INTENSIVE REVIEW GUIDEFor students preparing for the South Carolina End ofCourse (EOC) Examination in U.S. HistorySeneca High SchoolMay 13-14, 2013These materials are provided for the use of teachers and students who are preparingfor the US History EOC exam. Anyone is free to use and modify these guides fornon-commercial, educational purposes as long as I receive credit for my work.
USHC 1.1 Summarize the distinct characteristics of each colonial region in the settlement anddevelopment of British North America, including religious, social, political, and economicdifferences.Motives for Colonization: _______________________ _______________________Contrasting the Colonial RegionsReligion Society Politics EconomyNewEnglandMid-Atlantic Not AssessedSouthernReligion in the ColoniesNew EnglandJohn Winthrop (MA) City on a ______________The “Religious Freedom” MythAlthough the Puritans fled England to escapereligious persecution, but they turned around andpersecuted dissenters in their own communities.Exiled Dissenters:_________________ ___________________The Colonial EconomyThe Triangular TradeColonies: ___________________Europe: ___________________Africa: __________________________________________Economic RegulationThe __________________ Actsgoverned colonial trade, but were notstrictly enforced – a policy known assalutary neglect.PORTS: Boston, New York,Philadelphia, CharlestonMid-AtlanticPennsylvaniaWilliam Penn__________________MarylandLord Baltimore__________________
3USHC 1.2 Analyze the early development of representative government and political rights in theAmerican colonies, including the influence of the British political system and the rule of lawas written in the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights, and the conflict between thecolonial legislatures and the British Parliament over the right to tax that resulted in theAmerican Revolutionary War.Constitutional Government = ___________________ GovernmentThe early American colonists brought traditions of constitutional government with them to the New World.Two English documents embody these traditions:The _________________ ____________________, or “Great Charter,” wassigned by King John in 1215. The Magna Carta limited the power of the Englishmonarch and recognized the rights of individuals in the following ways:Taxation ____ _________________The king cannot tax unless he gets approvalfrom the people’s representativesTrial by __________________The ___________ of ____________Everyone obeys the law – even the king.English monarchs had to get the approval of ______________________ for alltaxes. Parliament was a representative body made up of nobles, bishops, andlandowners.In the 1600s, the Stuart kings clashed with Parliament, leading to the English CivilWar and the “__________________ Revolution” of 1688.William and Mary signed the English ___________________ of ___________________, which establishedthe following principle:Parliament > KingThe English Bill of Rights guaranteed many of the same liberties that Americans are guaranteed byour Bill of Rights, including freedom of speech, freedom to petition the government, the right tobear arms, and protection from cruel and unusual punishments.Natural Rights (John _________________)1. ________________________2. ________________________3. ________________________John Locke wrote that thepurpose of government is toprotect people’s natural rightsof life, liberty, and property.“Consent of the Governed” “Right of Revolution”The English colonists brought these ideas with them to the colonies, where they created their ownrepresentative bodies that made their laws.Parliament pursued a policy of “__________________ __________________” with the colonies,leaving them alone. However, this would change with the French and Indian War.
4Parliament Taxes the Colonies1754-1763 _______________________________________________________________________After the French and Indian War, Parliament decided to quarter troops in the American colonies andthat the colonists should pay to maintain the troops. The new restrictions and taxes Parliament placedon the colonies included:1763 The ___________________ _________________ of 1763, which restricted colonists fromsettling west of the Appalachian Mountains1764 ____________________ ____________________________________________________1765 ____________________ ______________________________________ Internal Tax“NO ________________________ WITHOUT ________________________”1767 ____________________ ____________________________________________________P___________ P___________ L___________ G___________ T___________The Road to Revolution1770 ____________________ ____________________________________________________1773 ____________________ ____________________________________________________1774 ____________________ ____________________________________________________1. ____________________________ _____________________________________________2. ____________________________ _____________________________________________3. ____________________________ _____________________________________________4. ____________________________ _____________________________________________5. ____________________________ _____________________________________________1775 Battles of ______________________ and ________________________
5USHC 1.3 Analyze the impact of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution onestablishing the ideals of a democratic republic.IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of AmericaWhen in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people todissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and toassume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to whichthe Laws of Nature and of Natures God entitle them, a decent respect to theopinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impelthem to the separation.We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — Thatto secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their justpowers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form ofGovernment becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People toalter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation onsuch principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seemmost likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, willdictate that Governments long established should not be changed forlight and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewnthat mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferablethan to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they areaccustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations,pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce themunder absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw offsuch Government, and to provide new Guards for their futuresecurity. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now thenecessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history ofthe present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having indirect object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, letFacts be submitted to a candid world.BEGIN LITANY OF ABUSES
