The 25/10 Concept - Improving the Probability of Success

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Too often the last 10% of a project stretches on to become 15% or more . . .like the battery, the project just keeps going and going. The 25/10 concept was conceived on the premise that when the first 25% of the project is well planned and executed, the probability of the last 10% being just that - 10% - is greatly enhanced. Based upon studies of the Japanese "stand down" approaches, Lean Management, and other "best practices", a guide to the steps that should be undertaken in the first 25% was developed. This is the subject of this webinar.

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The 25/10 Concept - Improving the Probability of Success

  1. 1. The 25/10 ConceptThe 25/10 Concept Improving the Probability of Successful Projects Webinar ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com
  2. 2. ContentsContents Subject Slide  The Program & Design Phase 7  Build It Before You Build It! 10  BIM 11  Make Sure It Will Work Before You Find Out It Won’t 12 –The Hard Way  The Management of Reality 16  The Stand Down – Take a Deep Breath  The Game Plan – Collaboration 28  Effective Planning  Drawing Clean-up 33  Use Your Head Planning 35  Empire State Building  Building In Quality 38  Supply Chain Management 43  Planning 44  The Creation of the Schedule 50 ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com
  3. 3. The IssuesThe Issues 1.1. Construction productivity has generally not improved over the last two decades. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 1
  4. 4. The Issues (contThe Issues (cont’’d)d) 2.2. Recession’s impact will create further problems:  1.5 million construction jobs lost  Architects have declined by 100,000 3. In best of times:  Schedule and cost overruns are endemic  “Big Dig” overruns could almost sink the state’s economy  Profit fade characterizes countless projects  Waste in industry (overruns, workmanship, claims) considered to be over $120 billion a year ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 2
  5. 5. The Issues (contThe Issues (cont’’d)d) 4. The scheduled last 10% of a project often ends up being12%, 15% or more and everyone loses. This is one of the contributors to the $120 billion in waste in the construction industry. 5. The benefits of higher productivity mean lower construction costs, higher profits to the contractors.  And those are simply the direct benefits. Indirectly, lower construction costs would ripple through the economy, and in a salubrious fashion. As the Business Roundtable pointed out in its study of the construction industry’s ills, “the price of every factory, office building, hotel or power plant that is built affects the price that must be charged for products and services.” ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 3
  6. 6. The PurposeThe Purpose The goal of this program is to identify major causes of project cost and schedule overruns, and to present a protocol which enhances the probability of success for all the parties (owner, design team, contractors and suppliers). ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 4
  7. 7. History of this ProgramHistory of this Program -- The BatteryThe Battery Experience shows that many projects were like the battery - they just kept going and going. The last 10% of the project became >12-15% or more.  None of the project parties goals was met and all of the parties suffered, to some extent, negative financial consequences. Yet often the contractors forecast throughout the project that schedule and cost goals will be met. Then suddenly, like a virus attack, monthly reports to the surety show profit fade, often red dollars. The contractor is now telling the owner the schedule will be missed and sometimes, the owner is surprised with a large delay damage and/or labor impact claim. To understand this common phenomenon, the concept of “ultimate cause” was followed. It soon became apparent the cause of these overruns was not in the last 10% but:  Largely in the program and design phases.  The first 25% of the construction project. The failure of the Project Management Process ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 5
  8. 8. And so,And so, The Concept of 25/10 Was BornThe Concept of 25/10 Was Born We examined the ultimate causes at the front-end of the project that caused the failures and delays at the tail-end and the dynamics were in the front-end: 1.Incomplete, inaccurate drawings 2.Subsurface conditions 3.Ineffective Project Management 4.Lack of Real Collaboration  Priority Management 5.Inadequate planning 6.Supply chain management 7.Lack of meaningful schedule as effective tool for field personnel 8.Lack of performance planning and measurement tools  Overbillings which confuse cash with profit 9.Timeliness of decisions 10.Change order resolution 11.Quality issues The primary crisis in Construction Productivity is in Management! (from the Program Phase through Design & Construction) ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 6
