Volcanoes           By Roshan of 4-tLiquid Hot Magma.
Volcano Stats• Definition of Volcano  – Mountain that forms when molten rock    (magma) is forced to the Earth’s surface• ...
Volcanic Eruptions        Lava flow                                  Lava fountain• Nonexplosive Eruptions• Explosive Erup...
1. What did you learn?Write/draw this in your   science journal.                           Vents   Volcanoes              ...
The Composition of Magma Determines    whether it is explosive or not!• High water content  – More likely to be           ...
2. What did you learn? Write/draw this in your    science journal.a. What physical event causes explosive  eruptions?b. Wo...
What Erupts from a                       Blocky lava    Volcano? Lava can be      thick or thin.Pahoehoe                  ...
•   Loosen the gelatin volcano from the cups by dipping the cups briefly    in the bowl of hot water.•   Lay the pegboard ...
3. What did you learn?Write/draw this in your   science journal.a. Where did the lava flow in your model?b. Did the lava c...
What Erupts from a Volcano?Pyroclastic material• Rock fragments created by                eruptions  •magma explodes from ...
How do volcanoes affect the Earth?Flows and Fallouts• hot ash can flow really   quickly  •Knock down buildings  •Dam river...
Types of VolcanoesShield volcano                            Cinder cone volcano        Composite volcano
Craters, Calderas, and Lava               PlateauCrater• From explosions of material out ofthe vent and the collapse of ma...
What causes volcanoes?The Formation of Magma• Mantle rock melts when thetemperature increasesor the pressure decreases.
What causes volcanoes?Where Volcanoes Form• Tectonic Plate Boundaries!!!      ~75% world’s active volcanoes in Ring of Fire
What causes volcanoes?
What causes volcanoes?Hot Spots
How do volcanologists predict         eruptions?• Measuring Small Quakes  – Before eruption, increase in number & intensit...
You should not be a        • You don’t like                             hiking, Volcanologist if….          backbacking,  ...
•   Place 10mL of baking soda in center of a sheet of    bathroom tissue. Fold the corners over the baking soda    and cre...
4. What did you learn? Write/draw this in your    science journal.a. Was your time prediction close to the real  time of e...
Thank You & Have a nice Day
Volcanoes
Volcanoes
Volcanoes
Volcanoes
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Volcanoes

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  • Talk about this volcano when it erupted and what it is doing right now.
  • MASS, DENSITY, AND ESCAPE VELOCITY The Earth's mass is about 5.98 x 10 24 kg. The Earth has an average density of 5520 kg/m3 (water has a density of 1027 kg/m3). Earth is the densest planet in our Solar System. To escape the Earth's gravitational pull, an object must reach a velocity of 24,840 miles per hour (11,180 m/sec).
  • The Earth is made of many different and distinct layers. The deeper layers are composed of heavier materials; they are hotter, denser and under much greater pressure than the outer layers. Core : The Earth has a iron-nickel core that is about 2,100 miles in radius. The inner core may have a temperature up to about 13,000°F (7,200°C = 7,500 K), which is hotter than the surface of the Sun. The inner core (which has a radius of about 750 miles (1,228 km) is solid. The outer core is in a liquid state and is about 1,400 miles (2,260 km) thick.
  • There are lots of uncertainties about why volcanoes form, because scientists have to rely on models based on rock samples and other data.
  • There are lots of uncertainties about why volcanoes form, because scientists have to rely on models based on rock samples and other data.
  • Volcanoes

    1. 1. Volcanoes By Roshan of 4-tLiquid Hot Magma.
    2. 2. Volcano Stats• Definition of Volcano – Mountain that forms when molten rock (magma) is forced to the Earth’s surface• Number of active volcanos = ? – 20 erupting right now (50-60/year) (160/decade)• Number of volcanologists = 1,500
    3. 3. Volcanic Eruptions Lava flow Lava fountain• Nonexplosive Eruptions• Explosive Eruptions What is Lava? -magma that flows onto the Earth’s surface
    4. 4. 1. What did you learn?Write/draw this in your science journal. Vents Volcanoes Lava form around vents that release magma onto the Earth’s surface. Magma chamber
    5. 5. The Composition of Magma Determines whether it is explosive or not!• High water content – More likely to be !!!• High content – More likely to be !!! – Why? • Silica has a thick, stiff consistency – Flows slowly – Tends to Harden in the volcano’s vent
    6. 6. 2. What did you learn? Write/draw this in your science journal.a. What physical event causes explosive eruptions?b. Would high water content increase the likelihood of having an explosive eruption?c. Would high silica content increase the likelihood of having an explosive eruption?
