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Ecotourism and sustainable development in kenya paper final Ecotourism and sustainable development in kenya paper final Document Transcript

  • Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Kenya By Robertson Ndegwa Ngunyi 罗伯特 Paper submitted for Ecotourism Final Exam to Sun Yat Sen University, Doctorate in Tourism Management School of Business, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management Professor Liu Yan December, 2009 Keywords: Protected areas, Sustainability, Community Based Tourism, Maasai, Safari 1
  • Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Kenya Robertson Ndegwa Ngunyi Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide abridgment of the current state of affairs in Kenya, critically examine the impacts and the challenges of ecotourism; investigate the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development and suggest ways to improve Ecotourism in Kenya. What are the main challenges of Ecotourism? What are the feasible benefits that can ecotourism bring? Lastly is Ecotourism in Kenya sustainable? The paper also attempts to discuss the Kenya’s SWOT analysis as an Ecotourism destination, the protected areas including national parks and reserves, and some of the organisations promoting ecotourism in Kenya. To further explain this, the paper has used an Eco rating of lodges in Kenya by Ecotourism Kenya and given a case study of an Eco rate lodge. The writer has also discussed the implications and way forward for sustainable tourism in Kenya. 2
  • Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction 4 2. Ecotourism and sustainable Development 4 2.1. Meaning of ecotourism 4 2.2. Principles of Ecotourism 7 2.3. Sustainable tourism development 8 3. The growth of Ecotourism in Kenya 10 3.1. History of ecotourism in Kenya 10 3.2. Growth of Ecotourism in Kenya 11 3.3. Tourism trends in Kenya 14 3.4. Institution structure of Tourism in Kenya 16 3.5. Ecotourism and related organisations 17 4. Protected areas 18 4.1 Proportion of wildlife in protected areas 21 5. Impacts and challenges 22 5.1. Economic 22 5.2. Sociocultural 23 5.3. Environmental 24 5.4. Political 25 5.5. Kenya SWOT Analysis 26 6. Eco-Rating of Lodges in Kenya 28 6.1 Case Study of Eco rated Base Camp Lodge 29 6.2 Eco rated lodges in Kenya 31 7. Conclusion and discussions 33 References 36 Appendix 1 38 Appendix 2 45 3
  • 1.0 Introduction Over time, an increasing number of destinations have opened up and invested in tourism development, turning modern tourism into a key driver for socio-economic progress, through the creation of jobs and enterprises, infrastructure development, and the export income earned (UNWTO 2009). Tourism has become one of the major international trade categories. The overall export income generated by international tourism including passengers transport reached US$ 1.1 trillion in 2008, or US$ 3 billion a day (UNWTO 2009). Tourism exports account for as much as 30% of the world’s exports of commercial services and 6% of overall exports of goods and services. Globally, as an export category, tourism ranks fourth after fuels, chemicals and automotive products. For many developing countries it is one of the main income sources and the number one export category, creating much needed employment and opportunities for development (UNWTO 2009). Ecotourism and sustainable tourism development has become the catch word today 2.0 Ecotourism and sustainable Development 2.1 Meaning of ecotourism Although the origins of the concept of ecotourism are not certain, one of the first sources to have contributed to the discourse appears to be Hetzer (1965), who identified four pillars or principles of responsible tourism. These four pillars are minimizing environmental impacts, respecting the host cultures, maximizing benefits to local people, and maximizing tourist satisfaction (Blamey, 2001). Ecotourism holidays demand was boosted by concrete evidence that consumers had shifted away from mass tourism towards experiences that were more individualistic and enriching. In addition, these experiences were claimed to be associated with a general search for the natural component during holidays ( Kusler, 1991a,b; Hvenegaard,1994, Dowling, 1996). Currently there is no clear-cut consensus on the definition of ecotourism. The meaning and use of the term are plagued by disagreements, confusion, and propaganda (Weaver, 1999).The term ecotourism merged in the late 1980s as a direct 4
  • result of the world’s acknowledgement and reaction to sustainable practices and global ecological practice (D. Dianatis, 1999). Ecotourism was first defined as “travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as existing cultural manifestation (both past and present) found in these areas. ( Ceballos- Lascurain, 1987:14;1991a,b).” Ecotourism definition by Ecotourism in Australia “Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation (Ecotourism Australia, 2003)”. International Ecotourism Society (2004) “Responsible travel to natural areas that conserve the environmental and sustain the well-being of local people”. Irrespective of unique perspectives and different definitions, there is considerable consensus that ecotourism must be beneficial to local communities and have a positive effect on protecting the environment (Buchsbaum, 2004). As the term ecotourism has evolved, definitions have become more precise, with stronger ties to principles of sustainable development (Blamey, 2001). Ecotourism’s perceived potential as an effective tool for sustainable development is the main reason why developing countries are now embracing it and including it in their economic development and conservation strategies (Stem et al, 2003). Figure 1 shows the relationship between Tourism, sustainable tourism development, nature tourism, adventure tourism and ecotourism. Ecotourism here has been viewed as a being the core of tourism with adventure tourism cutting across the different sectors of tourism. Ecotourism is viewed as nature based tourism, sustainable and also embracing adventure tourism. This model can be applied in many facet to show the interrelations between the different sectors of the tourism industry locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. 5
  • Figure 1. Relationship between Tourism, sustainable tourism development, adventure tourism and ecotourism. Sustainable Tourism Development Tourism Nature Tourism Ecotourism Adventure tourism Source: Ecotourism Australia Recent studies have argued that ecotourism should embrace more diverse field and be holistic in approach. Ecotourism should satisfy three core criteria i.e. (1) attractions should be predominantly nature based, (2) visitors interactions with those attractions should be focused on learning or education, and (3) experience and product management should follow principles and practices associated with ecological, socio- cultural and economic sustainability, Blamey, 1997, 2001). Holland, Ditton and Graefe (1998) and Zwirn, Pinsky and Rahr (2005) argue for potential of inclusion of recreation angling as form of ecotourism. Novelli, Barnes and Humavindu argue that trophy hunting should also be included into ecotourism. Ryan and Saward (2004) in regard to captive aspect of ecotourism argue that zoos redesigned to mimic non- captive habitat could too qualify as ecotourism. There is more debate on inclusion of more cultural element in ecotourism and more recently inclusion of indigenous ecotourism wherein its argued that centuries of co-existence between indigenous people and their surrounding have profound blurred the boundaries between the natural environment and culture ( Hinch, 1998, 2001; Nepal, 2004; Zeppel, 2006). There has also been debate on inclusion of whale watching (Curtin, 2003; Hoyt& 6