  9. 9. The Program & Design PhaseThe Program & Design Phase  Done properly, then the Construction Phase is just that – a Construction Phase. Not a lengthy “continuation of design” through the RFI and Submittal process. The goal should be to avoid riddling the production flow of projects with endless and avoidable delays caused by “cleaning up the drawings” and “playing with the submittals” and avoid the killer bee of Changed Conditions.  Even great project management techniques cannot completely overcome inadequate pre- construction phase, and inadequate subsurface investigations.  Risk shifting and disclaimers cannot overcome inadequate pre-construction phase.  The Probability of Successful Projects is Enhanced enormously through the successful performance of these phases.  TQM begins in pre-construction phase.  The Architect’s Handbook of Professional Practices – a good starting point! ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 7
  10. 10. Opportunity to Affect Project Costs Over TimeOpportunity to Affect Project Costs Over Time ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 8
  11. 11. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 9 Cost Growth Attributed To and Controllable AtCost Growth Attributed To and Controllable At
  12. 12. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 10 Build It Before You Build ItBuild It Before You Build It BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING 3D – A Parametric Representation of the Project  Avoid Claim issues, such as:  Equipment/Space Conflicts  Dimensional Conflicts (i.e. S&A Drawings)  Dilatory Decisions due to Above 4D – The Addition of Time → (but be careful of this one) 5D – Quantities of Materials Permits each contributor to the design to see what other designers have produced so they can collaborate on potential conflicts, “smashes,” errors (dimensions) and/or improvements before finalization of design documents. Leverage construction knowledge in design phase.
  13. 13. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 11 BIMBIM –– Potential AdvantagesPotential Advantages  Shop drawings also can be created during this design process. Carrying that step a little further, if a steel subcontractor has already been engaged by the general contractor, a cutting list can be prepared after the steel design has been completed, shipped to the mill to obtain a rolling schedule, and dramatically speed up the entire structural steel cycle.  The ability to identify collisions between various design components during the design and preconstruction phase, thereby avoiding them in the field.  The ability to visualize the building and construction in a simulated environment.  The ability for all parties to do “what if” scenarios: aesthetics, cost, schedule.  Higher reliability of unexpected field collision events allows for more off-site prefabrication of various components.  More accurate exploration of value engineering possibilities.  Partial trade coordination efforts performed during the design process, which reduce or eliminate this time-consuming operation when performed in the field.  Reduction in general contractor or subcontractor Requests for Information, again a time- saving benefit. (Credit to Sidney M. Levy, Construction Superintendent’s Operations Manual)
  14. 14. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 12 Make Sure It Will WorkMake Sure It Will Work BEFOREBEFORE You Find Out It WonYou Find Out It Won’’tt The Hard WayThe Hard Way  Smoke Detection Design & Construction, Grand Cayman  The Role of Commissioning
  15. 15. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 13 CA – Does not include individuals directly responsible for design or construction
  16. 16. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 14
  17. 17. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 15 Potential Savings vs. Project SchedulePotential Savings vs. Project Schedule
  18. 18. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 16 ButBut……TheThe Management of Realityof Reality Often, the drawings and contract documents have not undergone thorough checks for: Accuracy Completeness Adequacy Constructability And adequate souls investigations have not been made. The reality is that the design documents will have to be completed during construction. And so, we see the following results:
