The Civil War (US History)


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The Civil War - AP US History

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The Civil War (US History)

  1. 1. Photo by fauxto_digit
  2. 2. Photo by fauxto_digit Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy…
  3. 3. 1. "This nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." Assess the validity of this statement for the period 1860-1877. ESSAY TOPICS Students will choose one of the following essay topics at the end of the unit. Photo by Stéfan
  4. 4. 2. "Abraham Lincoln upheld his oath to 'preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.'" Assess the validity of this statement for the period 1860- 1865. ESSAY TOPICS Photo by Stéfan Students will choose one of the following essay topics at the end of the unit.
  5. 5. Part Four Total War 1864-1865 Part One Secession 1860-1861 Part Two Limited War 1861-1862 Part Three The Turning Point 1863
  6. 6. 1856 1860 1864
  7. 7. 1856 “A House divided against itself cannot stand.” -- Abraham Lincoln 1860 1864
  8. 8. Indian Territory (CSA) The “Deep South” seceded after Lincoln was elected. Secession The “Upper South” waited…
  9. 9. Confederate States of America The seven states of the Deep South formed the CSA in Feb, 1861, before Lincoln took office. (CSA) First National Flag of the CSA Great Seal Jefferson Davis, President
  10. 10. Great Seal of the C.S.A.
  11. 11. A President’s Dilemma: 1. Is secession constitutionally acceptable? – If yes, 2. If secession isn’t constitutionally acceptable, then is the federal government constitutionally authorized to use force against a state?
  12. 12. Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address Compare to Second Inaugural March 4, 1861 DOCUMENT
  13. 13. Lincoln refused Confederate demands to withdraw a garrison of federal troops stationed at Fort Sumter, SC. Map Credit: MAP
  14. 14. Map Credit:
  15. 15. General P.G.T. Beauregard, CSA April 12-13, 1861
  16. 16. General Pierre G.T. Beauregard portrait by George Healy, 1861 Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery Washington DC
  17. 17. FROM ARTICLE I SECTION 8 “The Congress shall have Power… To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions…”
  18. 18. Lincoln’s Call for Volunteers Published in Harper’s Weekly
  19. 19. The Upper South Secedes Lincoln’s call for troops prompted Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia secede and join the Confederacy. All four states had previously rejected secession. If at first you don’t secede, try, try again!
  20. 20. “Border States” Map Credit: Four slave states (MO, KY, MD, DE) did not secede from the Union, although many people from these states fought for the Confederacy. Unionists in Western Virginia organized a separate state government, which Congress admitted as West Virginia in 1863.
  21. 21. BORDER STATES Although the Border States did not secede, Unionist and Confederate militias clashed with each other, as seen in the popular Clint Eastwood film, The Outlaw Josey Wales.
  22. 22. Map Credit: Slaves as a % of Population
  23. 23. Map Credit: Cotton Production Areas
  24. 24. Percentage of Slaveholding Families as a percentage of total free households in each state Mississippi: 49% South Carolina: 46% Georgia: 37% Alabama: 35% Florida: 34% Louisiana: 29% Texas: 28% North Carolina: 28% Virginia: 26% Tennessee: 25% Kentucky: 23% Arkansas: 20% Missouri: 13% Maryland: 12% Delaware: 3%Source: Original Member of CSA Seceded after Fort Sumter Non-seceding Slave States MAP (Slaves as a % of the total population)
  25. 25. 1 • Lincoln elected President 2 • “Deep South” Secedes 3 • CSA attacks Fort Sumter 4 • Lincoln calls for troops 5 • “Upper South” secedes
  26. 26. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER 1. Did the States of the Deep South have proper justification to secede? 2. Was Lincoln’s call for troops – constitutional? – the best decision? 3. Did the States of the Upper South have proper justification to secede?
  27. 27. Icons Courtesy of South North Population Farm Acreage Manufacturing Workers Bank Capital
  28. 28. Confederate Advantages • Military Leadership – Lee, Jackson, etc. • “Home Field Advantage” • DEFENSE as objective – NOT conquest • HIGH STAKES – Survival as objective Photo by Mrs. Gemstone FURTHER READING
  29. 29. OBJECTIVES IN 1861 UNION CONFEDERACY PRIMARY OBJECTIVE (Regarding Southern Independence) SHORT WAR or LONG WAR? (Which side benefits in each scenario?) PRESERVE THE UNION MAINTAIN Independence LONG SHORT
  30. 30. The North’s Strategy for Victory Photo by Silvain de Munck
  31. 31. The “Anaconda Plan”
  32. 32. Battle State Victory Significance Fort Sumter SC Confederate Began the war First Bull Run (First Manassas) VA Confederate Myth of Confederate invincibility
  33. 33. Capture of Ricketts' Battery, painting by Sidney E. King, National Park Service.
