Document Delivery Formats for the World Wide Web
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Document Delivery Formats for the World Wide Web

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Document Delivery Formats for the World Wide Web Document Delivery Formats for the World Wide Web Presentation Transcript

  • Document Delivery Formats for the Web and Legal Digital Collections Kevin Reiss June 18 th , 2004 Law Library Rutgers-Newark School of Law
  • Delivery Formats & Issues
    • Delivery Format: type of the file a user receives when accessing a document in a digital collection
    • Important not just for viewing, but also for Information Retrieval (IR) tasks like full-text indexing
    • There is no one format that is right for every type of collection.
    • Important issues to consider:
      • Open v. Closed Formats
      • Usability and Accessibility
      • Subject Specific Concerns for Legal Materials
  • Open v. Closed Formats
    • Who is "in control" of the document format you choose? A standards body? A single company or organization?
    • Can you count on something that one entity controls to be supported over time?
    • Advantages of Open Formats (a.k.a. Standards)
      • Interoperability and support over time.
      • Integrate well with open-source or low cost processing and IR tools
      • Help web content providers who need to support an increasing variety of devices and platforms
    View slide
  • Usability & Accessibility
    • What software do users need to view a particular format?
    • Can a web browser natively display it?
    • If the format requires a browser plug-in:
      • Is it free? Are users likely to have it installed?
      • Does it work on all computing platforms?
    • Do public search engines index the format?
    • Can dial-up modem users access the material in the collection?
    View slide
  • Subject Specific Concerns for Legal Materials
    • Legal digital projects usually manage texts, not images.
    • Some types of legal materials are harder to maintain, i.e. codified material.
    • Legal documents are almost exclusively printed in black & white.
    • Preservation of the page structure is important for citation purposes.
    • Maintaining the original appearance of digitized print documents is not important; archival and rare materials are potential exceptions.
  • Possible Delivery Formats
    • Pure image formats: TIFF, JPEG
    • Open encoded formats: XML, HTML, ASCII, and Unicode
    • Hybrid formats: PDF, DjVu – can contain both image and text
    • Proprietary formats: Microsoft Word, WordPerfect
  • Pure Images: TIFF, JPEG
    • Raster (pixel-based) exclusively used for scanned collections
    • TIFF is the best choice for archival scanned images
    • Pros
      • Web browsers display them natively
      • Both are open formats
    • Cons
      • Large file sizes make viewing on slow connections problematic
      • Text of the documents available only through OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
      • Weak support for multi-page documents
      • JPEGs have trouble displaying text when they are compressed to levels appropriate for the web
      • Contain metadata about the physical file itself, not the contents of the file
  • Imaged Formats Cont.
    • OCR is an important consideration:
      • 5% rate of error doesn't have an impact on traditional IR measures
      • 20% error rate significantly degrades [Doerman 98] the performance of traditional IR techniques.
      • High quality OCR is now available for relatively low cost
        • Abbyy Finereader ($300)
        • Table and page layout recognition supported
  • Open Encoded Formats XML, HTML, ASCII, Unicode
      • Typically easier to integrate into digital libraries [Baird 2004]
      • Created in 3 ways:
        • Born digital documents
        • Manually keyed documents
        • Corrected OCR
      • IR applications easy to build, open source support strong
      • International standards or W3C recommendations
      • Accessible with all current web technologies
      • Metadata easily embedded in XML|HTML documents
      • Can be created with any text-editor
      • Improvements in OCR make encoding scanned collections feasible
  • Open Encoded Formats Cont.
    • Cons:
      • These documents can be expensive for staff to create
        • Manual Encoding in XML may have to be done by hand
        • Manual correction of OCR errors
      • Need technical expertise on staff to get the full benefits of these formats, the PERL programmer
      • These don't necessarily preserve the "look" of printed documents
  • Hybrid Formats: PDF, DjVu
    • PDF and DjVu are proprietary technologies that have substantial support in the open source community.
    • Both can contain a layer of the document’s text and an image of each page in a document.
    • Both utilize cross-platform, freely available web browser plug-ins.
    • Both try to preserve the look of print documents
    • Easy to export born digital documents to these formats using printer drivers, “print to PDF”
  • Adobe PDF
    • Pros:
      • PDF has strong market acceptance in the legal community
      • PDF-Archive, a standard for using PDF as an archival format in development by AIIM [Association for Information and Image Management]
      • Adobe makes the PDF reference manual and software development kit freely available to developers.
      • Standard methodology for embedding metadata in documents, the XMP Standard (Extensible Metadata Platform) that seeks compatibility with semantic web technologies
    • Cons:
      • Plug-in performance is poor for long documents
      • PDFs composed of scanned images can be very large in size, even for short documents
  • DjVu
    • Designed to be a scan-to-web technology.
    • Pros:
      • Best compression of any image format on the web
      • Users can load lengthy documents very quickly
      • The DjVu plug-in can be manipulated via cgi-style arguments
      • Use the Any2DjVu server to try out the format.
    • Cons:
      • DjVu does not yet have great market acceptance in the legal community.
      • DjVu does not have a standard method for embedded metadata within documents.
  • Proprietary Formats
    • Word Processing Formats: MS Word, WordPerfect
    • Not a good choice for document delivery on the web
    • Cons:
      • These formats are completely closed
      • Poor cross platform support
      • It is often problematic to index these documents using inexpensive or open source IR tools.
  • The New Jersey Digital Legal Library
    • URL: http://njlegallib.rutgers.edu
    • Digitize New Jersey Legal materials not currently available online.
    • Available for users in two formats: DjVu and PDF
    • Current Workflow:
      • Scan -> TIFF; then TIFF -> PDF and TIFF -> DjVu
      • Extract OCR text from the DjVu to XHTML using XSL Stylesheets and DjVuLibre (The Open Source DjVu Library)
      • Use swish-e to index the XHTML documents with embedded extended Dublin Core metadata
  • References
    • Baird, Henry. Difficult and Urgent Open Problems in Document Images Analysis for Libraries. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Document Image Analysis for Libraries. Palo Alto CA, 2004.
    • Doerman, David. The Indexing and Retrieval of Document Images: A Survey. 70 (3). Computer Vision and Image Understanding. pp. 287-298.