USHC 1.4 Analyze how dissatisfactions with the government under the Articles of Confederationwere addressed with the writing of the Constitution of 1787, including the debates andcompromises reached at the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of theConstitution.The Articles of ConfederationThe first plan of government for the United States was the _________________ of _________________,which were drafted in 1776. The Articles were replaced by the U.S. Constitution in 1789.The Articles vs. the ConstitutionArticles of Confederation“A Firm League of Friendship”U.S. Constitution“A More Perfect Union”RepresentationTaxationPowers ofCongressIn addition to the Articles:Amendments / of Congress + / of StatesThe Constitutional ConventionMay-September, 1787 (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)For what purpose? _______________________________________Conflict and Compromise at the Constitutional ConventionVirginia PlanNew Jersey PlanGreat (Connecticut)Compromise3/5 (“Not So Great”)CompromiseSlave TradeCompromiseElectoralCollegeElectors = ____________ +______________Amendments ___ / ___ OF _______________ + ___ / ___ OF THE ________________
7Ratification The Constitution had to be ratified by conventions in ______ of the thirteenstates in order to take effect.The Federalist [Papers]Moderate Antifederalists agreedto support the Constitution if a____________ of ____________was added.USHC 1.5 Explain how the fundamental principle of limited government is protected by theConstitution and the Bill of Rights, including democracy, republicanism, federalism, theseparation of powers, the system of checks and balances, andindividual rights.Principles of the ConstitutionConstitutional (____________) GovernmentFederalism – power is divided between the _________________ government andthe ______________ governments.Delegated Powers Concurrent Powers Reserved PowersOrdered Government ___________________ Rebellion (1786)Representative Government (Republicanism)Separation of Powers____________ Branch ____________ Branch ____________ BranchChecks and BalancesIn addition to separation of powers, the Framers proposed asystem of checks and balances in order to make sure that themembers of one branch of government did not become toopowerful or corrupt.Examples:Veto, Treaty Ratification, JudicialNomination and Confirmation
USHC 1.6 Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency of GeorgeWashington, including controversies over domestic and foreign policies and the regionalinterests of the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists.Washington’s First CabinetSecretary of theTreasurySecretary of War Attorney GeneralSecretary ofStateHenry Knox (MA) Edmund Randolph (VA)The First Two-Party SystemFEDERALISTS(Jeffersonian)REPUBLICANSLeadersFederalismConstitutionEconomyNational BankProtective TariffFederal Assumption ofState War DebtsSupportersWashington’s Farewell Address: 1. ____________________________________Washington urged Americans to avoid 2. ____________________________________The Adams AdministrationAlien and Sedition Acts (1798) Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799)WHO?WHAT?The “___________________” of 1800Jefferson elected President / Jeffersonian Republican majority in both Houses of Congress
9USHC 1.7 Summarize the expansion of the power of the national government as a result ofSupreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall, such as the establishmentof judicial review in Marbury v. Madison and the impact of political party affiliation on theCourt.Before leaving office, John Adams appointed several _________________ judges, who would serve lifeterms and be able to undermine Jefferson’s Republican administration from the bench. These includedJohn _______________ who Adams appointed as _____________ _____________ of the Supreme Court._______________ v. _______________ established the principle of judicial ____________, which saysthat the Supreme Court has the authority to interpret the Constitution (specifically, in this case, tooverturn a law passed by ________________). This differed from Thomas Jefferson’s belief that the______________ should interpret the Constitution.John Marshall vs. Thomas JeffersonJohn Marshall(___________)Thomas Jefferson(__________)FederalismNational BankEconomic Development?Strict / Loose ConstructionWho Interprets theConstitution?
10USHC 2.1 Summarize the impact of the westward movement on nationalism and democracy,including the expansion of the franchise, the displacement of Native Americans from thesoutheast and conflicts over states’ rights and federal power during the era of Jacksoniandemocracy as the result of major land acquisitions such as the Louisiana Purchase, theOregon Treaty, and the Mexican Cession.The Louisiana Purchase1803 – Jefferson purchased Louisiana from ___________________. He sent Lewis andClark to explore the Purchase (WIN) and to find a ________________ Passage (FAIL).Jefferson had doubts as to whether the _________________ permitted the federalgovernment to purchase land, but he did it anyway.The War of 1812The __________________ Act (1807)Economic Coercion [INNEFECTIVE]Madison’s War Message1. Impressment of Sailors2. Cutting off American Trade3. Arming ____________ ______________ on the western frontierAfter the War of 1812, the U.S. continued to expand to the West, ushering in an eraof democracy and the common man. Andrew ________________, the hero of theBattle of New Orleans, was elected president in 1828. Jackson typified this era ofthe common man.Indian RemovalTrail of __________________: Jackson approved of moving NativeAmerican tribes, such as the Cherokee, from the Southeast to the IndianTerritory (Oklahoma).(Jackson had spent much of his military career fighting Indians.)KEY TERRITORIAL ACQUISITIONS1803184518461848THIS CURSED OGRABME!!!
11USHC 2.2 Explain how the Monroe Doctrine and the concept of Manifest Destiny affected the UnitedStates’ relationships with foreign powers, including the role of the United States in theTexan Revolution and the Mexican War.Monroe Doctrine (1823)U.S. to Europe:NO NEW _________________________The Monroe Doctrine had little impact on European Powers at the time,but it is significant for U.S. foreign policy because it provided justificationfor later U.S. presidents (e.g., TR, Taft, and Wilson) to intervene in LatinAmerica in the 20thcentury.Manifest Destiny Sea to Shining Sea…Texas and the Mexican War (1835-1848)Texas, a Mexican state, attracted many American colonists from the Southern United States. In 1835, afterdisputes with the Mexican government about dictatorship and slavery, Texas declared independence.1836: Texas asks to be annexed as a U.S. state.The U.S. ( accepts / refuses ) Reasons: 1. _________________________2. _________________________1844 Presidential Campaign: Texas annexation an issueJames K. ___________________ wins. Americans supported annexation.1845: U.S. annexes Texas = War with ____________________________AMERICA WINS BIG!!!1848: Mexican ________________________US gets land from MexicoStates included: ___________________________________The United States and Mexico became ( allies / adversaries ) as aresult of the Mexican War.Meanwhile, the U.S. compromised with Britain on the border of ____________________________.