  34. 34. “Like a Stone Wall” Brig. Gen. Barnard E. Bee (CSA) Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson (CSA)
  35. 35. Gen. Bee, who was mortally wounded at First Manassas, is buried in the cemetery at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Pendleton, SC. Visit St. Paul’s cemetery:
  36. 36. Engagement State Victory Peninsula Campaign VA Confederate Seven Days VA Confederate Second Manassas VA Confederate Antietam MD Tactical Draw Union Strategic Fredericksburg VA Confederate Eastern Theater Robert E. Lee took command of Confederate forces in Virginia in 1862.
  37. 37. Peninsular Campaign McClellan’s Objective: Capture Richmond FAILURE Driven back by Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days Battles Gen. George McClellan (USA)
  38. 38. Seven Days Battles Lee drove McClellan away from Richmond… Lee
  39. 39. Second Bull Run …Then defeated another Union Army in Northern VA. Lee
  40. 40. Map Credit: Antietam In order to gain the initiative and re-supply his army, Lee invaded Maryland. A Confederate victory on northern soil would bolster the cause of Southern independence. US Army Principles of War September, 1862
  41. 41. Antietam Lee and McClellan fought to a tactical draw in the bloodiest single day of the war. Afterwards, Lee retreated to VA. STRATEGIC VICTORY for the Union September, 1862 CASUALTIES USA CSA
  42. 42. Lincoln and McClellan after Antietam After claiming victory at Antietam, Lincoln: 1. Issued the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation and 2. fired McClellan.
  43. 43. Burnside Gen. Ambrose Burnside, the new Union commander, marched his army toward Richmond. Lee moved to intercept him at Fredericksburg.
  44. 44. Fredericksburg Lee ended 1862 with a lopsided victory over Burnside’s army. December, 1862 CASUALTIES USA CSA Canister and Grape Shot
  45. 45. Western Theater Engagement State Victory Forts Henry and Donelson TN Union Shiloh TN Union Capture of New Orleans LA Union Ulysses S. Grant (USA) Army of the Tennessee
  46. 46. The Western Theater The Union Army’s Objective: Control the Mississippi R. Split the Confederacy
  47. 47. “Unconditional Surrender” Grant Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA
  48. 48. Battle of Shiloh by Thure de Thulstrup.
  49. 49. Shiloh April, 1862 Grant caught off guard by a Confederate attack. Still standing at nightfall… Reinforced during the night, Grant counter- attacked and forced a Confederate retreat.
  50. 50. Capture of New Orleans May, 1862 The Union Navy overcame Confederate defenses on the Mississippi to capture the Confederacy’s largest city.
  51. 51. Union Occupation of New Orleans Butler’s “Woman Order” William Mumford Butler Benjamin Butler, a political general in charge of the occupation of New Orleans, drew criticism due to his heavy-handed governance. GENERAL ORDERS, No. 111.
  52. 52. From Harper’s Weekly (Northern Paper) July 12, 1862 The Ladies of New Orleans before General Butler’s ProclamationAfter General Butler’s Proclamation
  53. 53. Union Occupation of New Orleans “Spoons” “Beast” Nicknames: …and my personal favorite:
  54. 54. Alabama Dept. of Archives and History
  55. 55. The Emancipation Proclamation "That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free…. “Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion…” 1/1/1863 DOCUMENT
  56. 56. WHY, THEN? 0
  57. 57. Engagement State Victory Chancellorsville VA Confederate Gettysburg PA Union Vicksburg MS Union Decisive Engagements Lee In 1863, Lee won his greatest victory and suffered his greatest defeat.
