CSTD 2011 Practice makes perfect revisted

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Presentation from CSTD national conference November 2011

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CSTD 2011 Practice makes perfect revisted

  1. 1. Practice Makes Perfect Revisited New ways to use practice and feedback to build expertise CSTD Conference November 17, 2011
  2. 2. Practice in the Popular Press© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 2
  3. 3. The Original Research© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 3
  4. 4. © 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 4
  5. 5. Practice Makes Perfect (or does it?)1. What is expertise? What truly separates experts from novices?2. How is expertise developed? (Hint: It’s all about the practice)3. Implications for Training and Development How can we use this research to improve our effectiveness© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 5
  6. 6. Agenda  What is expertise?  How is expertise developed?  The new practice  Implications for the learning professional and the training function  Q&A© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 6
  7. 7. What Defines An Expert?  They perceive more  They know more  They plan, reflect and adjust more quickly  They use networks more effectively  They draw on tacit knowledge and practical intelligence to solve problems© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 7
  8. 8. The Novices to Expert Progression Sees Part of Tacit Informal intuition patterns the system Knowledge learning Expert Proficient Competent Advanced Beginner Novice rules Considers Detached Explicit Formal everything Observer knowledge learning© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 8
  9. 9. The Neuroscience of Expertise© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 9
  10. 10. The Limits of Experts Difficulty articulating tacit knowledge Expertise blinders Individual accounts of expertise are often unreliable© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 10
  11. 11. Agenda  What is expertise?  How is expertise developed?  The new practice  Implications for the learning professional and the training function  Q&A© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 11
  12. 12. How Expertise is NOT Developed Innate General Experience abilities abilities© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 12
  13. 13. Deliberate Practice Years of effortful, focused practice on authentic tasks in an environment of continuous feedback and support, accompanied by self- reflection and correction© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 13
  14. 14. Essentials of Deliberate Practice© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 14
  15. 15. Tichy’s Learning Zone Deliberate practice is demanding and requires high levels of focus and concentration…. …but the task must not be beyond reach© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 15
  16. 16. Essentials of deliberate practice© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 16
  17. 17. Repetition with Continuous Feedback AvoidsPlateau Plateau© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 17
  18. 18. Essentials of Deliberate Practice© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 18
  19. 19. The 10,000 Hour Rule Deliberate practice X 10,000 hours = Expert performance© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 19
  20. 20. 10,000 Hours to Expertise….Really? Task Variety Routine Technician Craft Knowledge Work Work Work Work Task Standardization 1,000 hrs. 10,000 hrs. Explicit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Formal Learning Informal learning© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 20
  21. 21. Essentials of Deliberate Practice© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 21
  22. 22. UPS Driver TrainingWhat elements of deliberate practice do you see?© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 22
  23. 23. Deliberate Practice at Work Performance goal Domain Knowledge Practical Intelligence Tacit Knowledge© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 23
  24. 24. Agenda  What is expertise?  How is expertise developed?  The new practice  Implications for the learning professional and the training function  Q&A© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 24
  25. 25. Supporting the Deliberate Practice Cycle Performance goal Domain Knowledge Practical Intelligence Tacit knowledge© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 25
  26. 26. The New Practice Action learning Cognitive apprenticeship Communities of practice Simulation Feedback in the workflow Job assignments with coaching© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 26
  27. 27. Action Learning  A Problem  An Action Learning team.  An action taken on the problem  A process of guided questioning and reflection  An Action Learning coach  Action learning sets© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 27
  28. 28. Guided Experience in ManagementDevelopment Experiences (from managers) Reflection insights Application Impacts and learning (individual/group) (on job) (on organization) Concepts (from resources) Adapted from Mintzberg, Managers not MBA’s© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 28
  29. 29. Cognitive Apprenticeship  Teach novice employees the mental processes experts use to solve complex problems or tasks.  Targets cognitive and meta-cognitive skills  Makes thinking and problem-solving processes visible and open to reflection and modification.  Experts coaches and support novices as they learn solve problems in context  Scaffolding is a gradual release of support as novices build skill© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 29
  30. 30. Communities of Practice (CoP) Community of Practice A group of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and capability for action through interacting and collaborating with others in the community on an ongoing basis Domain Community Practice The professional field The people that The work of the of work and areas of participate in the community. Actions, problem solving and community and their knowledge innovation corresponding roles repositories, and (formal and informal) learning generated in the course of working© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 30
  31. 31. GK Community of Practice© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 31
  32. 32. Informal Learning Assets and CoP© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 32
  33. 33. Simulation  Surrogate for experience  Embedded in context  Deliberate practice with authentic tasks  Learning by doing© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 33
  34. 34. Image of our simulation© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 34
  35. 35. © 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 35
  36. 36. Feedback in the Workflow© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 36
  37. 37. Developmental Assignments withCoaching  Challenge driven assignments  Action oriented  Coaching feedback  Reflection  Builds tacit knowledge and practical intelligence© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 37
  38. 38. Summary Expert performers have highly refined perceptual skills, domain knowledge and practical intelligence These skills are developed through years of targeted and deliberate practice The elements of deliberate practice can be supported and enhanced by providing resources to support each element in the deliberate practice cycle The methods transcend the formal/informal learning debate New methods of practice support learning more effectively than learning exercises designed for traditional classroom training© 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 38
  39. 39. © 2010 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 39

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