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Immigration era
 

Immigration era

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    Immigration era Immigration era Presentation Transcript

    • U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Mr. Johnny Rodriguez
    • Overview
      • Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras:
      • Open-Door
      • Door-Ajar
      • Pet-Door
      • Revolving-Door
      • Storm-Door
      • Including Important Legislation and Court Cases
    • Overview
      • Following Historical Breakdown:
      • Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal.
      • Assimilation
      • Economics
      • Bilingualism
      • Multiculturalism
      • National Security
    • Open-Door Era
      • Founding of the United States until 1880.
      • Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged.
      • “ Old-Wave” Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe.
      • 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power “To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization”
    • Open-Door Era
      • Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act.
      • Two-year residency requirement
      • Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years
      • Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813
      • 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship
    • Open-Door Era
      • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico
      • Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875
      • First- Predominantly Irish and German
      • Second – Included British and
      • Scandinavian
    • Open-Door Era
      • 1862 – Homestead Act
      • 1868 – Ratification of the 14 th Amendment
      • 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent
      • 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born
      • Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native-born
    • Door-Ajar Era
      • Began in 1880 and lasted 1920
      • Rate of 1 million per year continued
      • Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe
      • Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude.
    • Door-Ajar Era
      • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality.
      • Virtually stopped Chinese immigration
      • ten years.
      • Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904
    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
    • Door-Ajar Era
      • 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others.
      • 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return.
      • 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act.
    • Door-Ajar Era
      • 1892 – Ellis Island
      • 1894 – Bureau of Immigration
      • 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States:
      • Native born are eligible for nat.
      • even if parents are not.
      • 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s
    • Pet-Door Era
      • The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965
      • Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929
      • Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe.
      • Era of restrictive legislation
    • Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts
      • 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census.
      • only 4 million entered from 1920-1930
      • 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census.
      • Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe
      • Barred most Asians – “aliens ineligible for citizenship”
      • 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census.
      • Only 150,000 admitted.
    • Decrease in Immigration
    • Pet-Door Era
      • 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien.
      • Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol
    • Great Depression
      • Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939
      • 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act
      • Required all citizens to register address
      • annually.
      • Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act.
    • Pet-Door Era
      • 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps.
      • 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld “military necessity”
      • 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones
      • 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier.
    • Revolving-Door Era
      • Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965
      • Replaced quota system with preference system
      • Immigration in the following decade was up 60%
      • Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees
    • Revolving-Door Era
      • 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship
      • 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally
      • 5.4 million immigrants entered
      • 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy
      • Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door.
    • Revolving-Door Era
      • 1980 Refugee Act
      • 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
      • Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT)
      • Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP
      • 1993 - NAFTA
    • Revolving-Door Era
      • California passed Proposition 187
      • Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden
      • LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional
      • 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)
    • Storm-Door Era
      • Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks
      • 2001 – USA Patriot Act
      • 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security
      • 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act
    • Current Immigration Issues
      • Assimilation
      • Economics
      • Bilingualism
      • Multiculturalism
      • National Security
    • Assimilation
      • 1 st step – Naturalization process
      • Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture
      • Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country
    • Assimilation
      • Assimilate by acquiring skills
      • Naturalization – more job opportunities
      • Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating
      • Age is greatest distinguishing factor
    • Economics
      • Pros:
      • more workers create more wealth
      • provide basis for S. Security and Medicare
      • most still pay income and property taxes
      • benefit from brain-drain of other nations
    • Economics
      • Cons:
      • Immigrant wages are decreasing
      • Create a strain on taxpayers and government
      • Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr
    • Bilingualism
      • Economic and Ideological detriment
      • Single language unifies incredible diversity
      • Multiple languages are inefficient
      • Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway
    • Multiculturalism
      • Distinct Culture Groups
      • Organizational and Conceptual Borders
      • Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity
      • Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years
    • National Security
      • Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s
      • 7,000 miles of border
      • Department of Homeland Security
      • Struggle until recently
      • Advances in transportation security
      • Creative thinking to prevent attacks
    • Summary and Review
      • Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door
      • Immigration: history of legislation
      • Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security