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  • 1. U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Mr. Johnny Rodriguez
  • 2. Overview
    • Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras:
    • Open-Door
    • Door-Ajar
    • Pet-Door
    • Revolving-Door
    • Storm-Door
    • Including Important Legislation and Court Cases
  • 3. Overview
    • Following Historical Breakdown:
    • Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal.
    • Assimilation
    • Economics
    • Bilingualism
    • Multiculturalism
    • National Security
  • 4. Open-Door Era
    • Founding of the United States until 1880.
    • Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged.
    • “ Old-Wave” Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe.
    • 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power “To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization”
  • 5. Open-Door Era
    • Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act.
    • Two-year residency requirement
    • Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years
    • Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813
    • 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship
  • 6. Open-Door Era
    • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico
    • Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875
    • First- Predominantly Irish and German
    • Second – Included British and
    • Scandinavian
  • 7. Open-Door Era
    • 1862 – Homestead Act
    • 1868 – Ratification of the 14 th Amendment
    • 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent
    • 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born
    • Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native-born
  • 8. Door-Ajar Era
    • Began in 1880 and lasted 1920
    • Rate of 1 million per year continued
    • Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe
    • Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude.
  • 9. Door-Ajar Era
    • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality.
    • Virtually stopped Chinese immigration
    • ten years.
    • Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904
  • 10. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
  • 11. Door-Ajar Era
    • 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others.
    • 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return.
    • 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act.
  • 12. Door-Ajar Era
    • 1892 – Ellis Island
    • 1894 – Bureau of Immigration
    • 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States:
    • Native born are eligible for nat.
    • even if parents are not.
    • 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s
  • 13. Pet-Door Era
    • The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965
    • Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929
    • Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe.
    • Era of restrictive legislation
  • 14. Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts
    • 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census.
    • only 4 million entered from 1920-1930
    • 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census.
    • Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe
    • Barred most Asians – “aliens ineligible for citizenship”
    • 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census.
    • Only 150,000 admitted.
  • 15. Decrease in Immigration
  • 16. Pet-Door Era
    • 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien.
    • Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol
  • 17. Great Depression
    • Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939
    • 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act
    • Required all citizens to register address
    • annually.
    • Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act.
  • 18. Pet-Door Era
    • 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps.
    • 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld “military necessity”
    • 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones
    • 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier.
  • 19. Revolving-Door Era
    • Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965
    • Replaced quota system with preference system
    • Immigration in the following decade was up 60%
    • Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees
  • 20. Revolving-Door Era
    • 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship
    • 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally
    • 5.4 million immigrants entered
    • 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy
    • Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door.
  • 21. Revolving-Door Era
    • 1980 Refugee Act
    • 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
    • Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT)
    • Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP
    • 1993 - NAFTA
  • 22. Revolving-Door Era
    • California passed Proposition 187
    • Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden
    • LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional
    • 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)
  • 23. Storm-Door Era
    • Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks
    • 2001 – USA Patriot Act
    • 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security
    • 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act
  • 24. Current Immigration Issues
    • Assimilation
    • Economics
    • Bilingualism
    • Multiculturalism
    • National Security
  • 25. Assimilation
    • 1 st step – Naturalization process
    • Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture
    • Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country
  • 26. Assimilation
    • Assimilate by acquiring skills
    • Naturalization – more job opportunities
    • Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating
    • Age is greatest distinguishing factor
  • 27. Economics
    • Pros:
    • more workers create more wealth
    • provide basis for S. Security and Medicare
    • most still pay income and property taxes
    • benefit from brain-drain of other nations
  • 28. Economics
    • Cons:
    • Immigrant wages are decreasing
    • Create a strain on taxpayers and government
    • Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr
  • 29. Bilingualism
    • Economic and Ideological detriment
    • Single language unifies incredible diversity
    • Multiple languages are inefficient
    • Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway
  • 30. Multiculturalism
    • Distinct Culture Groups
    • Organizational and Conceptual Borders
    • Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity
    • Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years
  • 31. National Security
    • Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s
    • 7,000 miles of border
    • Department of Homeland Security
    • Struggle until recently
    • Advances in transportation security
    • Creative thinking to prevent attacks
  • 32. Summary and Review
    • Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door
    • Immigration: history of legislation
    • Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security