    7. 7. What Erupts from a Blocky lava Volcano? Lava can be thick or thin.Pahoehoe Aa Pillow lava
    8. 8. • Loosen the gelatin volcano from the cups by dipping the cups briefly in the bowl of hot water.• Lay the pegboard on top of a food serving tray to collect drips.• Weave the airline tubing into the pegboard from the top and back up through the bottom so that 2” or so of tubing is sticking up out of the pegboard. Remove the plunger.• Fill the syringe with your prepared “magma.” Remove any air bubbles from the syringe and tubing by holding the syringe upright and squirting out a small amount of the liquid. Air tends to fracture the gelatin.• Unmold the gelatin by tipping the bowl over onto the center of the pegboard on top of the tubing and lifting the bowl. Do this VERY CAREFULLY so that the gelatin cast won’t develop cracks; a few small cracks are acceptable. The gelatin cast will spread and settle. It should resemble a colorless to milky volcano.• Inject the red water VERY SLOWLY, at a rate of about 20 ml/min. Each student should inject about 10mL into the volcano with the other students watching carefully.• What do you observe?• Use a plastic knife to slice open the volcano, and view the cross- section.
    9. 9. 3. What did you learn?Write/draw this in your science journal.a. Where did the lava flow in your model?b. Did the lava choose the path of least resistance (weakest places), like cracks?c. Did the lava deepen the existing cracks or make new cracks?
    10. 10. What Erupts from a Volcano?Pyroclastic material• Rock fragments created by eruptions •magma explodes from volcano and solidifies in the air •existing rock is shattered by powerful eruptions Lapilli Volcanic bombsVolcanic blocks Volcanic ash
    11. 11. How do volcanoes affect the Earth?Flows and Fallouts• hot ash can flow really quickly •Knock down buildings •Dam rivers (flooding/drought) •Kill crops and livestockClimatic Changes •Ash & Gases can block sunlight •Drop average global temperature noticeably
    12. 12. Types of VolcanoesShield volcano Cinder cone volcano Composite volcano
    13. 13. Craters, Calderas, and Lava PlateauCrater• From explosions of material out ofthe vent and the collapse of materialback into ventCaldera• Much larger depression thatforms when magma chamberempties and its roof collapsesLava Plateau• Forms when lava erupts from long cracks, or fissures,and spreads out evenly (thousands of km)
    14. 14. What causes volcanoes?The Formation of Magma• Mantle rock melts when thetemperature increasesor the pressure decreases.
    15. 15. What causes volcanoes?Where Volcanoes Form• Tectonic Plate Boundaries!!! ~75% world’s active volcanoes in Ring of Fire
    16. 16. What causes volcanoes?
    17. 17. What causes volcanoes?Hot Spots
    18. 18. How do volcanologists predict eruptions?• Measuring Small Quakes – Before eruption, increase in number & intensity• Measuring Slope – Bulges may form with magma (tiltmeter)• Measuring Volcanic Gases – Outflow of volcanic gases • Sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide• Measuring Temperature from Orbit – Measure changes in temperature over time
    19. 19. You should not be a • You don’t like hiking, Volcanologist if…. backbacking, rockclimbing, etc. • You are not interested in experiencing extreme temperatures and heights. • If you don’t like Robert McGimsey to travel to USGS incredible places and see breathtaking views of the world. A. Ozerov
    20. 20. • Place 10mL of baking soda in center of a sheet of bathroom tissue. Fold the corners over the baking soda and crease the edges so that they stay in place. Place the tissue packet in the middle of a large disposable pan.• Put modeling clay around the top edge of a funnel. Turn the funnel upside down over the tissue packet. Press down to make a tight seal.• Put safety goggles on and add 50mL of vinegar and several drops of liquid dish soap to a 200mL beaker, and stir.• Predict how much time will elapse before your volcano erupts. WRITE THIS DOWN!• Pour the liquid into the upturned funnel. Using a stopwatch, record the time you began to pour and the time your volcano erupts.• How close was your prediction?
    21. 21. 4. What did you learn? Write/draw this in your science journal.a. Was your time prediction close to the real time of eruption?b. Are the eruption times similar for every group? If not, give at least one reason why this might be.c. How is our experiment different from predicting the eruption of a real volcano?
    22. 22. Thank You & Have a nice Day
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