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PowerPoint Presentation - English Legal Research (.ppt)

  1. 1. ENGLISH LEGAL RESEARCH: Cases, Statutes, Regulations, and Secondary Sources. ALR: International Law February 11, 2004
  2. 2. Background/Introduction: <ul><li>English law as the “ancestral” American legal model. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers must become familiar with the research tools available in different legal systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The legal systems of England and Canada are most like ours, so their laws are most accessible (plus, our library has the largest holdings of these two foreign systems). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Comparative notes to remember about British legal system: <ul><li>There is no written English constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no official codification (subject arrangement) of English statutes, except through Commercial publishers (unofficial sources). </li></ul><ul><li>Any statute passed by Parliament is by definition valid and not subject to review by the courts. Thus, a statute’s “constitutionality” is not an issue the court can address. Only Parliament may act to change a law. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Structure of the English Court System: <ul><li>House of Lords – the final court of appeal for civil and criminal cases from England and Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of Appeal (Civil/Criminal) – have only appellate jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>High Court of Justice/Crown Court – have both appellate and original jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Magistrate’s/County Courts – lower courts with limited jurisdiction. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Historical Reports <ul><li>Divided into Two Main Periods : before and since 1865. </li></ul><ul><li>Year Books (1272-1535). </li></ul><ul><li>Nominative Reports . </li></ul><ul><li>English Reports: Full Reprint (reprints Nominative Reports published b/n 1378-1865)(KD270.E54). </li></ul><ul><li>All England Law Reports Reprints (1558-1935)(KD288.A64.A42). </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Law Reports at Marquette: <ul><li>Law Reports (Originally 11 series) (KD277.2.L381). </li></ul><ul><li>Now only four series : (1) Appeal Cases; (2) Queen’s Bench Division; (3) Chancery Division; and (4) Family Division. (KD275-277). </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly Law Reports (1967-date) (KD288.A64.A44). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other Reports at Marquette: <ul><li>All England Law Reports (All E.R.) (Butterworths, 1936- )(KD288.A64.A44). </li></ul><ul><li>Current Law (1947- )(KD296.C843). </li></ul><ul><li>Current Law Yearbook (1948-present) (KD296.C82). </li></ul><ul><li>Lexis/Westlaw [under files for Int’l Materials; Legal (excluding U.S.)/UK caselaw; LAW-RPTS; 1865-present]. </li></ul><ul><li>UK Parliament and Decisions: http://www.parliament.uk/ . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Digests/Citators at Marquette: <ul><li>The Digest: Annotated British, Commonwealth, and European Cases (1971-present) (KD296.E53.E54). </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative Supplements – at the end of the set (2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Current Law (Sweet & Maxwell, 1947-present) (KD296.C82)(Current=2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Current Law Case Citator (KD296.C843). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Citation to modern English cases: <ul><li>Different from U.S. case citation. </li></ul><ul><li>Reports are designated by year and then by volume number for that year. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Hipperson v. Newbury Electoral Officer , [1985] Q.B. 1060 (C.A.) = citation for the case reported in the Law Reports in 1985, Queen’s Bench Division, p.1060, decided in the Court of Appeals. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluebook Rules – pp. 289-291. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Statutory Research: <ul><li>English statutes have never been officially codified [ Note: chronological publication!]. </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes of the Realm (early statutes, 1235-1713) (KD130.1235.G7). </li></ul><ul><li>First source of a current act = “HMSO” (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office) ( http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts. htm ). </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1831, Public General Acts and Measures (KD135.L3.L38), have been published by HMSO at the end of the year in chronological arrangement. Law Reports: Statutes (1866-1951) (KD135.L3.L38). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Statutory Research: <ul><li>Statutes in Force: Official Revised Edition (1972- ) (KD135.S7.C57). </li></ul><ul><li>Subject access to Statutes in Force is provided by the 2-volume Index to Statutes (located at the end of the set)(HMSO, annual). </li></ul><ul><li>Halsbury’s Statutes of England and Wales (Butterworths) (KD135.H3.H341). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Updating Halsbury’s Statutes: <ul><li>Annual bound cumulative supplements (located at the end of the set). </li></ul><ul><li>Two Looseleaf Volume updates: (1) “Current Statutes Service” and (2) “Noter-Up Service”. </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Statutes – published in separate booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>Is It in Force? – commencement dates of statutes. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Regulations: <ul><li>Parliament may grant to a Minister, board, or local authority the power to make rules and regulations in an area covered gen’lly by an Act of Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>These rules have the same force of law as the enabling statute. </li></ul><ul><li>Orders in Council (made by the Queen in Council—authority comes from Royal Prerogative). </li></ul><ul><li>When published, British administrative regulations are known as Statutory Instruments, or Statutory Rules and Orders . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Regulations, continued. . . <ul><li>The Table of Governmental Orders (HMSO, annual) lists numerically all general rules, orders, and stat’y instruments since 1671. </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly List of Statutory Instruments (online at: http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/stat. htm ). </li></ul><ul><li>Halsbury’s Statutory Instruments (Butterworths, 1951-present) (Lexis: SI/STATIS) (Westlaw: UK-SI). </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory orders in annotations of Halsbury’s Statutes / Current Law Legislation Citator (KD296.842). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Secondary Sources: <ul><li>Legal Journals, Encyclopedias, Treatises, Practitioners’ Handbooks, Reference Sources, and other materials. </li></ul><ul><li>English law journals (faculty-edited), e.g., Cambridge Law Journal, Law Quarterly Review, and Oxford Journal of Legal Studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most indexed in Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals/Current Law Index/Legal Resource Index (3 rd Floor). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Legal Encyclopedias: <ul><li>Halsbury’s Laws of England (Butterworths, KD310.H34) – most comprehensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 160 alphabetically arranged topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivided into specific issues, with each issue assigned a paragraph number (subject access through indexes at the end of set). </li></ul><ul><li>Current Supplements, “Monthly Review”, and “Noter-Up” services to update. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Problems with Terminology: <ul><li>“ English and Americans are two peoples separated by a common language.” Winston Churchill. </li></ul><ul><li>Labor vs. Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Organization vs. Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Taliban vs. Taleban </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dictionaries and Directories: <ul><li>A Dictionary of Law (KD313.C66 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford Companion to Law (Law Ref.K48.W34). </li></ul><ul><li>Index to Legal Citations and Abbreviations (KD400.R35 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>R.G. Logan’s Information Sources in Law (Butterworths / KJC76.I54.1997). </li></ul><ul><li>J.Dane & P.A. Thomas’s How to Use a Law Library (Sweet & Maxwell / KD392.D36 2001). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Internet Resources: <ul><li>BAILLI (British and Irish Legal Information Institute): http://www.bailii.org/ . </li></ul><ul><li>UK Laws via Library of Congress: http://www.loc.gov/law/guide/uk.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Bodleian Law Library (Oxford): http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/law/jurisdictions.htm#United . </li></ul><ul><li>Lauterpacht Research Centre (Cambridge): http://www.law.cam LRCIL .ac.uk/rcil/ . </li></ul><ul><li>Old Bailey Proceedings: http://www.oldbaileyonline.org . </li></ul><ul><li>Court Service: http://www.courtservice.gov.uk/ . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Next Time: <ul><li>An Introduction to Canadian legal research. </li></ul><ul><li>Caselaw, Statutes, and Regulations. </li></ul>