Immigration era


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Immigration era

  1. 1. U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Mr. Johnny Rodriguez
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras: </li></ul><ul><li>Open-Door </li></ul><ul><li>Door-Ajar </li></ul><ul><li>Pet-Door </li></ul><ul><li>Revolving-Door </li></ul><ul><li>Storm-Door </li></ul><ul><li>Including Important Legislation and Court Cases </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Following Historical Breakdown: </li></ul><ul><li>Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal. </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>National Security </li></ul>
  4. 4. Open-Door Era <ul><li>Founding of the United States until 1880. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Old-Wave” Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power “To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Open-Door Era <ul><li>Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act. </li></ul><ul><li>Two-year residency requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years </li></ul><ul><li>Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813 </li></ul><ul><li>1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship </li></ul>
  6. 6. Open-Door Era <ul><li>1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875 </li></ul><ul><li>First- Predominantly Irish and German </li></ul><ul><li>Second – Included British and </li></ul><ul><li>Scandinavian </li></ul>
  7. 7. Open-Door Era <ul><li>1862 – Homestead Act </li></ul><ul><li>1868 – Ratification of the 14 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent </li></ul><ul><li>1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born </li></ul><ul><li>Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native-born </li></ul>
  8. 8. Door-Ajar Era <ul><li>Began in 1880 and lasted 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of 1 million per year continued </li></ul><ul><li>Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Door-Ajar Era <ul><li>1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually stopped Chinese immigration </li></ul><ul><li>ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
  11. 11. Door-Ajar Era <ul><li>1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others. </li></ul><ul><li>1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return. </li></ul><ul><li>1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Door-Ajar Era <ul><li>1892 – Ellis Island </li></ul><ul><li>1894 – Bureau of Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States: </li></ul><ul><li>Native born are eligible for nat. </li></ul><ul><li>even if parents are not. </li></ul><ul><li>1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pet-Door Era <ul><li>The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Era of restrictive legislation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts <ul><li>1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census. </li></ul><ul><li>only 4 million entered from 1920-1930 </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Barred most Asians – “aliens ineligible for citizenship” </li></ul><ul><li>1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 150,000 admitted. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Decrease in Immigration
  16. 16. Pet-Door Era <ul><li>1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien. </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol </li></ul>
  17. 17. Great Depression <ul><li>Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act </li></ul><ul><li>Required all citizens to register address </li></ul><ul><li>annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pet-Door Era <ul><li>1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps. </li></ul><ul><li>1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld “military necessity” </li></ul><ul><li>1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones </li></ul><ul><li>1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Revolving-Door Era <ul><li>Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced quota system with preference system </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration in the following decade was up 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees </li></ul>
  20. 20. Revolving-Door Era <ul><li>1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally </li></ul><ul><li>5.4 million immigrants entered </li></ul><ul><li>1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Revolving-Door Era <ul><li>1980 Refugee Act </li></ul><ul><li>1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT) </li></ul><ul><li>Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP </li></ul><ul><li>1993 - NAFTA </li></ul>
  22. 22. Revolving-Door Era <ul><li>California passed Proposition 187 </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden </li></ul><ul><li>LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Storm-Door Era <ul><li>Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks </li></ul><ul><li>2001 – USA Patriot Act </li></ul><ul><li>2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security </li></ul><ul><li>2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act </li></ul>
  24. 24. Current Immigration Issues <ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>National Security </li></ul>
  25. 25. Assimilation <ul><li>1 st step – Naturalization process </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country </li></ul>
  26. 26. Assimilation <ul><li>Assimilate by acquiring skills </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization – more job opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating </li></ul><ul><li>Age is greatest distinguishing factor </li></ul>
  27. 27. Economics <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><li>more workers create more wealth </li></ul><ul><li>provide basis for S. Security and Medicare </li></ul><ul><li>most still pay income and property taxes </li></ul><ul><li>benefit from brain-drain of other nations </li></ul>
  28. 28. Economics <ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant wages are decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>Create a strain on taxpayers and government </li></ul><ul><li>Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bilingualism <ul><li>Economic and Ideological detriment </li></ul><ul><li>Single language unifies incredible diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple languages are inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway </li></ul>
  30. 30. Multiculturalism <ul><li>Distinct Culture Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational and Conceptual Borders </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity </li></ul><ul><li>Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years </li></ul>
  31. 31. National Security <ul><li>Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 miles of border </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle until recently </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in transportation security </li></ul><ul><li>Creative thinking to prevent attacks </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary and Review <ul><li>Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration: history of legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security </li></ul>
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