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Overview of Nonprofit Executive Leadership
 

Overview of Nonprofit Executive Leadership

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Chapter 5 from "Nonprofit Management," Third Edition by Michael J. Worth, https://secure.sagepub.com/protected/worth3e/icfr/intro.htm

Chapter 5 from "Nonprofit Management," Third Edition by Michael J. Worth, https://secure.sagepub.com/protected/worth3e/icfr/intro.htm

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    Overview of Nonprofit Executive Leadership Overview of Nonprofit Executive Leadership Presentation Transcript

    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 5: ExecutiveChapter 5: ExecutiveLeadershipLeadership
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.CEO ResponsibilitiesCEO Responsibilities• Commit to the mission• Lead the staff and manage the organization• Exercise responsible financial stewardship• Lead and manage fund-raising• Follow the highest ethical standards, ensureaccountability, and comply with the law• Engage the board in planning and lead implementation• Develop future leadership• Build external relationships and serve as an advocate• Ensure the quality and effectiveness of programs• Support the boardSource: Board Source, 2006
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Observations About CEOObservations About CEOResponsibilitiesResponsibilities• Significant overlap between CEO responsibilities andgoverning board responsibilities• Mission, financial stewardship, fund-raising,accountability, planning, performance standards,and the work of the board itself• CEO responsibilities involve both managing andleading• Management -- generally concerned with day-to-day operations, emphasizing policies,procedures, rules, and processes• Leadership -- more about purpose, vision, anddirection: more about the “where” and “why”rather than the “how”
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Managers and LeadersManagers and LeadersManagers• Concerned with masteringroutines• Adopt impersonal orpassive attitudes towardgoals• Excel in problem solvingand work design• Work with people incarefully controlled ways• See themselves asconservators or regulatorsLeaders• Concerned with vision andjudgment• Active and visionary aboutthe future• Seek out opportunities andtake risks• Passionate about theirwork and likely to causeturbulence• See themselves as agentsof change
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Leadership Theories: IntroductionLeadership Theories: Introduction• Key questions• Are leaders born or made?• If they are made, what specific knowledge orskills do individuals need to acquire in order tobe strong leaders?• What are there specific behaviors that areassociated with effective leadership?• Key caveats• Most of the theories are generic (i.e., intended toapply to all types of organizations, not justnonprofits)• There may be no one right theory of leadershipthat is applicable in every situation, at all times
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Leadership Theories: OverviewLeadership Theories: Overview• Trait theories -- emphasis on innate characteristics of leaders• Skills theories -- emphasis on specific skills leaders possess• Technical skills – knowledge of the job/profession/task• Human skills – ability to work with people• Conceptual skills – ability to understand ideas andprinciples• Behavior theories -- emphasis on behavior or actions• Task behaviors – actions that relate to the work to bedone• Relationship behaviors – actions that focus on the feelingsof subordinates• Managerial grid (Blake and Mouton, 1985)• Contingency theories -- emphasis on the situation• Servant leadership -- emphasis on values and commitment
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Transformational LeadershipTransformational Leadership• Transactional leadership – rewards or punishmentexchanged for behaviors of others• Transformational leadership -- inspiring andempowering individuals to go beyond self-interestand pursue goals that are in the common interest• Emphasis on developing personal relationships• Appealing to shared values and ideals• Transactional versus transformational leadership(Burns, 1978)• Transformational leaders use transactionaltechniques, but should not overemphasize them(Bass, 1985; Bass and Avolio, 1994)
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership• A leader is someone who behaves in certain ways that causeothers to see him or her as charismatic• Behaviors that cause others to see a person as charismatic(Rainey, 2003)• Advocates a vision that is different from the status quobut still acceptable to followers• Acts in unconventional ways in pursuit of the vision• Engages in self-sacrifice and risk taking in pursuit of thevision• Displays confidence in his or her own ideas and proposals• Uses visioning and persuasive appeals to influencefollowers, rather than relying mainly on formal authority• Uses the capacity to assess context and locateopportunities for novel strategies• Need for social distance (Fisher, 1984)
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Effective Nonprofit CEOEffective Nonprofit CEOBehaviorsBehaviors• Focus on mission• Focus on the board• Focus on external relationships• Share leadership and empower others• Focus on key roles and priorities• Use the “political frame”• Right person, right place, right time• Alignment model (Dym & Hutson, 2005)• Founder syndrome and life-cycle theories• Executive transitions and leading change
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Right Person, Right Place, Right TimeRight Person, Right Place, Right TimeAlignment Model• Seeks to integrate the major leadership theories• The leader’s fit with the organization involves traits,skills, leadership style and situation• Alignment must be achieved between the leader, theorganization, and the communityFounder Syndrome• Organization’s need for leadership may change overtime due to nature of nonprofit life-cycle theories• Can pose challenge and even crisis for a nonprofitExecutive Transitions• Preparation should take place before a transition isneeded• Viable plan and procedure to be proactive vs. reactive
    • © 2014 SAGE Publications, Inc.Leading ChangeLeading ChangeEight-step change process to ensure momentum andprovide for real and permanent change:1.Establish a sense of urgency2.Create a guiding coalition3.Develop a vision and strategy4.Communicate the change vision5.Empower broad-based action6.Generate short-term wins7.Consolidate gains and produce more change8.Anchor new approaches in the culture(Kotter 1996)