  19. 19. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 17 Cost Time Activity RelationCost Time Activity Relation
  20. 20. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 18 Crash CurveCrash Curve NormalNormal CostsCosts Normal DurationNormal Duration
  21. 21. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 19
  22. 22. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 20 1.Stacking of Trades 2.Morale and Attitude 3.Reassignment of Manpower 4.Crew Size Inefficiency 5.Concurrent Operations 6.Dilution of Supervision 7.Learning Curve 8.Errors and Omissions 9.Beneficial Occupancy 10.Joint Occupancy 11.Site Access 12.Logistics 13.Fatigue 14.Ripple 15.Overtime 16.Season and Weather Change 10% 5% 5% 10% 5% 10% 5% 1% 5% 5% 5% 10% 8% 10% 10% 10% 20% 15% 10% 20% 15% 15% 15% 3% 25% 12% 12% 25% 10% 15% 15% 20% 30% 30% 15% 30% 25% 25% 30% 6% 40% 20% 30% 50% 12% 20% 20% 30% Minor Average Severe
  23. 23. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 21 Lost Manhours Per Craftsman Per WeekLost Manhours Per Craftsman Per Week Due to Overcrowded Work Areas vs. Project Completion StageDue to Overcrowded Work Areas vs. Project Completion Stage
  24. 24. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 22 Lost Manhours Per Craftsman Per WeekLost Manhours Per Craftsman Per Week Due to Inspection Problems vs. Project Completion StageDue to Inspection Problems vs. Project Completion Stage
  25. 25. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 23 Lost Manhours Per Craftsman Per WeekLost Manhours Per Craftsman Per Week Due to Rework vs. Project Completion StageDue to Rework vs. Project Completion Stage
  26. 26. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 24 AbsenteeismAbsenteeism The following shows the impact to labor productivity due to absenteeism: Percent Absenteeism Productivity Gain/Loss · Level 1 0-5% 3.80% gain · Level 2 6-10% 24.40% loss · Level 3 >10% 13.00% loss …..and it appears there is a greater tendency for absenteeism during the end of projects.
  27. 27. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 25 The Game PlanThe Game Plan STAND DOWN – TAKE A DEEP BREATH Before you swing a hammer – figure out how you are going to build. Two Notices to Proceed (NTP): Administrative NTP • Submittals • Review Drawings • RFI’s • Schedule • Processes  Physical NTP }}Convert Project from “Continuation of Design” to a Construction Project ASAP.
  28. 28. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 26 Planning the Work and SchedulingPlanning the Work and Scheduling ARTICLE 2ARTICLE 2 –– PRELIMINARY MATTERSPRELIMINARY MATTERS 2.012.01 DELIVERY OF BONDSDELIVERY OF BONDS A. When CONTRACTOR delivers the executed Agreements to OWNERA. When CONTRACTOR delivers the executed Agreements to OWNER,, CONTRACTOR shall also deliver to OWNER such Bonds asCONTRACTOR shall also deliver to OWNER such Bonds as CONTRACTOR may be required to furnish.CONTRACTOR may be required to furnish. 2.02 COPIES OF DOCUMENTS2.02 COPIES OF DOCUMENTS A. OWNER shall furnish to CONTRACTOR up to ten (10) copiesA. OWNER shall furnish to CONTRACTOR up to ten (10) copies of theof the original bid drawings and specifications. Additional copies wiloriginal bid drawings and specifications. Additional copies will bel be furnished upon request at the cost of reproduction.furnished upon request at the cost of reproduction. 2.03 COMMENCEMENT OF CONTRACT TIMES; ADMINISTRATIVE2.03 COMMENCEMENT OF CONTRACT TIMES; ADMINISTRATIVE NOTICE TO PROCEED; PHYSICAL NOTICE TO PROCEEDNOTICE TO PROCEED; PHYSICAL NOTICE TO PROCEED A. This contract shall have two separate Notices to Proceed.A. This contract shall have two separate Notices to Proceed. The firstThe first notice shall be an Administrative Notice to Proceed (ANTP). Thenotice shall be an Administrative Notice to Proceed (ANTP). The secondsecond notice shall be a Physical Notice to Proceed (PNTP). The contranotice shall be a Physical Notice to Proceed (PNTP). The contract timesct times shall commence to run on the day after the Administrative Noticeshall commence to run on the day after the Administrative Notice toto Proceed. An Administrative Notice to Proceed shall be given anyProceed. An Administrative Notice to Proceed shall be given any timetime within 30 days after Notice of Award. The District shall have awithin 30 days after Notice of Award. The District shall have a period of 90period of 90 days after the opening of bids to accept or reject any bid.days after the opening of bids to accept or reject any bid. B. ADMINISTRATIVE NOTICE TO PROCEED (ANTP): After NoticeB. ADMINISTRATIVE NOTICE TO PROCEED (ANTP): After Notice of Award, and upon execution of a formal signed agreement