Everything I Need to Know About Intellectual Property..


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Everything I Need to Know About Intellectual Property..

  1. 1. Everything I Need to Know About Intellectual Property.. Suzanne L. Holcombe Documents Librarian 501 Edmon Low Library (405) 744-7086, lib-ped@okstate.edu www.library.okstate.edu/patents/
  2. 2. Why are we talking about IP? (patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets) <ul><li>Patents reveal solutions to technical problems, and they represent an inexhaustible source of information: More than 80 percent of all technical knowledge is described in patent literature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check patent literature to see what technologies exist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create ways to improve existing technologies. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Patent and Trademark Library at OSU <ul><li>Part of the USPTO’s Patent and Trademark Depository Library Program : a nationwide network of libraries set up to disseminate patent and trademark information and support the intellectual property needs of the public. </li></ul><ul><li>We are located on the 5 th floor of the OSU Library and we have a Web site. </li></ul><ul><li>Call to make an appointment to do a preliminary patent or trademark search. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Intellectual Property (IP) <ul><li>In Section 8 of Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Congress shall have Power To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries” </li></ul><ul><li>Four main forms of IP: Patents , Trademarks , Copyrights , Trade Secrets (the formula for Coca-Cola) </li></ul><ul><li>Actual forms of property which can be bought, sold, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a Patent? <ul><li>Provision in Title 35 of the United States Code </li></ul><ul><li>Must be a new and useful machine, item of manufacture or composition </li></ul><ul><li>Must be non-obvious, and reproducible by one skilled in the art </li></ul><ul><li>Patent grants the right to exclude others from making, using or selling an invention </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of patents: utility, design, and plant </li></ul>
  6. 6. Utility Patents <ul><li>What we think of as a “patent” </li></ul><ul><li>Protect how the item WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>Legal language defines the actual parameters of the protection </li></ul><ul><li>Length of protection is 20 years from date of file, provided maintenance fees are paid </li></ul><ul><li>Applications are published 18 months after filing (American Inventors Protection Act AIPA) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Stephen McKeever, OSU Physics Dept. Assigned to the OSU Board of Regents A bimodal method for determining an unknown absorbed dose of radiation. An irradiated material is illuminated with ultraviolet or visible light and the luminescence which is emitted from the material is detected. The illuminating light is pulsed, with pulse widths varying from 1 ns to 500 ms. The luminescence emission from dosimetric traps is monitored after a delay following the end of the illumination pulse. Current U.S. Class: 250/459.1; 250/484.5
  8. 10. Design & Plant Patents <ul><li>Design patents protect how the item LOOKS </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive to obtain, protect for 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>Plant patents protect a variety of plant such as roses, begonias, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 14. Patents Worldwide <ul><li>Patents reveal solutions to technical problems, and they represent an inexhaustible source of information: More than 80 percent of all technical knowledge is described in patent literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Most industrialized countries offer inventors protection in the form of a patent. Standards vary from country to country. </li></ul><ul><li>There are international treaties that allow U.S. inventors to obtain patent protection in other countries if they take certain required steps ( www.wipo.org/ ) </li></ul>
  10. 15. Do you need a patent? <ul><li>Patents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are a bureaucratic, complicated venture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are expensive: average cost $6,000-$15,000 and up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a while to issue: from the date of filing, 1.5 to 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depending on the nature of the invention, it maybe be more desirable to start producing and selling the product without a patent. Consult with an attorney, weigh the pros and cons. </li></ul>
  11. 16. What is a Federally Registered Trademark? <ul><li>Provision in Title 15 of the United States Code </li></ul><ul><li>Word, name, symbol or device that identifies the good/services of one entity from goods/services of another in interstate commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Owners of marks may seek federal registration because of procedural and legal advantages over state and common law trademark protection </li></ul><ul><li>Protection is indefinite, if fees are paid </li></ul><ul><li>See http://www.uspto.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>® symbol is a registered mark. “Tm” and “Sm” indicate an unregistered Good and Service. </li></ul>