  • Hvenegaard, 2002, Orams, 2002, 2005; Parsons, Lewardowski, & Luck, 2005) and Antarctic tourist (Cloesen, 2003; Mason& Legg, 1999,; Stonehouse, 2001, Stewart Kirby & Steel, 2006) inclusion of Bat-based ecotourism ( Pennisi, Holland, and Stein (2004). Ecotourism exist in both ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ dimension ( Laarman and Durst (1987). Other concepts include the mass ecotourism concept by Weaver (2001b, 2005b) and Kontogeorgopoulos (2004a). Therefore, the definition of ecotourism can be further elucidated by understanding the principles of ecotourism. 2.2 Key Principles of Ecotourism Table 1. Principles of Ecotourism Principle Details 1. Ecotourism Policy Performance and Ecotourism operators make public Framework commitment to uphold the principles of ecotourism and put and in place management systems to ensure their performance 2. Natural Area Focus Ecotourism require a direct personal experience of nature 3. Interpretation and Education Ecotourism provides opportunities to experience nature and culture in ways that lead to greater understanding, appreciation and enjoyment. Ecotourism products provide visitors with the opportunity to receive quality interpretive services. 4.Ecologically Compatible Infrastructure Ecotourism operations are developed appropriately on the basis of ecological sustainability and understanding of the potential impacts 5. Ecologically Sustainable Practice The product employs ecologically sustainable practices in its operations management to ensure that its activities do not degrade the environment 6. Contributing To Conservation Ecotourism shall provide tangible contribution to conservation 7. Ecotourism Benefiting Local Ecotourism shall provide ongoing Communities contributions to the local communities 8. Cultural Respect and Sensitivity An ecotourism product in both its development and operation phases must be respectful of, and sensitive to, local cultures. To ensure cultural values are treated appropriately, there is a need to consult with local people so that their legitimate aspirations are met and to allow presentation of authentic cultural values. 9. Customer Satisfaction Ecotourism products meet or exceed customer’s expectations. 10. Responsible Marketing Ecotourism products meet or exceed 7
  • customer’s expectations. 11. Minimal Impact Codes of Practice Ecotourism products have minimal impacts on the natural, social and cultural environment, and are undertaken in accordance with a defined code of practice Source: Ecotourism Australia Ecotourism should follow the above principles so as to be sustainable in a given tourist destination. 2.3 Sustainable Tourism Development The concept of sustainability has its origins in the environmentalism that grew to prominence in the 1970s. The explicit idea of sustainable development was first highlighted by the International Union Today sustainable development has become an international catch word and its import for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN,1980) in its World Conservation Strategy. The importance of the sustainable development in the global development cannot be overemphasized. The official use of the term “sustainable development” can be traced in 1987 when it received an international recognition. In, 1987, the Bruntland Commission defined sustainable development as; “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs” (Our Common Future, 1987, p.43) The concept has gained more popularity and has evolved much more than its original definition. Internationally, it’s viewed in terms of multifaceted angle including social, economic, and environmental aspects of development. Despite the criticisms aimed at sustainable development, its principles are still very useful as tool for planning and policy-making (Sirakaya, Jamal, and Choi, 2001). A sustainable development triangle in Figure 2 exemplifies this concept as a balance between the economy, the environment, and the society. All sides are interdependent and must co-exist to promote a successful long-term development 8
  • Figure 2 showing Sustainable Triangle (World Conservation Union, 2003) HEALTH OF SOCIETY ECONOMY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE SUSTAINABLE THE ENVIRONMENT An interesting thing is that most cited document on sustainable development, Our Common Future, does not mention tourism at all (Wall, 1997, Wearing, 2001). In tourism, there are multitude of definitions for sustainability and sustainable development (Butler, 1999b; Page & Downling, 2002). The World Tourism Organisation (WTO, 2001) defined sustainable tourism development as; Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of the present tourists and the host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. Sustainability, sustainable tourism and sustainable development are all well- established terms that have been used loosely and often interchangeably in literature. To get a unambiguous view of sustainable tourism, its imperative to understand the guiding principles of sustainable tourism put forward (Blamey, 2001). 9
  • Table 2. Principles of Sustainable Tourism (Blamey, 2001) 1. Using resources The conservation and sustainable use of resources natural, sustainably social, cultural, is crucial and makes long-term business sense 2. Reducing over Reduction of over-consumption and waste avoids the costs consumption and of restoring long-term environmental damage and waste contributes to the quality of tourism 3. Maintaining Maintaining and promoting natural, social, and cultural Biodiversity diversity is essential for long-term sustainable tourism, and creates a resilient base for the industry 4.Integrating tourism Tourism development which is integrated into a national and into planning local strategic planning framework and which undertakes environmental impact assessments, increase the long-term viability of tourism 5.Supporting local Tourism that supports a wide range of local economic economies activities and which takes environmental costs and values into account, both protects these economies and avoids environmental damage 6. Involving local The full involvement of local communities in the tourism communities sector not only benefits them and the environment but also improves the quality of the tourism project 7. Consulting Consultation between the tourism industry and local stakeholders and the communities organizations and institutions is essential if public they are to work alongside each other and resolve potential conflicts of interest 8. Training Staff Staff training which integrates sustainable tourism into work practices, along with recruitment of personnel at all levels, improves the quality of the tourism product 9.Marketing tourism 9. Marketing that provides tourists with full and responsible responsibly information increases respect for the natural, social and cultural environments of destination areas and enhances customer satisfaction 10. Undertaking Ongoing research and monitoring by the industry using research effective data collection and analysis is essential to help solve problems and bring benefits to destinations, the industry and consumers 3.0 The growth of Ecotourism in Kenya 3.1 History of ecotourism in Kenya Africa has been at the forefront of evolution from nature- based tourism to ecotourism. In the 1980’s, government facing dire prospects such as rhino extinction recognized the fragility of the continent’s wildernesses and moved people like Kenya’s Maasai off their lands to create national parks. This heightened the conflict over land between people and wildlife. The new National Parks were ringed by resentful communities. Unable to graze their herds alongside the wildlife, as they had done for centuries, they turned to poaching and illicit hunting for the pot. Thus, it was important to bridge the gap between the communities and the wildlife or ecotourism ventures. It’s only in 10
  • recent years that tourists and operators have ascribed a different role to local communities in tourism, one based on both their right to benefit from tourism and the priceless value for travellers of interactions with people and cultures. This has been secret in enabling eco-tourism to help reconcile people and wildlife in their competing claims for land. Having said this, the real history behind ecotourism is rooted in Africa when people could go on eco-adventure tours based on hunting the local wildlife. For a fee, a person could go on an interactive hunting safari where tourists were allowed or rather, without being punished for, hunting elephants for ivory (and sport) in addition to a wide array of other species like leopards, black rhinos and lions. These species could not withstand thinning populations’ overtime. In the 1970s it became clear that if these animal populations were not protected and poaching not put to a stop, certain animals would surely become extinct. This realization and the subsequent transformation in how Safaris and hunting trips were conducted in Eastern Africa was a huge landmark in the history of how ecotourism came to be. That, and by making poaching and hunting ivory illegal, was a huge step for environmentalists and animal activists. By trying to protect those animals and the environment from the unnecessary pressure tourists were bringing to the area, a large number of the ideals within ecotourism were born. While environmentalists all over the world were aware that this type of reckless hunting and tourism was having a negative effect on ecosystems and animal populations, making the hunting of certain species illegal and the mindful effort to rebuild populations through laws and government policies was an integral step. 3.2 Growth of Ecotourism & sustainable tourism in Kenya The history of tourism in Kenya dates back to pre-independence days. It can be traced way back in 1898 when the earliest legislation on wildlife establishing game reserves was enacted and published in the Gazette for the east African protective of 1898.Other ordinances followed are the east Africa Bird protection ordinances of 1903. In 1907, Game department was established to manage wildlife and hunting throughout the protectorate the area that teemed with wildlife had already started attracting a considerable number of professional and not so professional hunters. This marked the beginning of tourism activities in Kenya. By 1930’S overseas visitors had started coming to Kenya on big-game hunting expeditions as 11
