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  • 1. Ruth Anne Robbins Visual Rhetoric: Persuading With Print (Thurs. 11 am presentation) Legal writing professionals can better serve their visual learner audiences by incorporating concepts of layout and typographic design Bibliography: Legal Sources Sheppard v. Maxwell, 346 F.2d 707, Appendix B & C (6th Cir. 1965), rev’d, 384 U.S. 333 (1966) (in habeas petition, using photographs in appendices to explain claims of pretrial publicity tainting jury). Dr. Seuss Enterprises, L.P. v. Penguin Books USA, Inc., 109 F.3d 1394 (9th Cir. 1997)(using pictures to explain copyright infringement claims). Twp. Of W. Orange v. 769 Assoc., 172 N.J. 564, 800 A.2d 86 (2002)(using diagram to show relationship of properties in condemnation case). Mary Beth Beazley, The Self-Graded Draft: Teaching Students to Revise Using Guided Self-Critique, 3 Leg. Writing 175 (1997). Barbara Blumenfeld, A Photographer's Guide To Legal Writing, 4 no. 2 Persp. 41 (1996). Robin A. Boyle and Rita Dunn, Teaching Law Students Through Individual Learning Styles, 62 Alb. L. Rev. 213 (1998). Hon. John L. Breeden Jr. & William A. Bryan Jr., Improving Jury Deliberations: Perspectives from the Circuit Court Bench, 12 S.C. Law. 18 (Oct. 2000). Barbara J. Busharis & Suzanne E. Rowe, The Gordian Knot: Uniting Skills And Substance In Employment Discrimination And Federal Taxation Courses, 33 J. Marshall L. Rev. 303 (2000). Demonstrative Exhibits: A Key To Effective Jury Presentations, 340 P.L.I./Lit. 19 (1987). Bryan D. Cox, Creating Effective Visual Presentations, NLETA Online Magazine, http://nleta.com/articles/creatingeffectivevisuals.htm (October 2001) (last accessed August 11, 2003). Darby Dickerson, Professionalizing Legal Citation: The ALWD Citation Manual, 47 Fed. Law 20 (Dec. 2000). Linda H. Edwards, Legal Writing: Process, Analysis, and Organization (3d ed., Aspen L. & Bus. 2002) (containing charts, diagrams, images for the visual learner). Linda Edwards, Teaching Legal Analysis, 2 no. 2/3 Perspec. 52 (1994). Bryan A. Garner, The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style (West 2002) 45, 59, 65-74. Bryan A Garner, The Winning Brief (Oxford U. Press 1999) Ch. 63-70. . 1
  • 2. Frank Herrera, Jr. & Sonia M. Rodriguez, To Avoid Boring Jurors, Trial Lawyers Must Consider Bringing Sophisticated Technology to Court, 35 Trial 66 (May 1999). Sheila A. Huddleston, Putting the Right (Type) Face on Your Appeal, 27 Conn. Law Trib. 43 (Oct. 22, 2001). M. H. Sam Jacobson, Providing Academic Support Without an Academic Support Program, 3 Leg. Writing 241 (1997). M.H. Sam Jacobson, Using the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator to Assess Learning Style: Type or Stereotype?, 33 Willamette L. Rev. 261 (1997). Susan H. Kosse, Classroom Teaching Methodologies for Legal Analysis, Vol. 14. No. 2 The Second Draft (Bull. of the Leg. Writing Inst.) 4 (May 2000). Debbie Mostaghel, Commenting on Student Papers, Vol. 14. No. 1 The Second Draft (Bull. of the Leg. Writing Inst.) 5 (Nov. 1999). Angela Passalacqua, Using Visual Techniques to Teach Legal Analysis and Synthesis, 3 Leg. Writing 203 (1997). Theresa J. Reid Rambo & Leanne J. Pflaum, Legal Writing By Design (Carolina Academic Press 2001)(a textbook with charts to appeal to visual learners). Jill J. Ramsfield, The Law as Architecture: Building Legal Documents (West 2000)(a textbook designed for the visual learner, incorporating pictures, diagrams, and color). SEC Plain English Rule, 17 C.F.R. §230.421. See also A Plain English Handbook: How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents, Off. of Investor Educ., SEC (Aug. 1998) available online at www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf (last visited September 8, 2003). Michael R. Smith, Advanced Legal Writing (Aspen L. & Bus. 2002). United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, Guidelines for Briefs and Other Papers, <http://www.ca7.uscourts.gov/Rules/type.pdf> (last accessed January 22, 2003). United States Geological Survey, Visual Identity System: Typography <http://www.usgs.gov/visual- id/manual/typography.html> (updated Oct. 16, 2002). *Court rules about font/layout specifications from every court in the country (already completed, will be updated prior to article publication). Non-legal Sources Gary Bastoky, Fundamentals of Document Design for the Technical Writer, http://www.bastoky.com/Readability.htm (last accessed September 14, 2003). E. Bügleichenhaus, Typotheque, The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices and Type Safety and excerpted at http://www.typotheque.com/articles/euroface.html (Brussels Press Release, Oct. 25, 1999). 2
