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Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
Immigration era
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Immigration era

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  • 1. U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Mr. Johnny Rodriguez
  • 2. Overview
    • Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras:
    • Open-Door
    • Door-Ajar
    • Pet-Door
    • Revolving-Door
    • Storm-Door
    • Including Important Legislation and Court Cases
  • 3. Overview
    • Following Historical Breakdown:
    • Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal.
    • Assimilation
    • Economics
    • Bilingualism
    • Multiculturalism
    • National Security
  • 4. Open-Door Era
    • Founding of the United States until 1880.
    • Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged.
    • “ Old-Wave” Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe.
    • 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power “To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization”
  • 5. Open-Door Era
    • Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act.
    • Two-year residency requirement
    • Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years
    • Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813
    • 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship
  • 6. Open-Door Era
    • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico
    • Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875
    • First- Predominantly Irish and German
    • Second – Included British and
    • Scandinavian
  • 7. Open-Door Era
    • 1862 – Homestead Act
    • 1868 – Ratification of the 14 th Amendment
    • 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent
    • 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born
    • Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native-born
  • 8. Door-Ajar Era
    • Began in 1880 and lasted 1920
    • Rate of 1 million per year continued
    • Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe
    • Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude.
  • 9. Door-Ajar Era
    • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality.
    • Virtually stopped Chinese immigration
    • ten years.
    • Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904
  • 10. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
  • 11. Door-Ajar Era
    • 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others.
    • 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return.
    • 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act.
  • 12. Door-Ajar Era
    • 1892 – Ellis Island
    • 1894 – Bureau of Immigration
    • 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States:
    • Native born are eligible for nat.
    • even if parents are not.
    • 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s
  • 13. Pet-Door Era
    • The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965
    • Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929
    • Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe.
    • Era of restrictive legislation
  • 14. Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts
    • 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census.
    • only 4 million entered from 1920-1930
    • 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census.
    • Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe
    • Barred most Asians – “aliens ineligible for citizenship”
    • 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census.
    • Only 150,000 admitted.
  • 15. Decrease in Immigration
  • 16. Pet-Door Era
    • 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien.
    • Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol
  • 17. Great Depression
    • Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939
    • 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act
    • Required all citizens to register address
    • annually.
    • Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act.
  • 18. Pet-Door Era
    • 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps.
    • 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld “military necessity”
    • 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones
    • 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier.
  • 19. Revolving-Door Era
    • Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965
    • Replaced quota system with preference system
    • Immigration in the following decade was up 60%
    • Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees
  • 20. Revolving-Door Era
    • 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship
    • 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally
    • 5.4 million immigrants entered
    • 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy
    • Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door.
  • 21. Revolving-Door Era
    • 1980 Refugee Act
    • 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
    • Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT)
    • Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP
    • 1993 - NAFTA
  • 22. Revolving-Door Era
    • California passed Proposition 187
    • Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden
    • LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional
    • 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)
  • 23. Storm-Door Era
    • Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks
    • 2001 – USA Patriot Act
    • 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security
    • 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act
  • 24. Current Immigration Issues
    • Assimilation
    • Economics
    • Bilingualism
    • Multiculturalism
    • National Security
  • 25. Assimilation
    • 1 st step – Naturalization process
    • Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture
    • Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country
  • 26. Assimilation
    • Assimilate by acquiring skills
    • Naturalization – more job opportunities
    • Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating
    • Age is greatest distinguishing factor
  • 27. Economics
    • Pros:
    • more workers create more wealth
    • provide basis for S. Security and Medicare
    • most still pay income and property taxes
    • benefit from brain-drain of other nations
  • 28. Economics
    • Cons:
    • Immigrant wages are decreasing
    • Create a strain on taxpayers and government
    • Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr
  • 29. Bilingualism
    • Economic and Ideological detriment
    • Single language unifies incredible diversity
    • Multiple languages are inefficient
    • Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway
  • 30. Multiculturalism
    • Distinct Culture Groups
    • Organizational and Conceptual Borders
    • Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity
    • Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years
  • 31. National Security
    • Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s
    • 7,000 miles of border
    • Department of Homeland Security
    • Struggle until recently
    • Advances in transportation security
    • Creative thinking to prevent attacks
  • 32. Summary and Review
    • Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door
    • Immigration: history of legislation
    • Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security

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