  58. 58. Chancellorsville Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA Gen. Joseph Hooker, USA Troop Strength: 133,868 Troop Strength: 60,892 Lee’s “Perfect Victory” May, 1863
  59. 59. May 2, 1863May 3, 1863 R.I.P. May 4-6, 1863 CASUALTIES UNION CONFEDERATE Chancellorsville
  60. 60. Casualties of the Civil War Casualties By Battle Historical Casualty Statistics: ALL WARS Confederate Memorial Arlington National Cemetery Memorial to Civil War Unknown Dead Arlington National Cemetery http://www.census- op-us-1790-2000.html
  61. 61. Conscription “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” -- Anti-draft slogan aka, “The Draft” Confederate (1862) Union (1863) o Draftees could hire substitutes o Planters* exempt *20 or more slaves o Draftees could hire substitutes o $300 to exempt
  62. 62. NYC Draft Riots o Over 100 dead o Racially motivated Many rioters were Irish immigrants who feared competition from freedmen for jobs. 1863
  63. 63. “Peace Democrats” Goals: Armistice / Compromise Copperhead movement peaked in early 1863 Clement Vallandigham Ohio Copperhead Habeas corpus
  64. 64. CSA The Prognosis May, 1863
  65. 65. After his victory at Chancellorsville, Lee invaded Pennsylvania in hopes of gaining a decisive victory on Northern soil. Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863
  66. 66. Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 CASUALTIES UNION CONFEDERATE After three days of fighting, Lee failed to defeat the Union Army. LEE’S FIRST TACTICAL DEFEAT
  67. 67. Grant’s Vicksburg Campaign In the spring of 1863, the Confederates still controlled a stretch of the Mississippi River between Vicksburg, MS, and Port Hudson, LA.
  68. 68. Grant Siege of Vicksburg May 18 – July 4, 1863
  69. 69. Photo Credit: The Confederate defenders at Port Hudson held out for 48 days, making it the longest siege in United States history. After hearing of the fall of Vicksburg, the defenders surrendered on July 9, relinquishing the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. Click the thumbnails on the left to view images of Confederate defensive positions. Port Hudson
  70. 70. A “Quaker Gun” Port Hudson, 1863
  71. 71. A Turning Point... The back-to-back losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were severe blows to the Confederacy. What effect did these battles have on the Copperhead movement in the North?
  72. 72. The Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863 Fourscore and seven years ago… Of the people, by the people, and for the people… RHETORIC
  73. 73. Redefining the War Lincoln in 1861 Lincoln in 1863 Southern Independence SLAVERY CONQUEROR LIBERATOR
  74. 74. PART FOUR: Total War
  75. 75. African-Americans About 180,000 African- Americans enlisted in the Union Army in the later years of the war. – 10% of Union Army / 1% of Population ALL VOLUNTEER Only whites were drafted in the North. in the Civil War
  76. 76. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry The film, Glory (1989), is based on the story of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
  77. 77. The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground, which depicts the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment at the attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina, on July 18, 1863.
  78. 78. African-Americans Confederate Emancipation & Enlistment – Advocated By Lee – Too Little, Too Late – Black support for Confederacy rare, but not entirely unheard of in the Civil War A Northern newspaper pokes fun of Confederate plans to raise black regiments.
  79. 79. Explanation
  80. 80. 1864 Presidential Election The Political Spectrum War Democrats Moderate Republicans Radical Republicans Peace Democrats Election of 1864 Cartoons Abolish Slavery Political Equality for Blacks Win the War Preserve the Union Abolish Slavery Armistice Return to Pre- war State of Affairs
  81. 81. From Harper’s Weekly July 2, 1864 http://elections.harpweek.c om/1864/cartoon-1864- Medium.asp?UniqueID=6 &Year=1864
  82. 82. Gen. George McClellan 1864 Democratic Nominee War Democrat Peace Platform Document 7.8
  83. 83.
  84. 84. 1864 Election Propaganda National Union Edition
  85. 85. 1864 Election Propaganda Democratic Edition
  86. 86. 1856 1860 1864
  87. 87. Four More Years!
  88. 88. TOTAL WAR After defeating McClellan, Lincoln was no longer bound by political considerations. Lincoln Grant Sherman
  89. 89. Lee vs. Grant WAR OF ATTRITION Virginia 1864-1865
  90. 90. Gen. William T. Sherman (USA) Sherman’s March 1864-1865
  91. 91. Sherman’s March 1864-1865
  92. 92. Gen. William T. Sherman (USA) Carolinas Campaign 1865
  93. 93. Sherman vs. Hampton Gen. William T. Sherman, USA Gen. Wade Hampton, CSA CORRESPONDENCE
  94. 94. “War is Hell!”I’ve been where you are now and I know just how you feel. It’s entirely natural that there should beat in the breast of every one of you a hope and desire that some day you can use the skill you have acquired here. Suppress it! You don’t know the horrible aspects of war. I’ve been through two wars and I know. I’ve seen cities and homes in ashes. I’ve seen thousands of men lying on the ground, their dead faces looking up at the skies. I tell you, war is Hell! Gen. William T. Sherman (USA)
  95. 95. Alexander Stephens, Vice President (CSA) Abraham Lincoln, President (USA) FAI L Hampton Roads Conference February, 1865
  96. 96. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Compare to First Inaugural March 4, 1865
  97. 97. Lee Surrenders to Grant Appomattox Court House April 12, 1865
  98. 98. Richmond, 1865