12USHC 2.3 Compare the economic development in different regions (the South, the North, andthe West) of the United States during the early nineteenth century, including waysthat economic policy contributed to political controversies.Antebellum means “_______________ _____ ______________.” In U.S. History,antebellum describes the period from 18___ to 18___, between the________________ Compromise and the _____________ _________.SECTIONALISMNORTH SOUTH WESTEconomyPolitical LeadersPolitical IssuesUSHC 2.4 Compare the economic development in different regions (the South, the North, andthe West) of the United States during the early nineteenth century, including waysthat economic policy contributed to political controversies.ANTEBELLUM REFORM MOVEMENTSMovement Key Figures InformationSecond GreatAwakeningAbolitionismTemperance N/AWomen’s RightsAntebellum reform movements were strongest in the _______________, but did notcatch on in the more traditionally-minded South.The more aggressively Northerners criticized the institution of slavery, the morethe South ________________ it.
13USHC 3.1 Evaluate the relative importance of political events and issues that divided the nation andled to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free andslave states, the abolitionist movement, the Dred Scott case, conflicting views on states’rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party, and the formation ofthe Confederate States of America.Events Leading to the Civil War1820 ________________________________________1828 ________________________________________1828-1833 ____________________ Crisis1831 __________________ publishedPresidentWilliam Lloyd _____________________1836 Texas _______________1845 Texas _______________1846-1848 _____________________ War_________________ Proviso ___________________________________________Abolitionism vs. Free SoilAbolitionism Free SoilGeographic Base: Geographic Base:Compromise of 18501. ________________________________________________________2. ________________________________________________________3. ________________________________________________________4. ________________________________________________________5. ________________________________________________________The Great Compromiser1. ____________________(18___)2. ____________________(18___)3. ____________________(18___)MonroeJ.Q. AdamsJacksonVan BurenTylerPolkTaylorFillmore___°___′Clay’s American System1. ____________________2. ____________________3. ____________________WHO LOSES?_______________________
14The Crisis of the 1850sThe 1830s vs. the 1850s1830s 1850s1852 __________________________ published IMPACT:1854 _______________-__________________ ActPopular Sovereignty (Stephen Douglas)____________________ Party Founded PLATFORM: _____________________1856 “Bleeding ____________________”Notable abolitionist involved: _____________ ________________Sen. Charles Sumner, “The Crime Against Kansas”_______________-__________________ Beating1857 _____________ _______________ v. Sandford1. __________________________________________________2. __________________________________________________3. Nullified _________________________________1859 John Brown’s _______________’s Ferry Raid1860 ______________________ Elected PresidentLincoln’s election resulted in the ___________________ of the states of theDeep South and the formation of the Confederate States of America.PierceBuchananLincoln
15USHC 3.2 Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the majorturning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal Treatmentafforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and politicalfactors in the defeat of the Confederacy; and the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.Causes of Southern Secession1. Conflicting views about ____________________ authority and states’ rights2. Economic & cultural differences between the _______________ South and the ______________ North3. Debates over the expansion of _________________ into the western territories4. The election of _______________ ________________ in 18__Union and Confederate AdvantagesUNION Advantage CONFEDERATE AdvantagePopulationManufacturingMoneyDefenseMilitary LeadershipPolitical LeadershipDecisive Battles of the Civil WarBattle YearVictorSignificanceUnion Confed.18611862186318631865Civil War GeneralsRobert E. ____________(CSA)Ulysses S. ____________(USA)William T. ____________(USA)
16The Emancipation ProclamationEFFECTIVE DATE: _________ _____, __________Which slaves were freed by Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation? ___________________________How many slaves were freed on January 1, 1863? ___________________What value did it have, then? _____________________________________________________By what authority did Lincoln free these slaves? ______________________________________Lincoln defined the proclamation as a “necessary ______________ measure.”Why didn’t Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation sooner?Lincoln and the Civil WarLincoln’s primary goal in fighting the Civil War was to___________________ the ________________. To this goal, he added theemancipation of slaves as it became clear that the war would be a long and bitter conflict.USHC 3.3 Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the southern states and on the role of thefederal government, including the impact of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenthamendments on opportunities for African Americans.Reconstruction THE BIG QUESTION:By what process will the Southern states bebrought back into the Union?“With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us tosee the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nations wounds… todo all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with allnations. “-- Abraham Lincoln (Second Inaugural Address)Presidential Reconstruction_______% Plan – Lincoln’s plan to allow Southern states back into the Union quickly and easilyLincoln’s _________________ by John Wilkes Booth in 1865 hardened Northern attitudestoward the defeated South. Lincoln’s successor, Andrew __________________, attempted tocontinue Lincoln’s generous plans for Reconstruction, but encountered resistance fromCongress. Northern Republicans also resented Southern states’ efforts to impose_______________ Codes, which denied basic rights of citizenship to African-Americans.Freedmen’s Bureau: ___________________________________________________________________“RADICAL” REPUBLICANS: 1. ______________________________________________2. ______________________________________________
