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Computer Security

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  • 1. Computer Security Social Legal and Ethical issues. 08/19/10
  • 2. Social Legal and Ethical issues
    • Sara Base, A Gift of Fire , Prentice Hall, 2003
    08/19/10
  • 3. Social Legal and Ethical issues
    • The impact of computers and computer systems
    • The ATM example
    • Unemployment
    • Alienation and customer service
    • Crime
    • Loss of privacy
    • Errors
    08/19/10
  • 4. Social Legal and Ethical issues
    • General Themes
    • Globalization of cyberspace
    • Tradeoffs of convenience vs privacy & security
    • Personal choices, Business policies and law
    • Negative rights or liberties and positive rights or claim rights
      • Conflict of negative and positive rights: the claim rights of some may diminish the liberties of others
      • Privacy protection regulations vs universal access to information services
    08/19/10
  • 5. Social Legal and Ethical issues
    • Main issues
    • Privacy & personal information
    • Freedom if speech
    • Can we trust computers
    • Intellectual property
    • Computer Crime
    • General social issues
    • Ethics
    08/19/10
  • 6. 1. Privacy & personal information
    • Key aspects
    • Freedom from intrusion
    • Control information about oneself
    • Freedom from surveillance
    08/19/10
  • 7. 1. Privacy & personal information
    • “ Big brother is watching you”
    • Database security
    08/19/10
  • 8. Database security Provisions of Privacy Act of 1974
    • Restricts data in federal government records to what is “relevant and necessary” to the legal purpose for which it is collected.
    • Requires federal agencies to publish a notice of their record systems in the Federal Register
    • Allows people to access their records & correct inaccurate information
    • Requires procedures to protect the security of the information in the databases
    • Prohibits disclosure of information about a person without their consent.
    08/19/10
  • 9. The fourth Amendment, US Constitution
    • The right of the people to be secure in their
    • persons, houses, paper and effects against
    • unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be
    • violated , and no Warrants shall issue , but upon
    • probable cause , supported by Oath or
    • affirmation, and particularly describing the place
    • to be searched, and the persons or things to be
    • seized.
    08/19/10
  • 10. Privacy & personal information
    • Satellite surveillance and thermal imaging
    • Automated toll collection and itemized purchase records
    • Search and surveillance tools
    • Fighting terrorism
    08/19/10
  • 11. Databases and marketing
    • Credit bureaus
    • Principles for data collection & use
      • Collect only data needed
      • Inform people when data about them are collected, what is collected …
      • Offer a way for people to opt out
      • Provide stronger protection for sensitive data
      • Keep data only as long as it is needed
      • Maintain accuracy and security of data
      • Provide a means for people to access and correct data stored about them.
    08/19/10
  • 12. Databases and marketing
    • Social Security Numbers and National ID systems
    • Personal health and medical records
    • Public records: access vs privacy
    08/19/10
  • 13. Privacy & personal information
    • Protecting Privacy: law & regulation
    • Is their a right to privacy
    • The free market view vs the consumer protection view
    • Contract and regulations
    • Conflicts with freedom of speech
    08/19/10
  • 14. 2. Freedom of speech Encryption and interception of communications
    • Wiretapping
      • Telephone
      • New technologies
    • USA Patriot Act 2001:
      • Lets the government collect info from financial institutions on any transactions that differs from a customer’s usual pattern, and allows access to the government to many other kinds of personal information without a court order.
    08/19/10
  • 15. Freedom if speech Carnivore
    • FBIs system for intercepting email
    • FBI must first get a court order to intercept someone’s email
    • The Carnivore system is used at the Suspects Internet Service provider and filters all e-mails from that ISP, examining headers to find suspect email.
    08/19/10
  • 16. Freedom if speech NSA’s Echelon
    • Echelon is similar to Carnivor, but on an
    • international scale.
    • Involves a partnership with intelligence
    • agencies of Canada, Britain, Australia and New
    • Zealand, and operates a huge system of listening
    • stations to intercepts satellite communication.
      • Targets terrorist and military activities
    08/19/10
  • 17. Freedom if speech Cryptography and its uses
    • Use of encryption
      • Criminal abuse: “ … unfortunately the same technology can be used by terrorists, drug dealers, … “
      • White House Press, 1994
      • Secrecy and export controls
    • Steganography
    08/19/10
  • 18. Freedom if speech Secrecy
    • Clipper
      • Trust in government
      • How much does technology matter
    08/19/10
  • 19. 3. Can we trust computers ?
    • What can go wrong!
      • Billing errors
      • database accuracy
      • failures…
    • Increasing Reliability and Safety
      • Overconfidence
      • Redundancy
      • Good design
    08/19/10
  • 20.
    • Intellectual Property Digital Rights Management
    • Problems with new technologies
    • Copyright Law
    • The fair use doctrine
    • Copying Music, Movies, Software Books
      • From floppies to the web
      • The Napster case
      • Beyond Napster
    • Software Piracy
    08/19/10
  • 21. 4. Intellectual property
    • Ethical issues
    • Fuzziness about the ethics
    • Arguments used include:
      • I cant afford to buy
      • The company is a wealthy corporation
      • Too expensive anyway
      • Making a copy from a friend is an act of generosity
    08/19/10
  • 22. 4. Intellectual property
    • The future of copyright
    • Doomsday approach: copyright law will disintegrate.
    • Balanced solutions will be found by using a new approach and new technologies
      • Free software
      • Copyright or patent?
    08/19/10
  • 23. 5. Computer Crime
    • What is hacking
    • The Law
      • Catching hackers
      • Penalties appropriate to the crime
      • Discouraging and punishing “amateur” hackers
    • Design secure “hack-free” systems
    • Online scams
      • Chain letters, sale of counterfeit goods, phony investments
      • Collecting credit card numbers, ID and password details
    • Fraud, embezzlement, Sabotage
    • Identity theft
    08/19/10
  • 24. 6. General Social Issues
    • Impact on our society
    • Information Have’s and Have-Nots
      • The digital divide
      • Trends in computer access
      • Abdicating responsibility
    • Does the Technology create the need for itself?
    • “… The Web is alive and filled with life, nearly
    • as complex and natural as the primordial swamp…”
    • Who benefits most
    • Prohibiting bad technologies
    08/19/10
  • 25. 7. Ethics
    • What is Ethics?
    • The study of what it means to do the “right” thing
      • And what is the “right” thing?
    • A variety of ethical views
      • Deontological theories
        • emphasize duty and rules to be followed whether they lead to good or ill consequence
      • Utalitarialism
        • An example of a consequentialist theory: to increase happiness or “utility”
      • Natural rights
        • Treat people as ends rather than means, and increase people’s happiness
      • No simple answers
        • No mathematical solution
    08/19/10
  • 26. 7. Ethics
    • What is Ethics?
      • Some important distinctions
        • Right, Wrong and OK
        • Negative and positive rights, or liberties and claim-rights
        • Distinguishing wrong and harmful
        • Separating goals from constraints
        • Personal Preference and Ethics
        • Law and Ethics
      • Professional codes and Ethics
        • Professional organizations have codes for professional conduct
        • ACM, IEEE
    08/19/10