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An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes in Thailand Volume 1

An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes in Thailand Volume 1

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9789740329152 9789740329152 Document Transcript

  • OrderPrimates
  • 2 Order: Primates
  • Family: Cercopithecidae 3 Order Primates Family Cercopithecidae Subfamily CercopithecinaeMacaca arctoides (Stump-tailed macaque); ≈‘߇ π 2n=42; NF=84 in male and female Photograph by: Alongkoad Tanomtong and Ruengwit Bunjongrat
  • 4 Order: Primates Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed macaque) 2n=42; NF=84 in male and femaleAutosomes: 6 large metacentric, 8 large submetacentric, 4 medium metacentric, 12 medium submetacentric, 8 small metacentric and 2 small submetacentric chromosomesSex chromosomes: X chromosome medium submetacentric chromosome Y chromosome smallest submetacentric chromosomeKaryotype formula: 2n (42) = L6m + L8sm + M4m + M12sm + S8m + S2sm + sex chromosomes The specimens (2 males and 1 female) were collected in Nakhon RatchasimaZoo, Nakhon Ratchasima Province and Songkhla Zoo, Songkhla Province, Thailand.Blood T-lymphocyte cultures were used for karyological studies. The autosomesfrom a continuous length gradation. The identification of the X chromosome wasequivocal, since one or two pairs of autosomes show similar morphology. The X and Ychromosome was the important chromosome that was used to identify the species ofthe macaques (genus Macaca) in Thailand. The chromosomes 13 showed clearlyobservable secondary constriction on the short arm near the centromeres, similar tothose seen in the macaques in Thailand. From the G-banding and high-resolutiontechnique, the numbers of bands and locations in the stump-tailed macaque were 273and 335 respectively, each chromosome pairs could be clearly differentiated. Theimportant chromosome marker of the stump-tailed macaque is the symmetricalkaryotype, which is all two types of chromosomes were found (metacentric andsubmetacentric chromosome). The largest and smallest chromosomes show high sizedifference (approximately 3 folds). The chromosome marker of stump-tailed macaque,chromosome 1 is the largest metacentric chromosome and Y chromosome is the smallestsubmatecentric chromosome. We found that chromosome 5, 12, 13 and 19 have theidentical G-banding patterns as those of human chromosomes. The short arm ofchromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 22 of human as indicated by G-bands. Inaddition, the long arm of chromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 15 of human.These results indicated that the chromosome 13 of the stump-tailed macaque was splitinto 2 chromosomes. Chromosome 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17 and 20 are similar tothose of human chromosomes. The study suggested that the human chromosome 1 is apericentric inversion of stump-tailed macaque chromosome 1. The stump-tailed macaquechromosomes 2, 4, 15, 16, 18, X and Y are different from those of human chromosomes.These results show the relationship between the stump-tailed macaque and human.