17Presidential Reconstruction(1863-1867)Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction(1867-1877)Radical Republicans divided the South (except for Tennessee, which ratified the ___thAmendmentvoluntarily) into five _____________________ districts. Radical Republicans believed that thedefeated South should be treated like “___________________ provinces.”President Johnson vetoed Reconstruction Acts that were passed by the Radical Republicans in 1867, buthis vetoes were overridden by a ___/___ vote of Congress. The Radical Republicans ______________edPresident Johnson over disagreements about Reconstruction plans. Johnson avoided being removedfrom office by ____ vote.Reconstruction AmendmentsPresidential Reconstruction Radical Reconstruction13thAmendment (1865) 14thAmendment (1868) 15thAmendment (1870)1. __________________________2. __________________________3. __________________________USHC 3.4 Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including the role of anti–African Americanfactions and competing national interests in undermining support for Reconstruction; theimpact of the removal of federal protection for freedmen; and the impact of Jim Crow lawsand voter restrictions on African American rights in the post-Reconstruction era.Carpetbaggers ScalawagsThe ______ ___________ ___________ committed acts of violence andintimidation against “carpetbaggers,” “scalawags,” and freedmen.Compromise of 1877: _____________________________________________________Jim Crow - ________________________________________________________________Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): ______________________, but ____________________
18USHC 3.5 Evaluate the varied responses of African Americans to the restrictions imposed on themin the post-Reconstruction period, including the leadership and strategies of Booker T.Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, and Ida B. Wells-Barnett.NOTE: COMPLETION OF THIS GUIDE IS PENDINGThe post-Reconstruction and Progressive Eras was a low point for American race relations. Racialsegregation (Jim __________) was prevalent in many parts of the country, especially the South (includingWashington, D.C.) and lynchings (executions of African Americans by angry mobs without a trial) werecommon during this period. While Progressive reformers did plenty to try to help immigrants to assimilateinto American culture, they did little to promote racial equality. Black leaders, such as W.E.B. DuBois andBooker T. Washington, disagreed about the best way to help black citizens achieve political, economic, andsocial equality in America.Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois Ida B. Wells(-Barnett)Although Teddy Roosevelt had dinner with Booker T. Washington at the White House and appointed ablack man to the post of Customs Collector at the Port of Charleston, the backlash from whites causedhim to stop short of anything more ambitious than this. Woodrow Wilson sent race relations backseveral years by segregating the federal civil service, which had been integrated before his presidency.Marcus Garvey
19GILDED AGE GUIDESUNDER CONSTRUCTION(USHC 4.1 – USHC 4.4)Thank you for your patience.
20USHC 4.5 Explain the causes and effects of urbanization in late nineteenth-century America, includingthe movement from farm to city, the changing immigration patterns, the rise of ethnicneighborhoods, the role of political machines, and the migration of African Americans tothe North, Midwest, and West.The “New Immigrants”In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the United States was flooded with millions of “NewImmigrants” from ______________ and ______________ Europe, which included countries such as_______________, ________________, and _______________.Native born Americans tended to resent the “New Immigrants” for several reasons:1. They didn’t understand __________________.2. Their home countries lacked traditions of ________________ government.3. Their religions (_________________, ______________, ______________) were largely alien tonative born Americans.4. They provided a steady supply of ______________ _______________, which underminedefforts by labor unions to get better wages.Catholicism and cheap labor were also reasons why people resented the ______________ immigrants duringthe antebellum period. However, the Irish did speak English and had traditions of republican government, sono efforts were made by Congress to limit Irish immigration during the nineteenth century.Anti-Immigrant Legislation and QuotasChinese Exclusion Act (1880s) Immigration Quota Acts (1920s)The first legislation to prohibit immigration bypeople of a specific nationality. Lawsrestricting immigration from Asia remained onthe books until the WWII era.Severely limited immigration from___________ and __________ Europe, givingpreference to immigrants from the British Islesand Germany.Ethnic Neighborhoods and Immigrant PovertyIn most cases, immigrants were too poor to move beyond coastal cities, leading to the rise ofdensely populated ethnic neighborhoods. Immigrants relied on political machines, led by partybosses, to help them find jobs. The political machines relied on immigrant votes to keepthemselves in power.Muckrakers, such as Jacob ______________, author of How the Other Half Lives, exposedthe poor conditions in urban tenements (low-rent apartments) and sweatshops, whereimmigrants performed cheap labor.Although most immigrants stayed in coastal cities, such as NYC, many went to Chicagoand other cities in the Midwest where low-paying, undesirable jobs (e.g., meatpacking)were available. Upton Sinclair’s book, The _______________, exposed the wretchedworking conditions in Chicago’s meatpacking industry.