betweeof Award, and upon execution of a formal signed agreement between then the OWNER and the CONTRACTOR, the OWNER will issue anOWNER and the CONTRACTOR, the OWNER will issue an Administrative Notice to Proceed to the CONTRACTOR. The duratioAdministrative Notice to Proceed to the CONTRACTOR. The duration ofn of the ANTP shall be for a maximum time limit of 60 calendar days.the ANTP shall be for a maximum time limit of 60 calendar days. DuringDuring the 60 day time period, administrative procedures for the preparthe 60 day time period, administrative procedures for the preparation andation and handling of shop drawings, submittals, RFIhandling of shop drawings, submittals, RFI’’s, pay requests, certified payroll,s, pay requests, certified payroll, security, site access, overtime, change ordersecurity, site access, overtime, change order’’s, photographs, ass, photographs, as--builtbuilt documents, startdocuments, start--ups, startups, start--up plans, testing, test results, training, diversionup plans, testing, test results, training, diversion plans, spare parts, QC plans, nonplans, spare parts, QC plans, non--compliance notices, warranty items, QCcompliance notices, warranty items, QC reports, coordination drawings, punch lists, certificates, schedreports, coordination drawings, punch lists, certificates, schedules, and forules, and for all other deliverables required in the contract documents shallall other deliverables required in the contract documents shall bebe satisfactorily established and approved by the ENGINEER. The basatisfactorily established and approved by the ENGINEER. The baselineseline schedule shall identify ANTP as the start date of the project.schedule shall identify ANTP as the start date of the project. No physicalNo physical construction activity, other than mobilization shall take placeconstruction activity, other than mobilization shall take place during the 60during the 60 day period after ANTP.day period after ANTP. The following items shall be completed by the CONTRACTOR beforeThe following items shall be completed by the CONTRACTOR before the OWNER will issue the Physical Notice to Proceed:the OWNER will issue the Physical Notice to Proceed: 1.1.Cost and Resource loaded Baseline Schedule per 01310 (CodeCost and Resource loaded Baseline Schedule per 01310 (Code 2.2.Provide all Temporary facilities as required in 01500.Provide all Temporary facilities as required in 01500. 3.3.Written QC Plan (Code 1)Written QC Plan (Code 1) 4.4.Schedule of values (Code 1)Schedule of values (Code 1) 5.5.Schedule of Payments (Code 1)Schedule of Payments (Code 1) 6.6.Submit all required Licenses and Permits (Code 4)Submit all required Licenses and Permits (Code 4) 7.7.Complete all initial submittals and shop drawings required for tComplete all initial submittals and shop drawings required for the firsthe first 90 days of work activity after PNTP.90 days of work activity after PNTP. 8.8.Safety officer submittal completed (Code 1)Safety officer submittal completed (Code 1) 9.9.Submit Cell numbers for Project Managers and SuperintendentsSubmit Cell numbers for Project Managers and Superintendents 10.10.Mobilize all equipment required for the first 90 days of ConstruMobilize all equipment required for the first 90 days of Constructionction activity after PNTP.activity after PNTP. 11.11.Submit emergency and after hour phone numbers.Submit emergency and after hour phone numbers. PHYSICAL NOTICE TO PROCEED (PNTP): The OWNER may issuePHYSICAL NOTICE TO PROCEED (PNTP): The OWNER may issue PNTP within 60 days from the date of the ANTP. If all of the itPNTP within 60 days from the date of the ANTP. If all of the itemsems required under the ANTP are not completed as described in Paragrrequired under the ANTP are not completed as described in Paragraphaph 2.03B, the OWNER shall enforce liquidated damages in the amount2.03B, the OWNER shall enforce liquidated damages in the amount ofof $2,750.00 per day for each day the CONTRACTOR is in non$2,750.00 per day for each day the CONTRACTOR is in non-- compliance with the requirements of the ANTP. The CONTRACTORcompliance with the requirements of the ANTP. The CONTRACTOR can request that the PNTP be issued prior to the expiration of tcan request that the PNTP be issued prior to the expiration of the 60 dayhe 60 day time period, if they have convinced the ENGINEER that they havetime period, if they have convinced the ENGINEER that they have satisfactorily completed all of the requirements of the ANTP lissatisfactorily completed all of the requirements of the ANTP listed underted under paragraphs 2.03.Bparagraphs 2.03.B
