion tons of carbondioxide into the air. EPAs new standards would reduce carbon pollution andprotect public health.Climate Change, Water, and RiskClimate change will have a significant impact on the sustainability of watersupplies in the coming decades. A new analysis, performed by consulting firmTetra Tech for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examined theeffects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous UnitedStates. The study found that more than 1,100 counties -- one-third of all countiesin the lower 48 -- will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as theresult of global warming. More than 400 of these counties will face extremelyhigh risks of water shortages.SolutionsSolving global warming will improve our lives by cleaning up air pollution whileinvesting in clean energy, green jobs and smart energy solutions that get the U.S.economy moving again. We need to drive smarter cars, save money with energyefficient homes and offices, and build better communities and transportationnetworks. See how we can solve the climate crisis today.Extreme Weather MapIn 2011, record-breaking extreme events occurred in each of the 50 states, and thefrequency and intensity of some extreme events is likely to worsen with climatechange. Check out our interactive map and learn how to protect your family fromextreme weather.Climate Change Threatens HealthClimate change is one of the most serious public health threats facing the nation,but few people are aware of how it can affect them. Children, the elderly, andcommunities living in poverty are the most vulnerable. Explore our interactivemaps to see climate-health threats in your state, actions that are being taken toprepare communities from climate changes serious health threats, and what youcan do about them.
  • 3. What is the greenhouse effect?The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises becausethe sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere.This is like when heat is trapped in a car. On a very hot day,the car gets hotter when it is out in the parking lot. This isbecause the heat and light from the sun can get into the car,by going through the windows, but it can’t get back out. Thisis what the greenhouse effect does to the earth. The heat andlight can get through the atmosphere, but it can’t get out. Asa result, the temperature rises.The sun’s heat can get into the car through the windows but is then trapped. Thismakes whatever the place might be, a greenhouse, a car, a building, or the earth’satmosphere, hotter. This diagram shows the heat coming into a car as visible light(light you can see) and infrared light (heat). Once the light is inside the car, it istrapped and the heat builds up, just like it does in the earth’s atmosphere.Sometimes the temperature can change in a way that helps us. The greenhouseeffect makes the earth appropriate for people to live on. Without it, the earthwould be freezing, or on the other hand it would be burning hot. It would befreezing at night because the sun would be down. We would not get the sun’s heatand light to make the night somewhat warm. During the day, especially during thesummer, it would be burning because the sun would be up with no atmosphere tofilter it, so people, plants, and animals would be exposed to all the light and heat.Although the greenhouse effect makes the earth able to have people living on it, ifthere gets to be too many gases, the earth can get unusually warmer, and manyplants, animals, and people will die. They would die because there would be lessfood (plants like corn, wheat, and other vegetables and fruits). This would happenbecause the plants would not be able to take the heat. This would cause us to haveless food to eat, but it would also limit the food that animals have. With less food,like grass, for the animals that we need to survive (like cows) we would evenhave less food. Gradually, people, plants, and animals would all die of hunger.What are greenhouse gasses?Greenhouse gasses are gasses are in the earth’s atmosphere that collects heat andlight from the sun. With too many greenhouse gasses in the air, the earth’satmosphere will trap too much heat and the earth will get too hot. As a resultpeople, animals, and plants would die because the heat would be too strong.What is global warming doing to the environment?Global warming is affecting many parts of the world. Global warming makes thesea rise, and when the sea rises, the water covers many low land islands. This is abig problem for many of the plants, animals, and people on islands. The watercovers the plants and causes some of them to die. When they die, the animals losea source of food, along with their habitat. Although animals have a better abilityto adapt to what happens than plants do, they may die also. When the plants andanimals die, people lose two sources of food, plant food and animal food. Theymay also lose their homes. As a result, they would also have to leave the area or