21USHC 4.6 Compare the accomplishments and limitations of the women’s suffrage movement and theProgressive Movement in affecting social and political reforms in America, including theroles of the media and of reformers such as Carrie Chapman Catt, Alice Paul, Jane Addams,and presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.The Settlement House MovementD______________ ________________ (Pictured) started the ____________House, a “settlement house” where immigrant families could go to receiveeducation, job training, and child care, amongst other things. Settlementhouses served as community centers for immigrants trying to make their wayin America.The Progressive PresidentsTeddy RooseveltBefore Teddy Roosevelt (“TR”) was elected president, the federal government had tended toside with “big business” when there were conflicts between business and labor. Rooseveltoffered Americans a “_____________ Deal,” promising to stand up to corporations who didn’tplay fairly.Anthracite __________ Strike – The first attempt by a president to end a strike by __________.TR earned the reputation as a “_____________ buster” for prosecuting corporations whoflagrantly violated the principles of the Sherman Antitrust Act. However, it became apparentthat the Sherman Act was not strong enough to rein in monopolies.Progressive Legislation Passed During Roosevelt’s AdministrationPure ____________ and ____________ Act(1906)___________ Inspection Act(1906)Created the ______________________________ Prompted by Upton Sinclair’s publication of_____________ ____________.ConservationOf wildlife and natural resourcesProgressive Legislation Passed During Woodrow Wilson’s AdministrationClayton Antitrust Act Child Labor Legislation Federal Reserve ActStrengthened the provisionsof the Sherman Antitrust ActExempted Labor UnionsDeclared unconstitutional bythe Supreme Court. This is anexample of judicial________________.A central banking systemcreated to regulate the___________ supply and___________ rates.
22Constitutional Amendments Ratified During the Progressive EraDuring the Progressive Era, four amendments were proposed by a ___/___ vote of Congress and ratifiedby ___/___ of the states. These amendments were products of two of the goals of Progressives:1. Popular ________________2. An expanded role for the ____________ government3. ______________ Reform (e.g., Temperance)16thAmendment17thAmendment18thAmendment Repealed by the ______ Amendment19thAmendment
23USHC 5.1 Analyze the development of American expansionism, including the change fromisolationism to intervention and the rationales for imperialism based on SocialDarwinism, expanding capitalism, and domestic tensions.Isolationism to InterventionismMotivations for American ImperialismSocial ________________________ Expansion of ____________________Europeans and Americans believedthat their civilization as superior tothose of Latin America, Africa, Asia,and the Pacific Islands.Imperialism opened foreignmarkets for American agriculturaland industrial products, easingeconomic tensions at home.Spread ________________________and Western Civilization_____________________ BasesAmerican imperialists had convincedthemselves that they had an obligation,referred to as the “White Man’sBurden,” to spread Christianity andelevate subject peoples whileexploiting them economically.America sought to assert itselfas a naval power in the earlytwentieth century. Imperialismprovided the United Stateswith naval bases in theCaribbean and the Pacific.Although American imperialism established the United Statesas a world power and spread American political, economic, andreligious ideals, it also provoked _______________________from people who were subject to American domination –especially in the Philippines and Cuba.19thCentury (1800s) 20thCentury (1900s)_________________(Neutrality)_________________(Imperialism)
24USHC 5.2 Explain the influence of the Spanish-American War on the emergence of the United Statesas a world power, including the role of yellow journalism in the American declaration of waragainst Spain, United States interests and expansion in the South Pacific, and the debatebetween pro- and anti-imperialists over annexation of the Philippines.The Spanish-American War marked the United States’ emergence as a_____________________ _____________________.CausesAmerican sympathy for rebels in_________________ who werefighting against Spain for theirindependence.The explosion of theU.S.S. __________________in Havana Harbor.________________ JournalismNYC Newspapers publishedsensational headlines in orderto compete for circulation.These factors resulted in PUBLIC PRESSURE on the U.S. government to declare war on Spain.“REMEMBER THE _________________________!!!”AMERICA WINS and inherits what’s left of Spain’s colonial empire:In the Pacific In the Caribbean1. _________________________2. _________________________1. ___________________ (Annexed)2. ___________________ (Controlled)The Supreme Court ruled at the time that the ___________________________ “does notfollow the flag” and that people in American overseas territories WERE NOT did not have thesame constitutional rights as people living on the North American continent.The United States mercilessly crushed a rebellion in the __________________________.Imperialist Arguments Anti-Imperialist Arguments1898
25USHC 5.3 Summarize United States foreign policies in different regions of the world during the earlytwentieth century, including the purposes and effects of the Open Door policy with China,the United States role in the Panama Revolution, Theodore Roosevelt’s “big stickdiplomacy,” William Taft’s “dollar diplomacy,” and Woodrow Wilson’s “moral diplomacy”and changing worldwide perceptions of the United States.U.S. Imperialism in ChinaThe “__________________ _______________” Policy openedChinese markets to the U.S. by allowing American businesses totrade alongside European powers.The _____________________ Rebellion was an anti-imperialistuprising in China that was put down by American and British forces.US Intervention in Latin America_____________________Amendment: U.S. can intervene in to prevent civil unrestGuantanamo Bay: Perpetual lease of a ____________________ base (still there today)Teddy ______________________“___________ ____________”DiplomacyTR described his foreign policy asbeing inspired by the West Africanproverb,“Speak softly andcarry a big stick.”TR’s “Big Stick” projected American naval power and increased American dominance in Latin America.The Roosevelt Corollary to the _______________________ Doctrine established the U.S. as the“policeman” In Latin America. The U.S. intervened in Latin American nations to collect debts on behalfof European nations (so that they wouldn’t intervene in Latin America directly).The United States helped ___________________ gain independence from Colombia in order to gainaccess rights to construct the Panama ___________________.William Howard _____________“_______________________”DiplomacyProtect American___________________ interests andinvestments in Latin AmericaWoodrow __________________“___________ / Missionary”DiplomacyIntervene to promote__________________ governmentsand oppose non-democraticgovernments.“Teach the Mexicans to elect good men.”NOTE: Features of Wilson’s “moral diplomacy” can be found in his rationale for entering World War I,declaring that the United States’ cause in the war was to “make the world safe for democracy.”CUBA