  29. 29. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 27 Planning the Work and SchedulingPlanning the Work and Scheduling (cont(cont’’d)d) 2.04 STARTING THE WORK2.04 STARTING THE WORK A.A.CONTRACTOR shall start the Administrative requirements within 10CONTRACTOR shall start the Administrative requirements within 10 days of ANTP. CONTRACTOR shall start to perform the physical Wodays of ANTP. CONTRACTOR shall start to perform the physical Workrk within 10 days of the Physical Notice to Proceed. No Work shallwithin 10 days of the Physical Notice to Proceed. No Work shall be done atbe done at the Site prior to Physical Notice to Proceed.the Site prior to Physical Notice to Proceed. 2.05 BEFORE STARTING CONSTRUCTION2.05 BEFORE STARTING CONSTRUCTION A.A. CONTRACTORCONTRACTOR’’S Review of Contract Documents:S Review of Contract Documents: Before undertaking each part of the Work, CONTRACTOR shall carefBefore undertaking each part of the Work, CONTRACTOR shall carefullyully study and compare the Contract Documents and check and verify pestudy and compare the Contract Documents and check and verify pertinentrtinent figures therein and all applicable field measurements. CONTRACTfigures therein and all applicable field measurements. CONTRACTOROR shall promptly report in writing to ENGINEER any conflict, errorshall promptly report in writing to ENGINEER any conflict, error,, ambiguity, or discrepancy which CONTRACTOR may discover and shalambiguity, or discrepancy which CONTRACTOR may discover and shalll obtain a written interpretation or clarification from ENGINEER bobtain a written interpretation or clarification from ENGINEER beforeefore proceeding with any Work affected thereby; however, CONTRACTORproceeding with any Work affected thereby; however, CONTRACTOR shall not be liable to OWNER for failure to report any conflict,shall not be liable to OWNER for failure to report any conflict, error,error, ambiguity, or discrepancy in the Contract Documents unlessambiguity, or discrepancy in the Contract Documents unless CONTRACTOR knew or reasonably should have known thereofCONTRACTOR knew or reasonably should have known thereof
  30. 30. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 28 The Game PlanThe Game Plan -- CollaborationCollaboration EFFECTIVE PARTNERING See the Clark County Story at www.frisbygroup.org Not a social function – The purpose is to convert from continuation of design to construction quickly and to act as a “mine sweeper” to clear the path ahead of the LEDs and land mines. Major purpose is for decision-makers, managers and supervisors to develop a game plan for the successful management of the project: • Collaboration • Supply Chain Management • Priority Identification & Management ▪ Decision Making ▪ Coordination • Field Supervisor’s Role • Drawing Clean-up • Close-Out • Quality Workmanship REAL COLLABORATION 1 + 1 = 1 (UNITY), then 1 + 1 can = 3 REAL COLLABORATION 1 + 1 = 1 (UNITY), then 1 + 1 can = 3
  31. 31. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 29 The Game PlanThe Game Plan -- CollaborationCollaboration EFFECTIVE PARTNERING (cont’d)  “What if” drills:  “What if the parties disagree on whether work is outside the contract?”  “What if there is a changed condition?”  “What if the priority walls create a problem by MEP contractors?  And to establish short term goals and objectives to create effective collaboration and momentum; to assure the first 25% is not slipped and avoid pushing work downstream, ending up in the congestion of the last 10%.  Have as many pre-agreements as possible, such as:  RFI Process  Change Order Pricing  Conflict Management
  32. 32. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 30 The Game PlanThe Game Plan -- CollaborationCollaboration BENCHMARK (BEST-OF-CLASS) RESULTS - Partnering Relationships versus Traditional Relationships Category Result Results Cost Total Project Cost (TPC 10% reduction Construction Administration 24% reduction Marketing 50% reduction Engineering $10 per hour reduction Value Engineering 337% increase Claims (% of TPC) 87% reduction Profitability 25% increase Schedule Overall Profit 2o% reduction Schedule Changes 48% reduction Schedule Compliance Increased from 85% to 100% Safety Hours without Lost Time Accidents 4 million vs. 1 per industry standard Lost Work Day 0 vs. 6.8 industry standard No. of Dr. Cases 74% reduction Safety Rating 5% of national average Quality Rework 50% reduction Change Orders 80% reduction Direct Work Rate 42% increase Claims Number of Claims 83% reduction Projects with Claims 68% reduction Other Job Satisfaction 30% increase Source: CII Research Product, Partnering II Research Team Report, “Partnering II – A Model for Excellence”