  • well as in search of relaxation and solitude. These expeditions were famously referred to in Local Swahili word as Safari, which later became a buzzword in travel and tourism literature worldwide. As early as 1957, available statistics indicate that Kenya had welcomed 38,000 visitors rising to 42,000 in 1961.In 1967, Kenya played host to a total of 127,667 visitors bringing in K$ 12.5 Million (Ksh 250 million, that reflected an annual growth rate of 20% since 1961) Figure 3. International Arrivals Trend in Kenya 120,000 100,000 2002 80,000 2003 2004 60,000 2005 40,000 2006 2007 20,000 0 ct ov l ug n ec b ay n pt ar pr Ju Ja Fe Ju O M Se A N D M A i. 2003 – 2004: TMRP (Sept 03-Mar 04) spurred the recovery phase of arrivals numbers. ii. 2004 – 2005: Marketing programmes sustained through FAMs & marketing partnerships. iii. 2005 – present: 100% of Kenya’s destination marketing carried out with only GoK funding. iv. 2005 – 2006: Recovery achieved; realigned focus to increasing yield alongside arrivals growth maintenance. v. 2006 – 2007: Inadequate funding: Leveraged industry contacts, MDR relationships for “discounted” marketing. The curve differential indicates that sustained marketing activities were more effective than TMRP.Figure 3 shows the international tourist arrivals in Kenya from year 2002 to 2007 and also monthly fluctuations of the tourists. 80% of tourism in the country is nature based or ecotourism. Source: Kenya Tourist Board 2007 12
  • Figure 4. Tourist Arrivals and percentage share growth Other 23% UK 34% E. Europe 1% China Netherlands 3% 1% Spain 1% Australia South Africa 3% 4% Canada USA 5% Nordic 16% 3% India Germany France Italy 1% 1% 1% 3% i. Of the 91,703 incremental arrivals by September 2007, the share is split as above. ii. The danger of an over-reliance on the UK and the USA is clear! iii. Coincidentally, UK & USA were the only markets with substantive mktg. budgets. iv. However Australia, South Africa, China, Canada and Nordic show potential, despite their low bases. The above figure shows international tourist arrivals by source market to Kenya, United Kingdom leads as a generating market with 34%, USA 16%, China3% among others. Source: Kenya Tourist Board 2007 13
  • 3.3 Tourism Trends in Kenya Tourism in Kenya has been on upward trend making the tourism industry the leading foreign exchange earner in the economy. In year 2006, the tourism sector maintained an upward growth despite many challenges facing the global economy. The consolidated tourism earnings rose from Ksh 48.9 billion in 2005 to 56.2 billion in 2006 reflecting an increase of 14.9% International tourist arrivals grew by 8.2% form 1,479,000 in 2005 to 1,600,600 in 2006. The number of hotels bed-nights occupied recorded a remarkable growth of 32.3% from 4,476, 600 in 2005 to 5,922,100 in 2006.Bed availability grew by 19.9% form 10,845,600 in 2005 to 13,003,500 in 2006. The number of tourists who visited Parks and Reserves grew by 10.8%, from 2,132,900 in 2005 to 2,363,700 in 2006(UNWTO, 2007. Declaration of Maasai Mara as one of the Seven Wonders of the World by an American Travel magazine in November 2006 boasted the number of tourist arrivals in the country. The number of local and international conference went up by 36.5% and 12.4% respectively in year 2006 due to increased sensitization programmes, seminars, meetings, conferences, congresses and policy & Strategies launches. The growth can also be attributed to growing positive perception towards Kenya as preferred tourist destination. The number of holiday makers stood at 1,087,500, business travellers 226,200, transit travellers 137,200 and others at 149,800 in year 2006. The number of days spent by visitors on holidays increased from 13.4million in 2005 to 14.2million in 2006, representing 6% growth. The number of visitors on business increased by 11% while on transit doubled. Overall, the visitors length of stay expanded by 7.5% form 16million to 17.2 %.(GoK, 2007) Tourism was exclusively centred on three geographical areas namely coastal area for beach tourism, Nairobi for business or conferences and Maasailand for game viewing and Safaris. The Kenyan coast recorded 54.5 % of the total bed-nights in 2006 from 50.8% in 2005. (GoK, 2007) Kenya is one of the global leaders in community-based ecotourism, working with the many local tribes to develop innovative ways to protect the environment and local culture. A leader in innovative eco-lodges, Kenya has won many international eco- lodge awards. Il N’gwesi and Tortillis Camp both won the British Airways Tourism for Tomorrow award in recent years. Ol Donyo Wuas has also been a finalist for the 14
  • same award. Kenya is ahead of the ecotourism pack in other areas as well, planning to be Africa’s first country to develop and use international criteria to rate eco-lodges and tour operators. Started in October 1999 by Dr. David Western and Neel Inamdar, Ecotourism Society of Kenya (ESOK) has completed the 'eco-ratings', giving Kenya’s tourists an opportunity to choose a 3 star or a 4 star eco-lodge, based on internationally accepted criteria. These criteria also provide Kenya’s eco-lodges and tour operators the tools they need to compete in the global market as one of the world’ top ecotourism destinations. Kenya also received an international ecotourism coup when The International Ecotourism Society (TIES), representing an international membership network that includes tour operators, academics, and government officials in 110 countries, recognised East Africa’s reputation for strong ecotourism practices and chose Nairobi as the venue for the International Year of Ecotourism (IYE) Africa ecotourism conference. The United Nations declared 2002 as the International Year of Ecotourism (IYE), providing a forum for the world to understand the synergy between conservation, cultural awareness and community benefits through tourism. In Kenya, the environment and tourism have always been inextricably linked, and this is a truly symbiotic relationship. Wildlife in particular has always served as one of Kenya major tourist draw cards, and the resultant revenue has played a major role in the great priority placed on wildlife preservation in Kenya. This is not just for the benefit of foreign visitors- Eco-tourism means more than just preserving wildlife for visitors; it also means protecting the world and its resources for the future benefit of Kenya. Kenya’s dedication to eco-values sets it apart from many other African destinations. Community based tourism and ecotourism is a growing sector, globally. It currently accounts for 5% of the global tourism market and is growing at a rate of 20-30% annually (WTO, 2008). Increasing numbers of tourists want to interact with local communities and they want to stay in places that positively impact on both the environment and the local population. Throughout Kenya there is growing awareness of the benefits of community based tourism projects. Communities that have allowed access to their land have seen their lifestyles improved through increased revenue through wages, land leases and development funds. Many projects have built boreholes, schools and clinics for the local community. There are a growing number 15
  • of community tourism projects in Kenya, ranging from Il Ngwesi and Tassia in the Laikipia area, Sarara in Namunyak, Shompole in the Magadi region and Losikitok in Amboseli. (ESOK, 2008). The projects range in scale from complete community management to a partnership with an investor or trust who provides the capital to build the guest accommodation and related tourist facilities. The community provides the use of the land, through a lease and helps to ensure the protection of the local wildlife. Community members are often employed and trained in the tourism projects and benefit from wages, community development funds and involvement in spin off enterprises. In Kenya, the community based tourism concept is just taking root and there is a need to harness this product and direct it towards the market in a more cohesive and systematic manner. 3.4 Institution structure of Tourism in Kenya Figure 5. Organisation structure of Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife in Kenya Minister for Tourism Assistant Ministers Personal Secretary Administration Department of Parastatals Department Tourism •Kenya Tourism •Administration Development Corporation •Licensing •Kenya Tourist Board •Public Relations •Product & Market •CPU •Kenya Utalii College Development •Catering Training and •Personnel •Research Desk Development Levy Trustee •Accounts •Wildlife Desk •Kenyatta International •Finance Conferences Centre •Procurement •Kenya Wildlife Services •Tourism Trust Fund •Bomas of Kenya 16 Adopted: Ministry of Tourism in Kenya