26USHC 5.4 Analyze the causes and consequences of United States involvement in World War I, includingthe failure of neutrality and the reasons for the declaration of war, the role of propaganda increating a unified war effort, the limitation of individual liberties, and Woodrow Wilson’sleadership in the Treaty of Versailles and the creation of the League of Nations.1914: World War I Begins Where? __________________________The Causes: The Igniting Incident:The _________________________ SystemN___________________________Archduke Franz ________________________ of Austriawas assassinated by a Serbian nationalist in 1914.Following the assassination, alliances were invoked,leading to a full-scale war with Britain, France, and allieson one side and Germany and allies on the other.1914-1917 U.S. maintains a policy of __________________.THIS GUY would have been proud! TRADE Naval warfare made it difficult for the U.S. to carry on trade with Europe as a neutral power.PROVOCATIONS Three things prompted the U.S. to enter the war:1. CRUISE SHIP Sinking of the _______________________ (1915)“He kept us out of ______________________” Wilson’s 1916 Re-Election Slogan2. TELEGRAM The ____________________ Note (Germany to ________________)3. SUBMARINE _____________________ Submarine WarfareWilson: The U.S. is fighting to “make the world safe for ______________.”PROPAGANDA The U.S. government launched a massive propagandacampaign with FOUR GOALS in mind:________________Soldiers, Sailors, Nurses________________Food and Resources______________the War (Liberty Bonds)______________the Enemy (the Hun)
27Espionage and ___________________ Acts (1917-1918)The Espionage and Sedition Acts banned Americans from undermining the war effort byspeaking out against the war and doing anything else (discouraging the purchase of warbonds, opposing the draft, etc.) that could undermine the war effort.Anti-German Sentiment:This is a _______ ________! DON’T TEACH THIS! DON’T DISPLAY THIS!Frankfurter German Language Flag of GermanyARMISTICE_______/_______/1918 ____:00 AMWILSON’S ______________________ POINTS:1. Freedom of the ______________________2. Reduction of ______________________3. Open _________________ Negotiations4. ____________-_________________ of Peoples5. ____________________ of _____________________Wilson’s Goal: ___________________________________________________The Treaty of VersaillesAlthough President Wilson exercised a leadership role at the Paris PeaceConference, he had to make concessions to the Allies, who insisted on a“____________ _______________” Clause blaming Germany for the war andthe payment of ____________________ from Germany to the Allies.However, the Treaty of ______________________ also included Wilson’sFourteen Points, including re-drawing new national borders in CentralEurope along ________________ lines, although it failed to accommodateevery European ethnic group (What is a Yugoslavian?).The Treaty also created a __________________ of ______________, whichWilson believed to be the most important thing to prevent future wars.
28USHC 5.5 Analyze the United States rejection of internationalism, including postwardisillusionment, the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Versailles Treaty, the electionof 1920, and the role of the United States in international affairs in the 1920s.The Versailles Treaty ControversyAlthough President Wilson played a leading role at the Paris Peace Conference, he hadan even bigger task when he returned to the United States:Convince the U.S. __________________ to ratify the _________________ Treaty.According to the Constitution, ____ / ____ of the Senate must approve any treatynegotiated by the President. Wilson, a Democrat, had an uphill battle, since theRepublican Party had a majority in the Senate.Factions in the U.S. SenateInternationalists Reservationists IrreconcilablesMostly Senate Democrats NOTE: The Republicans were divided into two camps.Republican senators opposed the treaty, believing the ________________ of _______________ would obligatethe United States to enter future European wars.Wilson refused to ________________________ with the Reservationists, insisting on an “all or nothing”approach to ratification. The United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles and never joinedthe League of Nations, although the government did send an observer to the meetings.1920sIn 1920, Americans elected Warren G. _______________, a Republican who promisedAmerica a “Return to ______________.” Harding had opposed America’s entry into theLeague of Nations, but supported America’s continued involvement in efforts topromote peace and understanding in Europe, including hosting a conference thatlimited the size of the great powers’ ___________________ forces.The ______________________ Plan was designed by the U.S. government to help Germany pay its warreparations while facilitating economic cooperation between the United States and Europe.1930sThe “Good __________________ Policy _______________________ ActsIn the 1930s, the U.S. attempted to cultivate a betterrelationship with Latin America and get rid of thelegacy of resentment from the days of U.S. imperialism.Believing that America’s entry into WWI was a mistake,Congress passed the Neutrality Acts to make it difficultfor the president to assist belligerent nations.As a result of the Neutrality Acts, the U.S. did little as dictators began to rise in Germany, Italy, andthe Soviet Union and there was not much that President _______________________ (FDR) could do toprovide assistance to the Allies in the early days of the war.