  33. 33. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 31 Clark County Sanitation DistrictClark County Sanitation District’’s Guiding Principless Guiding Principles 1. Contractors will be treated fairly without favoritism: A. Standards for acceptable work will be the same for all contractors. B. Standards for change order administration will be the same for all contractors. 2. The District will not divulge a contractor’s proprietary information to other contractors. 3. The District will staff with adequate and competent resources to effectively support the contractor’s operations. 4. The District will perform its decision-making function on a timely basis so as to not impede or delay the contractor’s operations. 5. The District is committed to the concept and practice of partnering as a tool for working together and communicating more effectively 6. The District is committed to promptly paying contractors for contract and change order work installed in accordance with the contract documents. 7. The District’s inspection, design consultants, and operations staff is committed to working closely with contractors field operations to fulfill the concept of Built-In-Quality and to facilitate decision- making. 8. The District encourages creativity and looking ahead to prevent problems; and will participate with the contractors to achieve the benefits that can result therefrom. 9. The District is committed to continually raising the bar of performance with its own self-evaluation and improvement. 10. District personnel will adhere to its standards of ethics, and will communicate its standards of ethics to contractors and vendors.
  34. 34. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 32 DecisionDecision--MakingMaking  Reduce the Need for Decisions  Effective Design Phase  BIM  Commissioning  Clean-up Drawings Submittals at Start of Project  Built-in-Quality (P-I-F)  Another opportunity to “clean-up drawings”  Pre-Agreements (pricing, e.g.)  Agree to agree (priority conversations)  The Process for Decision-Making:  The key restraint to making necessary is presenting timely, objective Information with credible need date for decisions and credible description of impact of decision not received. Crying Wolf is counter-productive!  Beware legalisms slowing down the project!
  35. 35. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 33 Drawing CleanDrawing Clean--UpUp  Desktop reviews to avoid RFI’s running the gamut of the project  Use of BIM for this purpose  Coordination drawings to avoid collisions, create effective layouts (avoid conflicts presented by sequencing issues such as priority walls)  Submittal reviews with key subcontractors/suppliers  Commissioning Review  Flush out potential owner/design changes  Avoid post-topping out syndrome So now, a major obstacle to project success is removed or reduced considerably. The concept is for the project production flow to continue undisturbed due to continual design issues, by removing early landmines. GOAL: Convert from Continuation of Design to Construction Project
  36. 36. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 34 Post Topping Out SyndromePost Topping Out Syndrome (Yamasaki Syndrome) Impact to Project:
  37. 37. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 35 PlanningPlanning Use Your Head PlanningUse Your Head Planning THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING
  38. 38. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 36 THE SCHEDULE THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING Is it possible? A 1453 foot, 103 story structure, constructed in 13+ months…without a CPM or PrimaVera schedule, or even a scheduling consultant? What, not a computer in sight? So, software and computers don’t schedule buildings – People do! The contractor, Starrett Brothers, realized that alchemy of creativity and experience would do what software doesn’t. So they did it the old fashioned way – use your head. Starret Brothers didn’t own anything that would be useful on the project decided to design and purchase all new, custom pieces and sell it (and credit the investors with the difference) when the project was complete. This provided the most productive equipment for the project and provided a potential cost savings. They determined that more than sixty different types of trade people would be required and that most supplies would need to be ordered to specification because the immense job scope. The supplies had to be made at the plants in as close to finished state as possible, to minimize preparatory work needed at the site. The companies they hired had to be dependable, able to provide quality work, and willing to adhere to the allotted timetable. Time had to be scheduled nearly to the minute. The schedule