  • 3. Temple Grandin, Observations of cattle behavior applied to the design of cattle handling facilities, 6 Applied Animal Ethnology 19 (1980). Temple Grandin, Thinking in Pictures: and Other Reports of my Life with Autism (Bantam 1995) and http://www.grandin.com/inc/visual.thinking.html (last accessed January 22, 2003). Allan Haley, It’s About Legibility, Fonts.com, Articles & News, <http://www.fonts.com/fontent/fontent_home.asp? sid=09RXMXAWLED38K11UKF0GA8MUMXV1SE4&con=legibility > (last accessed January 26, 2003). Linda A. Hodgdon, Visual strategies for improving communication (QuirkRoberts Pub. 1995). Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology, 796 (David H. Jonassen, ed., Simon &Schuster Macmillan 2001). Images in Practice Network <http://www.envf.port.ac.uk/illustration/images/RAT.HTM> (last accessed December 10, 2002). S.S. Jha & C.N. Daftuar, Legibility of Typefaces, 25(2) J. of Psychol. Researches 108 (1981). Susumu Kobayashi, Theoretical Issues Concerning Superiority of Pictures Over Words and Sentences in Memory, 63 Perceptual & Motor Skills 783, 784 (1996). Linda L. Lohr, Creating Graphics for Learning and Performance: Lessons in Visual Literacy (Merrill Prentice Hall 2003). Patrick Lynch and Sarah Horton, Yale University Style Manual (1997) <http://info.med.yale.edu/caim/manual/> (last accessed January 22, 2003). Philip B. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design, (3rd ed., Wiley 1998). George A. Miller, The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity For Processing Information, 63 Psychol. Rev. 81(1956); also made available online by Stephen Malinowski with the author’s permission at http://www.well.com/user/smalin/miller.html (last accessed August 7, 2003). Laurie Moses, Stephen F. Austin State University, Department of Psychology, An Examination of the Interaction of Three Variables on the Readability and Appeal of Brochures <http://hubel.sfasu.edu/courseinfo/SL99/brochure.html> (1999)(a student’s study of the most effective color and typeface size for brochures intended for college-aged adults). Lynn Oppenheim, A study of the effects of the use of overhead transparencies on business meetings, Wharton Applied Research Center, The Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania 1981). Donald G. Paterson & Miles A. Tinker, Studies of typographical factors influencing speed of reading 10: Style of typeface, 16 J. Applied Psychol. 605 (1932). 3
  • 4. Donald G. Paterson & Miles A. Tinker, (1931): Studies of typographical factors influencing speed of reading 8: Space between lines or leading, 15 J. Applied Psychol. 388 (1931). Donald G. Paterson & Miles A. Tinker, Studies of Typographical Factors Influencing Speed of Reading 2: Size of Type, 13(2) J. Applied Psychol. 120 (1929). Miles A. Tinker, Bases for Effective Reading 15 (U. of Minn. Press, 1965)(summarizing his scientific studies on reading and legibility of text). Miles A. Tinker, Legibility of Print, 57 (Iowa State U. Press 1964)(synthesizing several decades of psychological research, mostly studies he personally conducted, on typeface and speed of reading). Miles A. Tinker & Donald G. Paterson, The Effect of Typographical Variations Upon Eye Movement in Reading, 49 J. of Educ. Research 171 (1955). Miles A. Tinker & Donald G. Paterson, The Effect of Typography on the Perceptual Span in Reading, 60 Am. J. of Psychol. 388 (1947). Miles A. Tinker & Donald G. Paterson, Readability of mixed type forms, 30 J. Applied Psychol. 631 (1946). Miles A. Tinker & Donald G. Paterson, Reader preferences and typography, 26 J. Applied Psychol. 38 (1942). Miles A. Tinker. & Donald G. Paterson, Studies of typographical factors influencing speed of reading: VII. Variations in color of print and background 15 (5) J. Applied Psychol. 471 (1931). Miles A. Tinker & Donald G. Paterson, Influence of type form on speed of reading, 12 J. Applied Psychol. 359 (1928). Douglas R. Vogel, et. al, Persuasion and the Role of Visual Presentation Support: The UM/3M Study, Management Information Systems Research Center, School of Management (University of Minnesota 1986). Thomas G. West, In the Mind’s Eye (updated ed., Prometheus Books 1997) Stephen C. Wilhite, Headings as Memory Facilitators: the Importance of Prior Knowledge, 81 No. 1 J. Educ. Psychol. 115 (1989). Robin Williams, The Non-Designer’s Type Book: Insights and Techniques for Creating Professional- Level Type (Nancy Davis ed., Peachpit Press 1998). Robin Williams, The Non-Designer’s Design Book, 2d ed. (Peachpit Press 2003). Robin Williams, The PC Is Not a Typewriter: A Style Manual for Creating Professional-Level Type on Your Personal Computer (Peachpit Press 1995). 4
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