  • 3.5 Ecotourism related organisations in Kenya 3.5.1 National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) was established under the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) No. 8 of 1999, as the principal instrument of government in the implementation of all policies relating to the environment. Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999 The enactment of EMCA, 1999 was a milestone in promoting sustainable environmental management in the country. The Act provides for the harmonization of about 77 sectoral statutes, which address aspects of the environment. Some sectoral statutes have inadequate provisions for prosecution of environmental offenders, while in some penalties are not sufficiently punitive to deter offenders. EMCA, 1999 provides an institutional framework and procedures for management of the environment, including provisions for conflict resolution. environment, including provisions for conflict resolution. Section 3 of EMCA, 1999 states that “Every person in Kenya is entitled to a clean and healthy environment and has the duty to safeguard and enhance the environment.” The Act is intended to ensure that our activities do not compromise the capacity of the resource base to meet the needs of the present generation as well as those of future generations (WCED, 1987) 3.5.2 Ecotourism Kenya Ecotourism Kenya is a civil society organization that was founded in 1996 to promote ecotourism and sustainable tourism practices in Kenya. Founded with enormous industry support, the society was charged with the responsibility of providing the required support for the development of ecotourism and sustainable tourism in the country. Today, the society continues to pursue the vision of making Kenya’s tourism sustainable, in terms of concern for the environment and the welfare of local populations. As a membership organization, Ecotourism Kenya brings together individuals, community based organizations (CBOs) and corporate organizations in a forum where they can discuss the concept of ecotourism and use this knowledge to improve practices in their respective fields. 17
  • 3.5.3 Wildlife Clubs of Kenya (WCK) Wildlife Clubs of Kenya (WCK) is a charitable, non-governmental organisation formed in 1968 by Kenyan students. It was the first conservation education programme of its kind on the continent of Africa. According to Dr. George Schaller: ”WCK is the most effective grass-roots programme of its kind in all of Africa.” WCK was elected to the UNEP’s Global 500 Honour Roll in 1986. WCK is run by a 20-member council of Civil Servants, members of NGOs private citizens and teachers. A national secretariat handles daily activities with the advice of an executive committee of specialists in conservation education, business and public administration. The National secretariat co-ordinates WCK’s numerous activities, sends out mobile field units and education and education officers to schools, runs training workshops, organises rallies and prepares club publications. Through Africa wide workshops, WCK has stimulated a continental wildlife clubs movement. It has also helped spawn clubs in Asia, Latin America and elsewhere in the third world. WCK is now actively lobbying for conservation action. This has helped to bring about a hunting and wildlife trophy ban in Kenya; increased tree planting and soil erosion control activities; and vigorous conservation of natural resources. After more than quarter century of service, WCK proudly looks back on one fundamental achievement. It has helped educate over 1,000,000 young Kenyans and placed many of them in positions of influence. The clubs’ intention now is to ensure that this enormous membership and awareness leads to tangible conservation successes. 4.0 Protected areas (Appendix 1) Kenya’s tourism sector thrives on the natural resources and the scenic landscape. According to the Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife, the country has 52 national parks and 28 national reserves and 3 game sanctuaries that spread from the coast to Lake Victoria in the western region. The game parks and reserves occupy about 9.5 percent of the land surface. In particular the country is famed for its wild game and beautiful scenery. It has been estimated that approximately 80 percent of the tourists who visit Kenya are primarily interested in viewing wildlife (Filion et al. 1994). Other tourist 18
  • attractions include marine parks, mountains, the rift valley and lakes. Each of these is unique and offers varied attractions. Marine parks are renowned for the coral reefs, gardens and sea animals. The beaches and lagoons offer opportunities for sunbathing, boat riding, and big game fishing. Similarly, the inland lakes offer a variety of attractions. Lake Nakuru in the rift valley is famed for flamingos; while Lake Victoria offers opportunity to see fresh water fish, unique bird species, crocodiles and hippos. Other inland water attractions are available in Lake Turkana, Bogoria and Naivasha. The Mountains are scenic and host numerous species of wild game. In themselves the mountains such as Mt Kenya and Mt Kilimanjaro offer excellent opportunities for climbing adventures, photography, trekking and camping. Besides these, the country has some of the indigenous and highly valued forests such as the Arabuko sokoke and kakamega, which are rich in wildlife, including birds and insects that are beautiful to watch. (GoK 1995a). The trend of visits to the national parks and game reserves are captured in the Table 3. Table 3. Number of visitors to National parks and game reserves (000) Park 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Nairobi 149.6 122.3 139.2 130.3 101.6 90.4 71.3 92.5 Nairobi Safari Walk - - - - 113.5 114.4 66.3 88.0 Animal orphanage 193.7 164.8 235.1 266.1 151.1 254.5 205.3 239.4 Amboseli 117.2 62.9 77.0 93.5 91.5 92.0 54.7 101.6 Tsavo West 88.6 54.9 61.0 78.6 78.7 76.3 62.6 92.7 Tsavo East 123.2 66.9 111.6 124.9 132.7 152.8 119.2 158.5 Aberdare 59.0 47.9 44.2 44.9 40.5 41.5 30.3 44.0 Lake Nakuru 132.1 111.0 189.1 193.3 209.4 229.8 193.6 257.0 Masai Mara 118.3 100.4 171.0 193.5 207.2 231.1 233.0 240.0 Hailer’s Park 86.8 77.9 96.4 92.6 87.2 87.0 99.9 101.2 Malindi Marine 27.0 13.7 23.9 35.7 26.5 29.8 22.8 27.5 Lake Bogoria 24.5 20.6 53.0 56.1 59.6 18.7 64.7 64.7 Meru 4.1 1.8 3.5 6.0 7.8 8.2 5.7 6.4 Shimba Hills 22.5 16.8 17.7 20.5 18.3 14.4 16.2 18.7 Mt. Kenya 14.8 10.2 22.7 11.5 26.3 27.9 25.5 27.7 Samburu 8.3 7.0 7.0 8.2 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.2 Kisite/Mpunguti 35.1 16.2 36.1 38.4 29.1 47.1 35.9 51.7 Watamu Marine 19.4 18.3 40.8 28.4 30.0 29.3 21.1 28.4 Hell’s Gate 47.2 57.1 72.7 74.0 73.0 60.9 75.1 38.9 Impala Sanctuary/ 62.4 65.6 77.4 90.4 96.9 117.7 69.6 63.3 Kisumu Others 15.5 13.9 19.8 20.1 17.4 11.0 30.5 30.3 TOTAL 1,364.5 1,079.4 1,533.4 1,644.4 1,650.3 1740.8 1509.3 1778.7 Source: Economic Survey 2005 19
  • Others parks include Mt.Elgon, Ol-Donyo Sabuk, Marsabit, Saiwa Swamp, Sibiloi, Ruma, Mwea, Central Island, Nasolot and Kakamega The numbers of tourist who visit the protected areas have been on increase. The Table 3. shows the number of visitors both domestic and international who entered various protected zone in Kenya varying from National parks, reserves, marine parks, sanctuaries in thousands from 1997 to 2004. The animal orphanage, Maasai Mara and Lake Nakuru National parks are the most visited protected areas in Kenya. The opening of Nairobi Safari walk has increased the number of visitors in Nairobi protected area. This is a new concept of a modern Non-captive zoo where animals’ area almost in the jungle but visitors can view them while walking on the bridge. Figure 6 Number of people visiting parks from year 1997 to 2004 1997, 1,364.50 2004, 1778.7 1998, 1,079.40 1997 2003, 1509.3 1998 1999 2000 1999, 1,533.40 2001 2002 2003 2004 2002, 1740.8 2000, 1,644.40 2001, 1,650.30 Figure 6 show the total number of people visiting some of the National Parks and Reserves in Kenya for a period ranging from 1997 to 2004. There is clear evidence that the number of people visiting the parks in Kenya has been increasing annually from 1,079,400 in 1999 to 1,778,700 in year 2004. This can be associated with more awareness and promotion of eco based tourism in Kenya 20