29USHC 6.1 Explain the impact of the changes in the 1920s on the economy, society, and culture, including theexpansion of mass production techniques, the invention of new home appliances, the introduction ofthe installment plan, the role of transportation in changing urban life, the effect of radio and moviesin creating a national mass culture, and the cultural changes exemplified by the Harlem Renaissance.A BOOMING ECONOMY! The Losers:The U.S. experienced unprecedentedeconomic growth during the 1920s, butnot everyone shared in the prosperity.There was a widening GAP between the“haves” and the “have nots.”1. __________________(low crop prices)2. __________________(anti-union sentiment)Mass ProductionHenry Ford’s _________________ Line made productionmore efficient but cut out the need for skilled laborers. Automobilesbecame prevalent during the 1920s because of Ford’s assembly line.Many other products, such as _____________ and ______________,were mass produced on assembly lines.Household Appliances and Consumer CultureNew electric appliances, such as the vacuum cleaner, iron,and washing machine made it easier than ever forhousewives to do household chores.ADVERTISING!!!_____________ NOWPay _____________!Americans who couldn’t afford thenew appliances purchased them on the_________________ plan.RESULT: _________________African Americans in the 1920sThe Great Migration _________ Music _________ Renaissance Stereotyping in FilmAn AfricanAmericanartistic andliterarymovement._____________ Hughes(Famous Writer)Birth ofa Nation(Popular filmpromoted racialstereotypes andmade the KKKappear heroic.)Black Americans leave theSouth toSearch for _____________Escape ________________Black musicians playedfor white audiences,leading to somecultural exchange.
30USHC 6.2 Explain the causes and effects of the social change and conflict between traditional andmodern culture that took place during the 1920s, including the role of women, the “RedScare”, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, immigration quotas, Prohibition, and theScopes trial.The Role of WomenAlthough women could vote in the 1920s thanks to the passage of the ___thAmendment, women made little impact on politics, typically voting the same way astheir husbands did.Many young women, known as _______________, challenged cultural norms of“ladylike” behavior. Flappers could be identified by their short hair, knee-length skirts,and their permissive lifestyles.Flapper culture had very little impact on women, as a whole, as most women eitherstayed at home and made use of their new electrical appliance or worked menial jobswhere they were paid less than men.Nativism___________________ - Fear of ForeignersAmerican nativism reached a new peak in the 1920s due to the effects ofWWI propaganda and the __________________ Revolution in 1917.This political cartoon showcases American fears that many of the “NewImmigrants” from Southern and Eastern Europe were__________________, __________________ , or __________________ .[First] Red Scare Immigration Quota Acts Sacco and Vanzetti TrialFEAR of a ________________takeover of the United States________________ Raids(4000 alleged communistsarrested – hundreds deported)Placed quotas on immigrationfrom _____________ and_____________ Europe(New Immigrants)Two ___________ immigrantswere found guilty of murderand executed based onquestionable evidence of guiltProhibitionORIGINS: _______________ Movement (Antebellum Period)Prohibition gained traction during WWI due to anti-German sentiment and thewartime push to conserve grain (the primary ingredient in beer and liquor).__thAmendmentBanned the sale andconsumption of“intoxicating liquors”ENFORCEMENT UNSUCCESSFUL __stAmendmentREPEALED the 18thAmendment (1933)_____________________Illegal alcohol sellers(e.g., Al Capone)_____________________Private clubs where alcoholwas illegally consumedA “Flapper”
31The [Second] Ku Klux KlanNativist sentiment and the success of the film, Birth of a Nation, laid the groundwork for arevival of the Ku Klux Klan. Members of the “Second” Ku Klux Klan cast themselves as theguardiansof “One Hundred Percent __________________”“TRUE AMERICAN” “UNAMERICAN”1. _________________2. _______________ Born3. _________________1. _________________2. _______________ Born3. ____________ or JewishThe Klan considered anyone “Un-American” who did not fit the “WASP” [WhiteAnglo-Saxon Protestant] profile. Note that while the Klan was a whitesupremacist organization, it also targeted immigrants and religious minorities.MORAL WATCHDOG: The Klan also supported Prohibition, opposed bootlegging andgambling, and held its members of high moral standards. This function of the Klan wasundermined by scandals involving its members in the late 1920s and early 1930s.The Klan’s membership exceeded four million in the 1920s, and the organization was strongerin the _________________ (Indiana, Ohio, etc.) than it was in the South.The Scopes “___________” TrialQUESTION:How do we explain the origins of humanity?Religious _________________“Conservative”VS.Modern Science“Liberal”The ____________contains a literal andtrue account ofcreation by God.Charles ______________Theory of__________________In 1925, the Tennessee legislature passed a law forbidding theteaching of Charles Darwin’s theory of ________________ inpublic schools.John Scopes, a substitute teacher and football coach, taught a lesson on evolution so that the town ofDayton, Tenn., could host a trial. The trial received national media coverage.William Jennings Bryan, a Fundamentalist,volunteered to prosecute the case againstScopes.Scopes was defended by an attorney from theA________________ C________________L________________ U________________.FACT: The phrase, “Monkey Trial,” wascoined by H.L. Mencken, a reportercovering the trial for the Baltimore Sun.Klan members march onWashington in the 1920s.