  • Family: Cercopithecidae 5References:1. Chiarelli, B. Comparative and morphometric analysis of primate chromosomes: The chromosomes of genera Macaca, Papio, Theropithecus and Cercocebus. Caryologia 15: 401-420, 1962.2. Markarian, D.S., Gvaramiia, I.A. and Chalian, V.G. Chromosome identification in Macaca arctoides based on study of the differential staining pattern (G-discs) comparison with Papio hamadryas G-discs. Genetika 11 (6): 153-158, 1975.3. Miranda, R., Ruz, L., Mutchinick, O. and Estrada, A. Comparative cytogenetic studies in Macaca arctoides with other species of Macaca and man. Acta. Anthropo. Genet. 6 (4): 195-207, 1982.4. Brown, C.J., Dunbar, V.G. and Shafer, D.A. A comparison of the karyotypes of six species of the genus Macaca and a species of the genus Cercocebus. Folia primatol. 46 (3): 164-172, 1986.5. Tanomtong, A., Khunsook, S., Kaensa, W. and Kongkham, W. Cytogenetics of stump-tailed macaque, Macaca arctoides (Primate, Cercopithecidae) in Thailand by conventional staining. Walailak Journal Science and Technology 2 (2): 231-240, 2005.6. Tanomtong, A., Khunsook, S., Kaensa, W. and Bunjongrat, R. A comparison of the karyotype of five species in genus Macaca (Primate, Cercopithecidae) in Thailand by using conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Cytologia 71 (2): 161-167, 2006.7. Tanomtong, A., Khunsook, S., Bunjongrat, R. and Kongkham, W. Chromosome G-banding analysis of stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) and relationship to human (Homo sapiens) by G-banding technique. KMUTT Research and Development Journal 29 (3): 319-334, 2006.
  • 6 Order: PrimatesTable 1 Means of length short arm chromosome (Ls), length long arm chromosome(Ll), length total arm chromosome (LT), relative length (RL) with its standard deviation(SD) and centromeric index (CI) with its SD from chromosomes in mitotic metaphasefor 20 cells of each male and female stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides), 2n=42.Chromosome Ls Ll LT RL + SD CI + SD Chromosome Chromosome Pairs Size Type 1 0.901 1.265 2.166 0.072 ± 0.006 0.584 ± 0.038 L m 2 0.695 1.185 1.880 0.062 ± 0.004 0.630 ± 0.028 L sm 3 0.669 1.095 1.764 0.059 ± 0.006 0.621 ± 0.024 L sm 4 0.778 0.960 1.738 0.058 ± 0.004 0.552 ± 0.026 L m 5 0.578 1.119 1.697 0.056 ± 0.005 0.659 ± 0.035 L sm 6 0.585 1.043 1.629 0.054 ± 0.007 0.641 ± 0.033 L sm 7 0.644 0.965 1.610 0.053 ± 0.004 0.600 ± 0.037 L m 8 0.559 0.878 1.437 0.048 ± 0.005 0.611 ± 0.026 M sm 9 0.530 0.890 1.420 0.047 ± 0.005 0.626 ± 0.034 M sm 10 0.478 0.938 1.415 0.047 ± 0.007 0.663 ± 0.022 M sm 11 0.480 0.908 1.387 0.046 ± 0.007 0.654 ± 0.024 M sm 12 0.610 0.668 1.278 0.042 ± 0.007 0.522 ± 0.020 M m 13 0.614 0.658 1.272 0.042 ± 0.003 0.517 ± 0.023 M m 14 0.403 0.863 1.266 0.042 ± 0.005 0.681 ± 0.039 M sm 15 0.382 0.853 1.235 0.041 ± 0.004 0.691 ± 0.017 M sm 16 0.507 0.554 1.061 0.035 ± 0.004 0.522 ± 0.025 S m 17 0.377 0.650 1.028 0.034 ± 0.006 0.633 ± 0.037 S sm 18 0.429 0.462 0.891 0.030 ± 0.005 0.518 ± 0.016 S m 19 0.415 0.441 0.856 0.028 ± 0.007 0.515 ± 0.023 S m 20 0.365 0.489 0.853 0.028 ± 0.008 0.573 ± 0.019 S m X 0.558 0.857 1.414 0.047 ± 0.005 0.606 ± 0.031 M sm Y 0.331 0.502 0.833 0.028 ± 0.009 0.602 ± 0.038 S sm
  • Family: Cercopithecidae 7 Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed macaque) Male 2n=42; NF=84, Karyotype by conventional staining techniquePhotograph by: Alongkoad Tanomtong and Wiwat Kaensa
  • 8 Order: Primates Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed macaque) Female 2n=42; NF=84, Karyotype by conventional staining techniquePhotograph by: Alongkoad Tanomtong and Wiwat Kaensa
  • Family: Cercopithecidae 9 Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed macaque) Male 2n=42; NF=84, Karyotype by G-banding techniquePhotograph by: Alongkoad Tanomtong and Wiwat Kaensa
  • 10 Order: Primates Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed macaque) Female 2n=42; NF=84, Karyotype by G-banding techniquePhotograph by: Alongkoad Tanomtong and Wiwat Kaensa