  • Figure 7. Map National Parks, National Reserves, Marine Parks and Marine Reserves in Kenya Source: Google Maps The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) manages the national parks, while the game reserves are under local councils. The KWS is a state corporation that is responsible for conserving the natural resources and ensuring that they commercially benefit the country. 21
  • 4.1 Proportions of wildlife according to conservation status The significance of the various categories of protected and non-protected areas to conservation can also be assessed by comparing the proportions of wildlife in each category (Table 4). Table 4. Percentages of wildlife found in areas of differing conservation status averaged for the 1990s Conservation Status Wildlife totals Percent of all wildlife National Parks 83,633 10 Maasai Mara National Reserve 214,045 25 All Nationally Protected Areas 297,678 35 Privately Protected Areas 334,263 40 Nationally and Privately Protected 631,941 75 Areas Remaining populations (non- 214,711 25 protected areas) Total National Population 846,652 100 Source: African Conservation Centre,2006 National parks account for approximately 10% of all Kenya’s wildlife and national parks and reserves for 35% of the total. Maasai Mara alone accounts for 25% of the national total, underscoring its singular importance to Kenya’s protected area system. The privately protected areas account for 40% of all wildlife, four times the figure of the national parks and more than all nationally protected areas combined. Taken together, all protected areas (national parks, national reserves and privately protected areas) account for75% of all wildlife. David Western, Samantha Russell, and Kamweti Mutu(2006) 5.0 Impacts and challenges 5.1 Economic Tourism as part of country’s economic growth strategy, has potential to contribute significantly to the socioeconomic aspirations of people living in the tourist destinations ( Alavi and Yasin, 2000). Wunder(2000) argues that economic incentives for the nature conservation are imperative, and without local communities’ cooperation, conservation programs cannot succeed. Thus, balancing the social, ecological and economic aspects of tourism is a prerequisite for sustainability. By some accounts, ecotourism has created only meagre economic benefits for communities (Kinnaird and O’Brien, 1996). Leakage of profits from local to outside 22
  • operators has been a major problem( Honey, 1999; Lindberg, 1994). Ideally ecotourism encourages natural resource conservation in return for local and national economic benefits, in addition to offering local, national and international tourists an opportunity to enjoy and learn about nature while respecting local culture (Brandon, 1996; Davenport et al., 2002; Emmons, 1991; Honey, 1999). Furthermore, training local guides to lead visitor education programmes can provide income for local residents and increase visitor environmental awareness (Paaby & Clark, 1995; Weiler & Ham, 2002). Ecotourism, while promoting the conservation of natural areas that are tourist destinations, can provide economic revenues through entrance fees, employment of local residents of the park area, and tourist expenditures. Projects can generate foreign exchange and provide economic benefits to remote areas (Fennell, 1999). Ecotourism initiatives can attract investment capital for community infrastructure development, often including improved local social and educational services (Barnes et al., 1992). Initially, ecotourism does not require large capital investments, since ecotourists typically are willing to tolerate basic conditions and facilities. Park-based ecotourism often affects local community residents. Several attitudinal studies have been conducted to assess local opinions about conservation and tourism efforts in places such as South Africa (Infield, 1988), Tanzania (Newmark et al., 1993), Malawi (Mkanda & Munthali, 1994), Belize (Hartup, 1994), Ecuador (Fiallo & Jacobson, 1995), Nepal (Mehta & Kellert, 1998), and Madagascar (Peters, 1999). In Kenya most of the local communities are directly and indirectly benefiting from tourism earnings although many locals are employed at lower cadres in the lodges. The biggest challenge of economic benefits of tourism in Kenya is financial leakage because most of the lodges are owned by foreign investors. 5.2 Sociocultural Ecotourism, in general can contribute to the disintegration of local communities social and cultural structure (Stem et al.,; Boo, 1999). The cultural and socio ethos must be well understood in order for ecotourism to be sustainable. Ecotourism thrives upon the support of the local communities. Culture can be incorporated into planning and 23
  • marketing of ecotourism destinations and products (Wearing, 2001). According to Boo (1990), ecotourists are more likely to appreciate local tradition, customs and cuisine than other market segment. One serious impact of ecotourism is that it can lead to the ‘commodification’ of culture. When people and their customs become marketable commodities, this can lead to erosion of culture and community cohesion (Stem et al, 2003). Another problem associated with tourist is involution of culture (WTO, 2003) where local people do not want to change their ways of life so as to attract tourist, thus contributing to underdevelopment. Another problem associated with tourism is breaking up of social cohesive forces, disappearance of traditions and culture, artefacts, songs, ceremonies, norms, taboos in a tourist destination. Kenya has been equally adversely affected by the impacts of tourism. The Maasai culture has been commoditised, disintegration of some cultures, overcrowding in some attractions thus causing resentment by the local people. Due to the fact that tourism pays more, many people have abandoned the other industries to reap the benefits of the tourism boom thus causing social imbalance. Another major problem is increase in crime, prostitution, use of drugs and other negative things that are associated with tourism. Divorce cases are on increase, lesbianism; homo sexual trends are also on rise. 5.3 Environmental The global tourism industry depends heavily on the conservation sector to establish and maintain the protected areas that provide many of the world’s prime tourist attractions, including publicly funded access, infrastructure, and facilities (Fennell, 1999; Weaver, 2001; Eagles and McCool, 2002, Newsome et al., 2002). In making use of these areas, tourism industry produces a number of negative environmental impacts, and these increase funds required for resources and visitor management (Liddle,1997; Weaver,2001; Buckly and King,2003.Tourism can sometimes make a positive contribution to conservation by: establishing private protected areas; lobbying for World Heritage, National parks and other public protected areas; improving protection of existing reserves; and replacing higher-impacts users by other industry sectors in areas of high conservation value, either public or privately owned, which are not protected (Newsome et al .,2002, Eagles and McCool;2002; Buckley,2003a. 24
  • 5.4 Political Politics have a lot of influence on the destinations policy framework and implementation. As Weinberg et al (2002) have noted many problems associated with ecotourism development are fixable and knowable; the challenges remain political. Specifically, communities exist in larger political systems and often lack the capacity to control broader economic effects. Communities with stronger networks and social capital may be better prepared to overcome these political challenges. The Kenyan government has created an enabling environment for ecotourism to thrive. It works closer with NGOs, International organisation like UNEP which has its Head Quarters in Nairobi Kenya. The government has formed organisations like NEMA to conduct environmental impact assessment, environmental audit to the existing properties. Having said this, there are challenges that are associated with bad government policies like giving of water catchment areas and forests for farming activities to gain political mileage. At the moment there is a huge debate on future of Maasai Mara, one of the ‘seventh natural wonder of the world’ due to deforestation in Mau forests and distribution of land by politicians to their communities and political supporters. Maasai Mara carries about 75% of wildlife in protected areas in Kenya. Table 5. showing tourism direct and indirect impacts (Weaver 1998:21) Environmental impacts Direct benefits Direct costs • provides incentive to protect danger that environmental carrying capacities environment, both formally will be unintentionally exceeded, due (protected areas)and to: informally • .rapid growth rates • provides incentive for • . difficulties in identifying, measuring and restoration and conversion of monitoring impacts over a long period modified habitats • idea that all tourism induces stress • ecotourist actively assisting in habitat enhancement (donations, policing, • maintenance, etc.) Indirect benefits Indirect costs • Exposure to ecotourism • Fragile areas maybe exposed to less benign fosters broader commitment forms of tourism (pioneer function) to environmental well-being • My foster tendencies to put financial value, • Space protected because of depending upon attractiveness ecotourism provide various environmental benefits 25
