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Migration patterns of open source ecosystem contributors - An empirical case study with GNOME

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We present our emerging research on evolving open source software ecosystems, collections of software projects maintained by the same community. Within such an ecosystem we aim to understand how …

We present our emerging research on evolving open source software ecosystems, collections of software projects maintained by the same community. Within such an ecosystem we aim to understand how contributors join, leave and move across different projects over time. In particular, we study where new contributors to a given subsystem come from, and where people go to if they stop contributing in this subsystem. We define novel metrics to measure these aspects of projects in the ecosystem. We are carrying out an empirical study on the GNOME ecosystem to study these aspects.

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  • 1. Migration patterns of software ecosystem contributors An empirical case study with Gnome T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne Software Engineering Lab, Computer Science Department Faculty of Science, University of Mons SOS-Evol 2013
  • 2. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion 1 Research context 2 The Gnome ecosystem 3 Migration patterns 4 ConclusionT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 2 / 26
  • 3. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion ARC interdisciplinary research project ECOS “Ecological Studies of Open Source Software Ecosystems” Rely on ecological models and theories of the evolution of biological ecosystems Adapt and adopt these theories to study the evolution of OSS ecosystems Understand, and provide support for, optimizing the fitness, resistance and resilience of OSS projects within their ecosystemT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 3 / 26
  • 4. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Biological ecosystemT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 4 / 26
  • 5. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion 1 Research context 2 The Gnome ecosystem 3 Migration patterns 4 ConclusionT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 5 / 26
  • 6. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion About Gnome 16 years of history (1997 to 2012) 1,418 projects (stored in git version repositories) 1,315,997 commits 12,285,518 file touches 11,094 identities before merging; 5,923 after identity merging open source (of course) actively studied by many researchersT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 6 / 26
  • 7. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Database Schema FLOSS-compliant, extension of CVSAnaly2T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 7 / 26
  • 8. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Some empirical results on Gnome Evolution of active contributors and active projectsT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 8 / 26
  • 9. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Some empirical results on Gnome - 2 Correlations between some Gnome ecosystem metricsT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 9 / 26
  • 10. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Some empirical results on Gnome - 3 Code commits and code touches 35000" 800000" code_commits" 700000" 30000" code_touches" 600000" 25000" 500000" 20000" 400000" 15000" 300000" 10000" 200000" 5000" 100000" 0" 0" 9,96" 9,97" 9,98" 9,99" 9,00" 9,01" 8,02" 8,03" 8,04" 8,05" 8,06" 8,07" 7,08" 7,09" 7,10" 7,11" 7,12"T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 10 / 26
  • 11. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Some empirical results on Gnome - 4 No correlation between code commits and code touches correlaon)code_commits) code_touches) 700000" 600000" 500000" 400000" 300000" 200000" 100000" 0" 0" 5000" 10000" 15000" 20000" 25000" 30000" 35000"T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 11 / 26
  • 12. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion 1 Research context 2 The Gnome ecosystem 3 Migration patterns 4 ConclusionT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 12 / 26
  • 13. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Migration patterns How do contributors join, leave and move across projects of the ecosystem? Which migration patterns can we observe? Do joiners of a project come from other projects or from outside the ecosystem? Do project leavers tend to stay within other projects of the ecosystem? Does the migration pattern change over time? Do some projects attract or loose more contributors than others?T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 13 / 26
  • 14. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Metrics definitions DevP (t) = {contributors ∈ P who made at least two code commits during period t} stayersS (t) = |{a|∃P1 ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t − 1) ∧ ∃P2 ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t)}| joinGlobalS (t) = |{a|∃P ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t) ∧ ∀P ∈ G , a ∈ DevP (t − 1)}| joinLocalS (t) = |{a|∃P ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t) ∧ ∀P ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t − 1) ∧ ∃P ∈ G , a ∈ DevP (t − 1)}| joinersS (t) = joinGlobalS (t) + joinLocalS (t) leaveGlobalS (t) = |{a|∃P ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t − 1) ∧ ∀P ∈ G , a ∈ DevP (t)}| leaveLocalS (t) = |{a|∃P ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t − 1) ∧ ∀P ∈ S, a ∈ DevP (t) ∧ ∃P ∈ G , a ∈ DevP (t)}| leaversS (t) = leaveGlobalS (t) + leaveLocalS (t)T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 14 / 26
  • 15. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Joiners, leavers & stayers Glib Increasing trend in joiners, leavers & stayersT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 15 / 26
  • 16. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Joiners, leavers & stayers GIMP Stable trend in joiners, leavers & stayersT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 16 / 26
  • 17. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Joiners, leavers & stayers Gnumeric Initial “phase” and stable trend phase in joiners, leavers & stayersT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 17 / 26
  • 18. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Joiners, leavers & stayers Gnome-applets High variation of leavers/joiners & decreasing trendT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 18 / 26
  • 19. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Joiners, leavers & stayers GDK Pixbuf High peak of death...?T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 19 / 26
  • 20. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Local vs. global for joiners & leavers Glib Wilcoxon signed rank test Hypothesis 1: joinGlobal < joinLocal (p-value: 4.175e −6 ) Hypothesis 2: leaveGlobal < leaveLocal (p-value: 5.279e −6 )T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 20 / 26
  • 21. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Local vs. global for joiners & leavers GIMP Wilcoxon signed rank test Hypothesis 1: joinGlobal > joinLocal (p-value: 9.361e −6 ) Hypothesis 2: leaveGlobal > leaveLocal (p-value: 1.243e −4 )T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 21 / 26
  • 22. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Analysis results - Local vs. global for joiners & leavers Gnumeric Wilcoxon signed rank test unconclusive (p-values: 0.339 & 0.8415)T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 22 / 26
  • 23. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion 1 Research context 2 The Gnome ecosystem 3 Migration patterns 4 ConclusionT. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 23 / 26
  • 24. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Conclusion Empirical results on Gnome Huge increase of contributors around 2008 Huge decrease of code touches around 2002 Gnome migrations Different patterns Projects (like libraries): peripheral developers (joiners and leavers) tend to be contributors from other GNOME projects Projects (like GIMP) attracting people outside Gnome ⇒ famous Gnome’s projects?T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 24 / 26
  • 25. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Many future works Apply this analysis more in depth to a broader set of projects Where do developers come when a new project has been started? Developer’s point of view: Where do they come from? Where do they go? Which motivation? ⇒ dual study of migrations Project stability? Carry out the study at different levels: individual projects, sub-ecosystems, entire ecosystem Social or socio-technical analysis of Gnome Mass migrations Other ecosystems...T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 25 / 26
  • 26. Research context The Gnome ecosystem Migration patterns Conclusion Thanks for your attention! Questions?T. Mens, M. Claes, M. Goeminne (G´nie Logiciel) patterns of software ecosystem contributors e Migration SOS-Evol 2013 26 / 26