dictated that each section of the building process overlapped – not a moment was to be wasted. This was the first commercial construction project to employ the technique of fast-track construction. Excavation began in January 1930 before the demolition of the site’s previous occupant, was complete, having pioneered concurrent demolition and foundation-laying. Two months later, in March 1930 the steel skeleton began. The frame rose at the rate of four and a half stories per week, or more than a story a day. • 13 months no computer • “Use your Head” Pre- Planning • Creativity • Shared Risk • Supply Chain Management • Production Flow • Quality Commitment • Fast Track • Fast Track • Frame Cycle • 4.5 stores per week
  39. 39. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 37 THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING (cont’d) The 60,000 tons of steel for the framework were manufactured in Pittsburgh and transported immediately to New York via train, barge and truck. The steel posts and beams arrived marked with their place in the framework and the number of the derrick that would hoist them. Workers could then swing the girders into place and have them riveted as quickly as 80 hours after coming out of the furnace and off the roller. In those days, bricks used for construction were usually dumped in the street and then moved from the pile to the bricklayer by wheelbarrow as needed. With ten million bricks needed for this job, the old method would be impractical and wasteful of time. Instead, the contractor devised a chute that led to a hopper in the basement. As the bricks arrived by truck, the contractors had them dumped down the chute. When they were needed, the bricks were released from the hopper and dropped into carts, which were then hoisted up to the appropriate floor. While the outside of the building was being constructed, electricians and plumbers began installing the internal necessities of the building. Timing for each trade to start working was finely tuned, and the building rose as if being constructed on an assembly line – one where the assembly line did the moving and the finished product stayed put. The Starrett Brothers managed a workforce of 3,500 men, who put in seven million man- hours including work on Sundays and holidays. The workers earned $15 per day, an excellent rate of pay in the early 1930s. Construction was completed on April 11, 1931, one year and 45 days after it had begun. President Herbert Hoover officially opened the building on May 1, 1931, by pressing a button in Washington D.C. which turned on the building’s lights. The Empire State Building remained the world’s tallest skyscraper for more than 40 years, until the World Trade Center Towers were constructed in 1972. See www.constructioncompany.com/historic-construction-projects/empire-state-building/ for the full story. • Material Handling • Material Handling • Assembly Line • Role of Pay • Role of Pride
  40. 40. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 38 The Important ProcessThe Important Process BUILT-IN QUALITY FLOW CHART
  41. 41. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 39 How To Build In QualityHow To Build In Quality P-I-F Include in Construction Schedule the Prepare for Preparatory Meeting Review: Commit to a P(preparatory)- → P-I-F for each Key Work Activity → • P&S I(interim)- and F(final) Approach Construction Administration • Material Needs • Equipment Needs • Interface with Other Work • Basis of Acceptance • Safety Issues Preparatory Meeting Attendees: Preparatory Meeting Agenda Review: Performance to the Point of Interim • Supervisor/Foreman • Contract Requirements Inspection: • Quality Personnel • Material Needed • Communicate Plan to Crew & Home • Owner’s Representative • Tools Needed Office • Equipment Submittals • Assure Pre-Loading, Material Handling • Requirements of Precedent Work Running Smoothly • Access/Coordination Issues • Perform Interim Inspection • Material Handling Plan • Re-plan as Necessary • Workforce Requirements • Environment Requirements • Potential Restraints • Safety Issues • Duration • Basis of Acceptance • Testing Requirements • Documentation Required • Decisions Needed Develop Plan of Action A SEQUENCE
  42. 42. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 40 How To Build In QualityHow To Build In Quality (cont(cont’’d)d) Performance to Final Inspection Evaluation • After Interim, make corrections as required • Quality Representative and Supervisor continue to monitor workmanship • Testing as required • Documentation • Final Inspection by: • Supervisor • Contractor’s Quality Representative • Final Inspection by Owner’s Representative