  • Economic impacts Direct benefits Direct costs • Revenues obtained directly • Start-up expenses (acquisition of land, from ecotourist establishment of protected areas, superstructure, • Creation of direct infrastructure) employment opportunities • Ongoing expenses (maintenance of • Strong potential for linkages infrastructure, wages) with other sectors of the local economy • Stimulation of peripheral rural economies Indirect benefits Indirect costs • Indirect revenues from • Revenue uncertainties to in situ nature if ecotourism(high multipliers consumption effect) • Revenue leakages due to imports, expatriate or • Tendency of ecotourist to non-local participation, etc patronise culture and heritage • Opportunity cost attractions as add-ons • Damage to crops by wildlife • Economic benefits from sustainable use of protected areas and inherent existence Sociocultural impacts Direct benefits Direct costs • Ecotourism accessible to • Intrusion upon local and possibly isolated broad spectrum of the cultures population • Displacement of local cultures by parks • Aesthetic/ spiritual element • Imposition of elite alien value system of experience • Erosion of local control (foreign experts, in- • Foster environmental migration of job seekers) awareness among ecotourist and the local people Indirect benefits Indirect costs • Optional and existence • Potential resentment and antagonism of locals benefits • Tourist opposition to aspects of local culture( e.g. hunting, slash-burn, agriculture). Source: Weaver (1998:21) 5.5 Kenya SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization or a country and its environment. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors. Opportunities and threats are external factors. 26
  • Figure 9. SWOT Analysis symbiotic relationships Table 6. Kenya’s SWOT analysis Strengths Weaknesses • Abundant wildlife • Lack of clear guidelines on ecotourism • Haven for birds • Lack of policy framework and implementation • Good climate all year around • Poor private- public relationship • Excellent location • High percentage of Foreign investors in ecotourism • Hospitable people • Lack of funds for local people • Maasai Mara • Poor marketing of eco products • Rich culture and history • Lack of government incentives • Head quarters for UNEP • Poor infrastructure and super structures • Sun, sea, surf and sand • Only 10% of wildlife live protected area • Quality beaches • Only 9.5% of land is protected area • Coral reef and corals • • Abundant marine life • Quality local cuisine • Panoramic scenery • Eco rating of lodges in Kenya Opportunities Threats • East Africa cooperation • Green washing • Take advantage of UNEP, WWF • Poaching & Hunting • Use international media house who have • Community resentment Africa HQ in Kenya • Promote ‘Green Movement’ • Commodification of culture • Use Athletes to promote Eco ventures • Involution of culture • Take advantage of CITES on Kenyan • Propensity to loose cultural ethos and 27
  • elephants socio milieu • Use of Queen visit in Treetops for • Un coordinated development in eco promoting ecotourism destinations • Take advantage of Americas President • Overcrowding in some parks and Kenya roots for creating global reserves ecotourism awareness • Promote UNESCO protected sites • Illegal fishing • Use of Indigenous Knowledge for • Competition from other eco destinations ecotourism • Use of Dolphins in South Coast for • promotion • Internet and website information • • Eco labelling and International • Certification of Eco products 6.0 Eco rating programme in Kenya The Community Outreach Program is one among the key program areas of Ecotourism Kenya. The aim of the program is threefold: • to integrate communities and community-based tourism into mainstream tourism in Kenya; • to build capacity for local people to more effectively engage with tourism issues; • to explore ideas for tourism involvements in their areas. The ultimate goal is for an equitable distribution of the benefits that accrue from community-based tourism enterprises involving • Community mobilization; participatory trainings, seminars, workshops and sharing of information through the quarterly newsletter and monthly e- letter; • Community advisory services on product development, packaging, fundraising, etc; • Promotion of community based, owned and/ or managed tourism enterprises. Ecotourism Kenya has realized that many community-based tourism enterprises exist in the country, and are at various stages of development. Database of the field visits, surveys and contacts with other organizations engaged in community development work in Kenya. There are 101 communities in ecotourism based activities in Kenya. 28
  • 6.1 Case Study of Eco rated Lodge Base Camp Eco-rating Scheme Award Gold Facilities The main camp has 16 tents (consisting of 32 beds). Activities Day game drives, nature walks, tree-planting Sustainable tourism measures Outstanding & Replicable Tourism Practices i. The Maasai Brand, an initiative that seeks to improve and promote traditional handicrafts made by women’s groups in the Talek region of Maasai mara. It is an initiative that promotes cultural conservation, gender sensitivity, capacity building and local income generation. It recorded an income of about Ksh. 2 million in 2006 for these women. ii. Evidence of high investment in conservation and community support. The director noted that for the first five years, Basecamp did not make a profit as all monies went into these efforts. iii. Use of “Maasai grammar” to explain culture. In guest rooms for instance, coat hangers, beds, linen, furniture and other furnishings have made use of Maasai designs or parts, as a way of encouraging visitors to learn more about the Maasai culture iv. Winning international recognition in sustainable tourism, including 2005 First Choice Responsible Tourism Award for Best Practice in Protected Areas. Responsible/ Best Tourism Practices i. Extensive use of local material, including deadwood, and labor for construction. Most structures are constructed in a way that they can be dismantled and taken away safely, leaving no footprint. ii. Environmental conservation: Use of a tree-top wildlife viewing post has reduced the need for game drives iii. Extensive use of solar energy and use of energy saving LED bulbs. The solar water heaters are ISO-certified and have been chosen because of their energy 29
  • efficiency character. Even the communication system is powered by solar energy. iv. Uses an efficient kuni booster from Botto Solar at the staff quarters v. Have a solar cooker at the kitchen area, as a demonstration to the local community on efficient technologies available vi. Practices garbage separation and composting. Has clean and well-fenced garbage disposal and composting areas. vii. Grey water from every tent is collected and re-used to water plants in the compound viii. Use of dry toilets ix. Has supported the planting of an estimated 25,000 trees since 2000, as part of restoring vegetation along the river near Basecamp. This has been done jointly with the local community. x. A percentage of bed night goes to an education fund that mainly supports girl- child education; estimated to have given Ksh 140,000 in 2006. Basecamp is also supporting a masters student at Moi University. xi. Of the 43 staff, 95% are local, including 10 women. Source:http://www.ecotourismkenya.org 30
  • Table 7. Eco rated lodges in Kenya Amboseli Porini Camp 6 tents, each with a double and a single bed, solar lights, ensuite shower and flush toilets. Baobab Beach Resort Basecamp Masai Mara The main camp has 16 tents (consisting of 32 beds) Bateleur Camp 9 twin bed tents with shingle roofs, wooden doors, hard wood doors and a private verandah Campi ya Kanzi 14 guests are accommodated in six luxury tented cottages and the Hemingway and Simba suites. Chada Katavi Elephant Pepper Camp Elsa’s Kopje 9 stone/thatch en suite cottages and an open bar, lounge, dining room & swimming pool. Fundu Lagoon Resort Greystoke Mahale Il Ng'wesi Lodge Joy's Camp Keekorok Lodge Kicheche Mara Camp The camp is a classic, intimate, luxury bush camp, completely unfenced. Kichwa Tembo 40 Hemmingway-style safari tents, all with en suite bathrooms and private verandah. Kilima Camp Kizingo Lodge 6 bandas built from local mangrove poles and palms. Koija Starbeds 4 tents with eight beds. Has two doubles and one family room with flush loo & shower Loisaba Kiboko Starbeds 31