  • 4. die. This would be called a break in the food chain, or a chain reaction, one thinghappening that leads to another and so on.The oceans are affected by global warming in other ways, as well. Many thingsthat are happening to the ocean are linked to global warming. One thing that ishappening is warm water, caused from global warming, is harming and killingalgae in the ocean.Algae is a producer that you can see floating on the top of the water. (A producer is something that makes food for other animals throughphotosynthesis, like grass.) This floating green alga is food to many consumers inthe ocean. (A consumer is something that eats the producers.) One kind of aconsumer is small fish. There are many others like crabs, some whales, and manyother animals. Fewer algae is a problem because there is less food for us andmany animals in the sea.Global warming is doing many things to people as well as animals and plants. It iskilling algae, but it is also destroying many huge forests. The pollution that causesglobal warming is linked to acid rain. Acid rain gradually destroys almosteverything it touches. Global warming is also causing many more fires that wipeout whole forests. This happens because global warming can make the earth veryhot. In forests, some plants and trees leaves can be so dry that they catch on fire.What causes global warming?Many things cause global warming. One thing that causes global warming iselectrical pollution. Electricity causes pollution in many ways, some worse thanothers. In most cases, fossil fuels are burned to create electricity. Fossil fuels aremade of dead plants and animals. Some examples of fossil fuels are oil andpetroleum. Many pollutants (chemicals that pollute the air, water, and land) aresent into the air when fossil fuels are burned. Some of these chemicals are calledgreenhouse gasses.We use these sources of energy much more than the sources that give off lesspollution. Petroleum, one of the sources of energy, is used a lot. It is used fortransportation, making electricity, and making many other things. Although thissource of energy gives off a lot of pollution, it is used for 38% of the UnitedStates’ energy.Some other examples of using energy and polluting the air are:Turning on a lightWatching T.V.Listening to a stereoWashing or drying clothesUsing a hair dryerRiding in a carHeating a meal in the microwave
  • 5. Using an air conditionerPlaying a video gameUsing a dish washerWhen you do these things, you are causing more greenhouse gasses to be sent intothe air. Greenhouse gasses are sent into the air because creating the electricity youuse to do these things causes pollution. If you think of how many times a day youdo these things, it’s a lot. You even have to add in how many other people dothese things! That turns out to be a lot of pollutants going into the air a daybecause of people like us using electricity. The least amount of electricity youuse, the better.When we throw our garbage away, the garbage goes to landfills. Landfills arethose big hills that you go by on an expressway that stink. They are full ofgarbage. The garbage is then sometimes burned. This sends an enormous amountof greenhouse gasses into the air and makes global warming worse.Another thing that makes global warming worse is when people cut down trees.Trees and other plants collect carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas.Carbon dioxide is the air that our body lets out when we breathe. With fewertrees, it is harder for people to breathe because there is more CO2 in the air, andwe don’t breathe CO2, we breathe oxygen. Plants collect the CO2 that we breatheout, and they give back oxygen that we breathe in. With fewer trees and otherplants, such as algae, there is less air for us, and more greenhouse gases are sentinto the air. This means that it is very important to protect our trees to stop thegreenhouse effect, and also so we can breathe and live.This gas, CO2, collects light and heat (radiant energy), produced by the sun, andthis makes the earth warmer. The heat and light from the sun is produced in thecenter of the sun. (The sun has layers just like the earth.)This layer is called the core. Just like a core of an apple, it is in the middle. Herethere is a very high temperature, about 27,000,000°F. This heat escapes out of thislayer to the next layer, the irradiative zone. This layer is cooler, about4,500,000°F. Gradually, the heat and light will pass through the convection zoneat a temperature of around 2,000,000°F. When it gets to the surface, thetemperature is about 10,000°F. Finally, the heat and light is sent into space. Thisis called radiant energy (heat and light). The radiant energy reaches the earth’satmosphere. As a result of this process we get light and heat. When you pollute,you send chemicals into the air that destroy our atmosphere, so more heat andlight cannot escape from the earth’s atmosphere.What are people doing to stop global warming?People are doing many things to try to stop global warming. One thing people aredoing is carpooling. Carpooling is driving with someone to a place that you areboth going to. This minimizes the amount of greenhouse gases put into the air bya car.Another thing that people are doing is being more careful about leaving thingsturned on like the television, computer, and the lights. A lot of people are takingtime away from the television, and instead, they are spending more time outdoors.This helps our planet out a lot. Now, more people are even riding busses, walking