  12. 18. Copyright <ul><li>Provision in Title 17 of the United States Code </li></ul><ul><li>The creative expression, not the facts are protected </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of protection runs the life of the author, plus 70 years </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic protection is given to printed works, software, artwork, photo, video, and practically everything on the Internet, once “fixed in any tangible medium of expression” </li></ul><ul><li>See the U.S. Copyright Office at the Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/copyright/ </li></ul>
  13. 19. The Patent Process <ul><li>See the USPTO website http://www.uspto.gov/ for basic information about patents and the patent process : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to apply for a patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fees and payments (see Patent Assistance Center). (The basic filing fee for a utility patent is $710, $355 if a small entity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help (Patent Assistance Center) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search patents (also patent applications – those that have been accepted) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. Why Do a Preliminary Patent Search? <ul><li>Patent searchers often find that something similar to theirs has been patented, and they don’t need to proceed through the long, expensive patent process </li></ul><ul><li>There are 6,000,000+ U.S. Patents </li></ul><ul><li>Just because it’s not on the shelves at ______ doesn’t mean an item hasn’t been patented or doesn’t exist </li></ul><ul><li>The more information available, the better for the decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Review existing technology </li></ul>
  15. 22. Searching Patents on the Internet <ul><li>If you’re looking for a single representative patent (something that is close to your idea), then keyword searching available on the USPTO Web site may suffice </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to be able to say “nothing else like mine exists,” then you must perform a classification based search -- translation, you will need assistance from a trained searcher </li></ul><ul><li>The USPTO uses a class/subclass system to organize patents into like groups (as to how they work) </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: It is only very recently that all of this can be done online. For years we used paper and microfilm. </li></ul>
  16. 23. Searching Patents on the Internet cont’d <ul><li>The complete images of all patents (back to 1790) are available online ONLY if searching by class/subclass. Searching by keyword will ONLY retrieve patents back to 1976. </li></ul><ul><li>The full-text of a patent will include “drawings” or “pictures.” </li></ul><ul><li>USPTO requires that the AlternaTiff plug-in be installed to see drawings (TIFF format) http://www. alternatiff .com/ </li></ul>
  17. 24. Steps to Starting Patent Search <ul><li>Start at http://www. uspto . gov /go/classification/ </li></ul><ul><li>Use the US Patent Classification A-Z Index in paper or online and locate your subject and initial class/subclass. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine Class Numbers and Titles (Manual of Classification in paper..) and Definitions in paper or online to further define the class/subclasses to search. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at patents online assigned to selected class/subclasses. </li></ul><ul><li>OR do a Keyword search. </li></ul><ul><li>Study relevant patents to determine appropriate class/subclasses. </li></ul>
  18. 25. To Do a Good Preliminary Search <ul><li>It is important to determine the appropriate class(es)/subclass(es) for your invention and to examine all of the patents in that class(es)/subclass(es). </li></ul><ul><li>It is very helpful to locate an already existing patent that is similar to your idea using either the Index or a Keyword Search. </li></ul><ul><li>On the first page of every patent is the class(es)/subclass(es) that that patent fits it to according to how it WORKS. You can use these to guide you in your search. </li></ul>
  19. 26. Example search: <ul><li>Redesign/evaluate the hydraulic cooling system for the BOXER Mini-Skid Steer Unit </li></ul>
  20. 29. Example search: Index <ul><li>1. Check in the Index under a topic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal combustion engine… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.uspto.gov/go/classification/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Determine the Class and Subclass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class 123 Internal-Combustion Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subclass 41.01 Cooling? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class 165 Heat Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subclass 58 Heating and Cooling? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 31. Example search: Keyword <ul><li>1. Search the Advanced Search page by topic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/search-adv.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Do a Keyword search : type in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ hydraulic cooling system” OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ cooling system” and hydraulic OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ hydraulic system” and “oil cooling” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Determine the class and subclass </li></ul>
  22. 32. “ hydraulic cooling system”
  23. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>In general ... Patents protect the “thing” and how it works; Trademarks protect the name as used in commerce; Copyrights protect the artistic representations. </li></ul><ul><li>Patents are available on the Internet, but are not as easy to search as it appears. </li></ul><ul><li>Thorough patent searching requires that an appropriate class/subclass be found and patents in that class/subclass be examined. </li></ul>