  • 4 double rooms with 8 beds Loisaba Lodge 6 rooms Mara Porini Camp 6 tents (or 12 beds) of a mobile style camp with no permanent construction above the ground. Ol Seki Mara Camp 6 double tents elected on platforms (to minimize their impact on the enviroment). Ol Tukai Lodge 80 chalet style twin rooms with private bathrooms and verandahs, a three bedroomed exclusive private. Olonana Camp 12 luxury bush pavilions with private bathrooms and terraces, swimming pool, gourmet cuisine. Porini Lion Camp 6 tents of a mobile style camp. Sand Rivers Selous Sarova Shaba 85 charlet rooms, 4 junior suites and 1 honeymoon suite. The rooms are made of local wood & grass Saruni Safari Camp 6 cottages for 12 guests, grass thatched and made from local wood Siana Springs Tassia Lodge 7 bandas consisting of five double bedrooms and one twin bedroom. There is a children’s bunk. Source:http://www.ecotourismkenya.org 32
  • 7.0 Conclusions and discussions Kenya is moving in the right direction towards sustainability although much has to be done to achieve this goal of tourism that can benefit the local communities, protect the environment and be economically viable. Although the government is aware of the potentiality of tourism to alleviate poverty and propel economic growth, there has been a laxity in many fields leading to unsustainability of tourism in Kenya. The government has not come up with policy framework which would act as guiding policy for enactment of principles for ecotourism. There is overlapping of responsibilities due to lack of harmonised ecotourism ventures and government departs. According to Wearing, 2001, neglect of conservation and quality of life issues threatens the very basis of local populations and the viable and sustainable tourism industry) Wearing, 2001,p 407). There has to be a balance between the protected area and non protected areas. In Kenya only 10% of the wildlife lives in protected area thus exposing them to poachers and hunters (David Western, Samantha Russell and Kamweti Mutu, 2006). Further more according to the Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife, only 9.5% of Kenya land is demarcated for protection of flora and fauna. There is need to increase this percentage either way through the establishment of community ranches, private parks like in Costa Rica which have been very successful (Bernardo Duha,2004). Nairobi, Kenya is the head office of United Nations Environmental Programmes UNEP, thus the country can use the resources availed by UNEP to promote sustainable tourism. At the coastal region, where Kenya has high quality beaches, ‘soft ‘ecotourism can be encouraged so as to reap economic benefits while protecting the environment. Kenya is also world renowned for its ‘Greenbelt Movement’ which its proponent Professor Wangari Mathai won a Nobel Prize in conservation of environment. Kenya has too a good footing on CITES having pioneered for banning of sale on ivory task from elephants and rhino horns. A positive outcome of ecotourism is by no means assured and depends on how development is planned and implemented (Place, 1998). Finding solutions for ecotourism in Kenya is unique. Ecotourism plans should be 33
  • innovative, flexible, adaptive, strategic and implementable so as to address the diversity of the Kenyan ecotourism products. Another area that needs a lot of attention is use of Indigenous knowledge where it is argued that centuries of co-existence between indigenous people and their surrounding have profoundly blurred the boundaries between natural environment and culture (Hinch, 1998, 2001; Nepal, 2004; Zeppel, 2006). Kenya has rich cultural heritages which in some area have been for centuries used to protect the flora and fauna. There sacred trees and forest in Kenya which have for centuries been under the management of the local communities through their local traditions and taboos. Some trees like ‘mugumo tree’ is a sacred tree which is highly protected. Kenya has ‘Kaya forests’ along the Coastal region which are protected by the local people through customs and beliefs. The Kenya government has recognised the conservation of indigenous forests by the local people and have allowed them to manage and protect some of these forests. The United Nations Cultural Agency Unesco’s World Heritage Committee, meeting for its 32nd session in Canada’s Eastern City of Quebec, has added 12 new World heritage sites covering a swath of civilization from 10,000-year- old agriculture in Papua New Guinea to 20th-century social housing in Berlin. Most important for the African heritage scene, the Committee approved and added to the UNESCO World Heritage List two new sites on the continent - Mauritius’ Le Morne cultural landscape and Kenya’s Mijikenda Kaya Forests.(2008 UNESCO) Kenya Ecotourism Kenya has also come up with the rating of eco lodges in Kenya but its important also to link those ratings with internationally acceptable Certification and getting the right eco labels based on Australian mode. There should be deliberate effort to adhere to the principles of sustainable tourism and for ecotourism so as to move in the right direction. Tour Operators are also taking advantage of ecotourism and there has been increase in Greenwashing campaigns. The government must crack the whip so as to standardize the eco products by working hand in hand with International organisations and NGOs. The political elite must also deter from using public land for political gain, a case where water catchment areas are distributed to political supporters. Private and public 34
  • partnership would be the right direction for Kenya so as to ensure equitable distribution of resources from tourism industry. On commodification of culture, assimilation locals in management of tourism enterprises would create pride in upholding their cultural values and hence reduce commodification. Although tourism should not try to change the ways of life of the people in a destination, locals should also learn from the tourist so as to develop without abandoning their cultural heritage. (Todaro,1997:16 ) emphasized that development is a’ multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structure, popular attitudes, and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and eradication of poverty’ . Tourism, through its face-to-face contact between the host and visitors and the ‘demonstration effect’, often introduces new ideas, values and lifestyles and new stimuli for both economic and social progress (Liu. Z, 2003). There are no clear guidelines on how the local benefit from tourism earning, so its important for government to come up with a guiding policy and have percentages of foreign investors versus locals, earnings, employment. The government should also make funds available for the local communities to invest more in tourism industry. Although Kenya is moving in the right direction to sustainable tourism more research is vital so as to provide data which can be used for planning and policy formulation. 35
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  • References Amanda Strongza and Javier Gordillo 2008, Community Views of Ecotourism, Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 35:No. 2 448-468 Blamey, R.K 2001, Principles of Ecotourism. In David B. Weaver(Ed), Encyclopaedia of Ecotourism (447-461). New York: CABI Publishing Boo, E 1990, Ecotourism- The Potentials and Pitfalls (Vol.1). Lancaster: Wickersham printing company Brandon, K 1996, Ecotourism and Conservation: A Review of Key Issues. Washington, DC: The World Bank Buckley, R 2001, Environmental Impacts. In David Weaver(Ed) The Encyclopaedia of Ecotourism ( 379-394). ). New York: CABI Publishing Central Bureau of Statistics, Kenya Ministry of Planning and National Development, 2006. Economic Survey. Government Printer David B. Weaver, Laura J. Lawton 2007, Twenty years on: The state of contemporary ecotourism research. Tourism Management 28 David Western, Samantha Russell and Samuel Mutu 2006, The Status of Wildlife in Kenya’s Protected and Non-protected areas Dimitrios Diamantis 1999, The Concept of Ecotourism: Evolution and trends, Current Issues in Tourism. Vol. 2 No. 2&3 Ecotourism Society of Kenya website www.esok.org accessed on 2009 December, 03. Honey, M 1999, Ecotourism and Sustainable Development. Who owns the Paradise? Island Press, Washington DC Lindberg, K 2001, Economic Impacts, In D.B Weaver Encyclopaedia of Ecotourism (363-378), New York: CABI Publishing 37