  • 6. to school, and riding their bikes to lower the amount of greenhouse gases in theair. Planting trees and recycling also helps. If you recycle, less trash goes to thedump, and less trash gets burned. As a result, there are fewer greenhouse gasses inour atmosphere.Watch what you buy. Many things, such as hairspray and deodorant, now aremade to have less of an impact on the atmosphere. Less greenhouse gasses willrise into the air, and global warming will slow down.What is the government doing to stop global warming?The government is doing many things to help stop global warming. Thegovernment made a law called The Clean Air Act so there is less air pollution.Global warming is making people get very bad illnesses that could make themdisabled, very sick, and sometimes even die. The Clean Air Act is making manycompanies change their products to decrease these problems. Part of the law saysthat you may not put a certain amount of pollutants in the air. Hairspray and someother products, like foam cups, had this problem. Making and using theseproducts let out too much volatile organic compounds (VOC’s), ozone-destroyingchemicals (chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s), and related chemicals (such as CO2)into the air. Now, almost all of these products have a label on them telling peoplewhat this product can do to the environment and many people. By 2015 allproducts listed on the Clean Air Act will have this label on them:Almost all of the other chemicals that could be harmful will have this label onthem hopefully by this time (2015) as well.The Clean Air Act has also made car companies change some of the things insideof the cars. Cars pollute a lot. While cars make more than half of the world’ssmog (visible pollution in the air), many things that cars need to move and heat upmake even more pollution. Some things that are inside of cars, buses, trucks, andmotorcycles, like gasoline, pollute the air when the fuel is burned. It comes out asa chemical and when mixed in the air, forms smog. Smog is a kind of pollutionthat you see in the form of a cloud. If you have ever been to California you cansee a lot of smog in some places. Sometimes the smog gets so bad that you cannotsee at all! Smog forms when car exhaust, pollution from homes, and pollutionfrom factories mixes in the air and has a chemical reaction. The sun’s heat andlight add to the reaction.Cars, buses, and trucks are also responsible for over 50% of dangerous chemicalslet into the air. Some of these chemicals can cause cancer, birth defects, troublebreathing, brain and nerve damage, lung injures, and burning eyes. Some of thepollutants are so harmful that they can even cause death.What are some of the other dangerous chemicals?Some other chemicals that cause air pollution and are bad for the environment andpeople are:Ozone- Ozone is produced when other pollution chemicals combine. It is thebasic element of smog. It causes many different kinds of health issues dealingwith the lungs. It can damage plants and limit sight. It can also cause a lot ofproperty damage.VOC’s (volatile organic compounds, smog formers)- VOC’s are let into the airwhen fuel is burned. This chemical can cause cancer. It can also harm plants.
  • 7. NOx (nitrogen dioxide)- This chemical forms smog. It is also formed by burningsources of energy, like gas, coal, and oil, and by cars. This chemical causesproblems in the respiratory system (including the lungs). It causes acid rain, and itcan damage trees. This chemical can eat away buildings and statues.CO (carbon monoxide) - The source of this chemical is burning sources ofenergy. It causes blood vessel problems and respiratory failures.PM-10 (particulate matter) - The source of this chemical is plowing and burningdown fields. It can cause death and lung damage. It can make it hard for people tobreathe. The smoke, soot, ash, and dust formed by this chemical can make manycities dirty.Sulfur Dioxide- This chemical is produced by making paper and metals. Thischemical can cause permanent lung damage. It can cause acid rain which killstrees and damages building and statues.Lead- This chemical is in paint, leaded gasoline, smelters, and in lead storagebatteries. It can cause many brain and nerve damages and digestive problems.Kid can help stop global warming, too!!Although adults do many things to help stop global warming, kids can do just asmuch. Kids can’t do hard things like making a law, but we can do easier thingslike not watching as much TV. You can listen to your parents when they say, turnoff your lights or go play outside. Listening to them and actually trying to helpcan help you, your environment, and the world.http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0725_coralbleaching.htmlhttp://powerscorecard.org/elec_env.cfm. Last visited: January 2002.http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/peg_caa/pegcaain.html. The preparation of scientific material: Aia Bai Eleventh grade science / Izz al-Din al-Qassam Supervisor: Hassan Mohammad /English Language hahassanm03@gmail.com File Format: Maisam Shahhod Grade: Second secondary scientific / Suleiman Essa Supervisor: Mervat Shalaty / Informatics mirvat977@gmail.com