32USHC 6.3 Explain the causes and consequences of the Great Depression, including the disparities inincome and wealth distribution; the collapse of the farm economy and the effects of the DustBowl; limited governmental regulation; taxes, investment; and stock market speculation; policiesof the federal government and the Federal Reserve System; and the effects of the Depression onthe people.Causes of the Great DepressionConsumers bought goods on credit during the 1920s, and mostAmericans were heavily indebted by the end of the decade.Factors Contributing to Consumer Debt:The __________ _________’s“Easy Money” Policies OverconsumptionStock MarketSPECULATIONDuring the 1920s, the FederalReserve kept interest rates low,which encouraged borrowing.After the stock market crash, the Fedsuddenly TIGHTENED the moneysupply.Consumers borrowed moneyto pay for new appliances andother consumer goods,purchasing these items on the_____________ plan.SPECULATION:Buying on the ______________(Borrowing $$$ to buy stocks)By the late 1920s, consumers had so much debt that they could no longer pay forexpensive consumer goods, which lowered demand. This resulted inoverproduction, resulting in decreased profits for companies.STOCK MARKET ________________________ (1929)dFarm Economy COLLAPSES“_______________” migrate to Californialooking (unsuccessfully) for work.President Herbert __________________ tried unsuccessfully to help:1. Tax ____________________2. ___________-____________ Tariff (Second Highest in US History)Hoover REJECTED the idea of ________________ RELIEF to the poor.(payments from the government to individuals)“_________________” became a symbol ofmost Americans’ lack of confidence inHoover’s leadership.In 1932, a group of World War I veteransknown as the“______________ Army” marched onWashington to demand an early paymentof their “Bonus,” or veterans pensionsthat were due to be paid in 1945.The U.S. Army attacked the Bonus Army with cavalry, tanks,and gas, furthering the impression that Hoover was calloustoward those who were suffering during the Depression.DEBTUNEMPLOYMENT:___%INEFFECTIVEDust Bowl
33USHC 6.4 Analyze President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the economic crisis of theGreat Depression, including the effectiveness of New Deal programs in relieving suffering andachieving economic recovery, in protecting the rights of women and minorities, and in makingsignificant reforms to protect the economy such as Social Security and labor laws.The New DealFranklin D.__________ (FDR)(Elected 1932)First Lady:_____________The “Three R’s”of the New Deal:Successful?R_________________R_________________R__________________________________________________________________________PANIC: “The only thing we have to fear is _____________, itself.” – Inaugural AddressFDR addressed panic by declaring a bank ______________ and used “_____________ chats,”radio addresses that he used to explain his plans to the people in plain language.FDR’s Alphabet Soup (New Deal Agencies created by the FDR administration)Name: ____________________________________________ (FDIC)Purpose:AAAName: Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)Purpose:Name: National Recovery Administration (NRA)Purpose:SECName: ____________________________________________ (SEC)Purpose:Name: ____________________________________________ (TVA)Purpose:CCCName: Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)Purpose:SSA Social SecurityAdministration NLRB National Labor RelationsBoard
34Criticisms of the New DealFrom the “Left” From the “Right”The Supreme Court and the New DealIn Schechter v. United States (1935), the Supreme Court declared the NationalRecovery Act __________________________. This is an example of judicial_________________, a principle established by John Marshall in________________ v. _________________.In response to the Supreme Court’s ruling, FDR presented a plan toCongress to __________________ the Supreme Court, which wouldhave allowed the president to appoint more justices to the Court. Thisplan undermined the system of _________________ and________________ that are enshrined in the U.S. Constitution.Congress rejected the “court packing” plan, handing FDR his firstmajor legislative defeat.African Americans and the New DealAfrican American workers were typically the __________________ hired and the ________________fired, leading to black workers suffering from a much higher level of unemployment (50%) than whites(25%). Although FDR took little official action to combat racial discrimination, black voters began toalign themselves with Roosevelt’s _________________ Party in the 1930s. Before the New Deal, AfricanAmerican voters had typically supported the ________________ Party.The New Deal ( did / did not ) bring about economic recovery in the 1930s. However,New Deal programs ( did / did not ) provide relief for people who were suffering duringthe Depression.
35USHC 7.1 Analyze the decision of the United States to enter World War II, including the nation’s movementfrom a policy of isolationism to international involvement and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.TOTALITARIANISMIn totalitarian states, the government holds full power and does not recognize individual rights.TOTALITARIAN STATE DICTATORMILITARISM Germany and Japan both launched aggressive wars against their neighbors.________________________: Britain and France tried to “appease” Hitler byallowing him to invade neighboring countriesWWII began when Hitler invaded _________________________in 1939. The German army’s blitzkrieg (lightning war) strategy was effective againstFrench and British forces and France fell in just over a month. Britain was left tofight against Hitler alone. Germany attacked Britain by air in a three month battleknown as the Battle of Britain.Most Americans favored a policy of _______________________ that would keep theUnited States out of the European War._____________________ Acts: Banned the sale of arms to belligerent nationsAlthough Americans wanted to stay out of the war, President Roosevelt (FDR) believed that the Britishwere in need of our help. He wished for America to become the“Arsenal of _____________________”1. ________________ and _______________ (1939)Pay cash and take it with you.2. _________________ for ______________ (1940)U.S. gives Britain ships in return for naval bases3. ________________ - _________________ (1941)Britain can borrow our weapons since we’re not using them!Selective Service Act (1940): The first _____________________ draft in US historyThe United States placed an oil _____________________ on Japan for launchingaggressive warfare in Manchuria, China, and the Pacific.Japan, seeing the embargo as a threat to its ability to maintain a navy, attacked theU.S. Pacific Fleet at _________________ Harbor on _____________ ____, 1941.The United States declared war on Japan the next day._____ PACTAfter the U.S. declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy declared war on theU.S. in keeping with the Axis Pact – an alliance between the three nations. TheUnited States responding by declaring war against Germany and Italy.Photo bymr.smashy
36REMAINING GUIDESUNDER CONSTRUCTION(USHC 7.2 – USHC 8.6)Thank you for your patience.