  • Liu, Z 2003, Sustainable Tourism development: a critic. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(6), 459-475 Ministry of Tourism in Kenya 2008, Accessed 2009, December 04 http://www.tourism.go.ke/ National Environmental Management Authority Website Accessed in 2009, December 03 .http://www.nema.go.ke/ Nature World of Kenya, Website Accessed in 2009 December, 07. 2009 http://www.nationalparks-worldwide.info/kenya.htm Our Common Future (1987). World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press Ralf Buckley 2004, Partnerships in Ecotourism: Australian Political Frameworks. International Journals of Tourism Research 6, 75-83 Sirakaya,et al 2001. Developing indicators for Destination Sustainability. In D.B Weaver Encyclopaedia of Ecotourism (411-432), New York: CABI Publishing Stem, et al 2003. How “Eco” is sustainable? A comparative Case Study of Ecotourism in Costa Rica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(4). UNWTO 2009, World Tourism Highlight, UNWTO Publication UNTWO 2008, World Tourism Barometer, UNWTO Publication WIKIPEDIA Free Encyclopaedia Accessed on 2009, December, 03 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_analysis Wunder, S. 2000. Ecotourism and economic incentives-an empirical approach. Ecological Economics, 32, 465-479 38
  • Appendix 1 Protected area in Kenya by management and hectareage Size in IUCN Area Management type hectares Category Arabuko Sokoke Nature Reserve 4,332 South-Western Mau Nature Reserve 43,032 III Loita Hills Cloud Forest Site 20,000 Ndoto Mountains Cloud Forest Site 10,000 Karisia Hills Cloud Forest Site 29,000 Mathews Range Cloud Forest Site 24,000 Mount Nyiro Cloud Forest Site 18,000 Namuluku Forest Reserve 10 IV Imbirikani Group Ranch Private Reserve 128,485 Nanyungu Forest Reserve 22 Ururu Forest Reserve 438 Ol Jogi Rhinoceros S Private Reserve 7,284 Utunene Forest Reserve 174 Kalimani Forest Reserve 192 Sokta Hill Forest Reserve 170 III Nduluni-kalani Forest Reserve 106 Tumeya Forest Reserve 577 Tulimani Forest Reserve 328 Mbulia Group Ranch Private Reserve 15,783 Muringato Nursery Forest Reserve 24 II Kaptaroi Forest Reserve 318 II Kioo Forest Reserve 44 II Momandu Forest Reserve 144 II Mosegem Forest Reserve 205 II Kapchorua I Forest Reserve 141 II Mtarakwa Forest Reserve 110 II Nairobi Arboretum Forest Reserve 30 III Nyeri Hill Forest Reserve 200 ADC Mutura Ranch Private Reserve 25,637 Sekenwo Forest Reserve 863 Kabiok Forest Reserve 14 Tutwoin Forest Reserve 11 39
  • Kitumbuuni Forest Reserve 74 Tarda Emali Ranch Private Reserve 850 Kisima Farm Rumuruti Private Reserve 17,806 Kinyo Forest Reserve 339 III Kilala Forest Reserve 161 Kyai Forest Reserve 109 II Magumo North Forest Reserve 240 II Ntugi Forest Reserve 1,386 Kijabe Hill Forest Reserve 740 Lisa Ranch Private Reserve 2,233 West Molo Forest Reserve 277 Kilungu Forest Reserve 145 Galana Ranch Private Reserve 647,484 Leroghi Forest Reserve 91,794 VI Laikipia Ranching Private Wildlife Sanctuary 16,187 Colcheccio Ltd Private Reserve 26,305 II Wanga Forest Reserve 95 Braemar Farm Private Reserve 1,821 Western Mau Forest Reserve 22,748 Karura Forest Reserve 1,045 II Mount Londiani Forest Reserve 30,152 Ol-bolossat Forest Reserve 3,269 II Aberdare National Park 76,619 Kiunga Marine National Reserve 25,000 Bisanadi National Reserve 60,600 Kipkunurr Forest Reserve 15,892 Mutharanga Forest Reserve 293 Nyambeni Forest Reserve 5,454 Lake Bogoria National Reserve 10,705 Shaba National Reserve 23,910 Ngamba Forest Reserve 1,141 Katimok Forest Reserve 2,019 Diani-Chale Marine National Reserve 7,500 Kapolet Forest Reserve 1,625 Ia Kiambu Forest Reserve 149 II Kakamega Forest Reserve 17,838 Mutito Forest Reserve 1,975 40
  • Maji Mazuri Forest Reserve 7,809 Losai National Reserve 180,680 Marmanet Forest Reserve 22,644 IV Dagoretti Forest Reserve 774 Masai Mara National Reserve 151,000 II Ngong Hills Forest Reserve 3,081 Njuguni Forest Reserve 1,987 Ngong Road Forest Reserve 1,039 Kiptaberr Forest Reserve 12,801 South Turkana National Reserve 109,100 Ndotos Range Forest Reserve 93,205 Saimo Forest Reserve 727 Southern Mau Forest Reserve 128 Loitokitok Forest Reserve 766 Kyemundu Forest Reserve 147 III Mpunguti Marine National Reserve 1,100 Mataa Forest Reserve 48 Ia Kaisungor Forest Reserve 1,089 Ia Tana River Primate National Reserve 16,900 UA Mailuganji Forest Reserve 1,685 UA Mwachi Forest Reserve 381 Kapkanyar Forest Reserve 5,764 Mukogodo Forest Reserve 29,931 Gonja Forest Reserve 861 South Laikipia Forest Reserve 3,500 Lelan Forest Reserve 14,516 UA Kikingo Forest Reserve 1,203 IV Tsavo East National Park 1,174,700 Tsavo West National Park 906,500 Samburu National Reserve 16,500 Kieiga Forest Reserve 573 Munguni Forest Reserve 189 Meru National Park 87,044 Kapchemutwa Forest Reserve 8,874 II Maralai Game Sanctuary 500 III Nuu Forest Reserve 25,32 III Metkei Forest Reserve 1958 41
  • Malindi Marine National Park 630 Kaptagat Forest Reserve 12,985 IV Maragoli Forest Reserve 470 IV Upper Imenti Forest Reserve 10,402 Ia Katende Forest Reserve 933 Kabarak Forest Reserve 1,395 Witu Forest Reserve 4,002 Embobut Forest Reserve 21689 IV Makuli-nguuta Forest Reserve 1676 IV Ngaia Forest Reserve 4314 Ia North Kitui National Reserve 74500 UA Londiani Forest Reserve 106 UA Transmara Forest Reserve 34457 IV Kasigau Forest Reserve 202 IV Mumbaka Forest Reserve 444 IV Kamiti Forest Reserve 171 IV Nyeri Forest Reserve 1214 Ia Marenji Forest Reserve 1519 IV Mrima Forest Reserve 390 V Kisite Marine National Park 2800 Kessop Forest Reserve 1971 Mount Elgon Forest Reserve 73089 Kipipiri Forest Reserve 5077 Molo Forest Reserve 915 III Mutejwa Forest Reserve 1318 III Makongo-kitui Forest Reserve 2447 III Mkongani West Forest Reserve 1408 III Longonot National Park 5200 III Ololua Forest Reserve 639 UA Uaso Narok Forest Reserve 1966 III Rahole National Reserve 127000 UA Mombasa Marine National Park 1000 Kikuyu Escarpment Forest Reserve 37619 Kapsaret Forest Reserve 1008 Taressia Forest Reserve 375 Kimojoch Forest Reserve 762 North Nandi Forest Reserve 11345 42
  • Sekhendu Forest Reserve 804 Namanga Hill Forest Reserve 11904 Mukobe Forest Reserve 747 UA Kijege Forest Reserve 3303 II Buffalo Springs National Reserve 13100 III Kitalale Forest Reserve 2070 III Buda Forest Reserve 670 III Sogotio Forest Reserve 3555 Kenze Forest Reserve 189 Bunyala Forest Reserve 808 IV Ndare Forest Reserve 5627 Ia Thuuri Forest Reserve 732 Thunguru Hill Forest Reserve 554 Matthews Range Forest Reserve 97392 II Mount Nyiru Forest Reserve 45496 Marsabit Forest Reserve 15778 Shimba Hills National Reserve 19251 Turbo Forest Reserve 10814 Muguga Forest Reserve 225 Jombo Forest Reserve 887 Malaba Forest Reserve 721 Ngai Ndethya National Reserve 21209 Kibwezi Forest Reserve 5850 Kiagu Forest Reserve 1361 Lusoi Forest Reserve 268 II Hell's Gate National Park 6800 Timau Forest Reserve 295 Mwea National Reserve 6803 Timboroa Forest Reserve 5813 II Kitondu Forest Reserve 1093 Central Island National Park 500 Mkongani North Forest Reserve 1165 IV Lugari Forest Reserve 2193 II Embakasi Forest Reserve 591 II Northern Tinderet Forest Reserve 26285 II Eastern Mau Forest Reserve 66067 Lariak Forest Reserve 4988 43
  • Perkerra Catchment Forest Reserve 4414 Bahati Forest Reserve 10101 Kerrer Forest Reserve 2241 Dodori National Reserve 87739 Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park 1842 III Mau Narok Forest Reserve 851 Ia Nairobi National Park 11721 Eburu Forest Reserve 8736 Kipkabus (Elg-Marak) Forest Reserve 6760 Kerio Valley National Reserve 6570 Nasolot National Reserve 19400 Chepalungu Forest Reserve 4977 Leshau Forest Reserve 198 II Kierera Forest Reserve 777 II Nakuru Forest Reserve 631 II Chemorogok Forest Reserve 1338 II Arawale National Reserve 53324 Chyulu National Park 47090 Nzaui Forest Reserve 1001 Ruma National Park 12000 III Aberdares Forest Reserve 103316 III Tinderet Forest Reserve 28167 V Kora National Park 178780 Ia Boni National Reserve 133900 IV Menengai Forest Reserve 5737 III South Island National Park 3880 III Watamu Marine National Park 12500 IV Chemurokoi Forest Reserve 3979 IV Ol-arabel Forest Reserve 9738 IV Mount Kenya Forest Reserve 199538 South Kitui National Reserve 183300 II Rumuruti Forest Reserve 6551 Ia Nthangu Forest Reserve 845 Lake Nakuru National Park 18800 Gogoni Forest Reserve 824 UA Sibiloi National Park 157085 II South Nandi Forest Reserve 19568 IV 44
  • Ol-pusimoru Forest Reserve 17258 II Amboseli National Park 39206 II Kilombe Hill Forest Reserve 1534 II Kipkabus (Uasin/Gishu) Forest Reserve 5827 Source: Nature Worldwide on Kenya. 45
  • Appendix 2 List of abbreviations IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature GoK, Government of Kenya UNWTO, United Nations World Tourism Organisation WTO, World Tourism Organisation IYE, International Year of Ecotourism TIES, International Ecotourism Society ESOK, Ecotourism Society of Kenya CPU, Computer Processing Unit NEMA, National Environmental Management Authority EMCA, Environmental Management and Coordination Act WCED, World Commission on Environment and Development CBO, Community Based Organisations KWS, Kenya Wildlife services UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme ISO, International Organization for Standardization LED light bulbs cost effective for lighting UNESCO, United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organisation 46