  43. 43. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 41 Three Phases of ControlThree Phases of Control Contractor Quality Control is the means by which the Contractor ensures that the construction, to include that of subcontractors and suppliers, complies with the requirements of the contract. At least three phases of control shall be conducted by the CQC System Manager for each definable feature of the construction work as follows: I.PREPARATORY PHASE This phase shall be performed prior to beginning work on each definable feature of work, after all required plans/documents/materials are approved/accepted, and after copies are at the work site. This phase shall include: A. A review of each paragraph of applicable specifications, reference codes, and standards. A copy of those sections of referenced codes and standards applicable to that portion of the work to be accomplished in the field shall be made available by the Contractor at the preparatory inspection. These copies shall be maintained in the field and available for use by Government personnel until final acceptance of the work. B. A review of the contract drawings. C. A check to assure that all materials and/or equipment have been tested, submitted, and approved. D.Review of provisions that have been made to provide required control inspection and testing. E.Examination of the work area to assure that all required preliminary work has been completed and is in compliance with the contract. F. A physical examination of required materials, equipment, and sample work to assure that they are on hand, conform to approved shop drawings or submitted data, and are properly stored. G. A review of the appropriate activity hazard analysis to assure safety requirements are met. H. Discussion of procedures for controlling quality of the work including repetitive deficiencies. Document construction tolerances and workmanship standards for that feature of work. I. A check to ensure that the portion of the plan for the work to be performed has been accepted by the Contracting Officer. J. Discussion of the initial control phase. K. The Government shall be notified at least 24 hours in advance of beginning the preparatory control phase. This phase shall include a meeting conducted by the CQC System Manager and attended by the superintendent, other CQC personnel (as applicable), and the foreman responsible for the definable feature. The results of the preparatory phase actions shall be documented by separate minutes prepared by the CQC System Manager and attached to the daily CQC report. The Contractor shall instruct applicable workers as to the acceptable level of workmanship required in order to meet contract specifications.
  44. 44. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 42 Three Phases of ControlThree Phases of Control (cont(cont’’d)d) II. INITIAL PHASE This phase shall be accomplished at the beginning of a definable feature of work. The following shall be accomplished: A. A check of work to ensure that it is in full compliance with contract requirements. Review minutes of the preparatory meeting. B. Verify adequacy of controls to ensure full contract compliance. Verify required control inspection and testing. C. Establish level of workmanship and verify that it meets minimum acceptable workmanship standards. Compare with required sample panels as appropriate. D. Resolve all differences. E. Check safety to include compliance with and upgrading of the safety plan and activity hazard analysis. Review the activity analysis with each worker. F. The Government shall be notified at least 24 hours in advance of beginning the initial phase. Separate minutes of this phase shall be prepared by the CQC System Manager and attached to the daily CQC report. Exact location of initial phase shall be indicated for future reference and comparison with follow-up phases. G. The initial phase should be repaired for each new crew to work onsite, or any time acceptable specified quality standards are not being met. III. FOLLOW-UP PHASE Daily checks shall be performed to assure control activities, including control testing, are providing continued compliance with contract requirements, until completion of the particular feature of work. The checks shall be made a matter of record in the CQC documentation. Final follow- up checks shall be conducted and all deficiencies corrected prior to the start of additional features of work, which may be affected by the deficient work. The Contractor shall not build upon nor conceal non-conforming work. IV. ADDITIONAL PREPARATORY AND INITIAL PHASES Additional preparatory and initial phases shall be conducted on the same definable features of work: if the quality of on- going work is unacceptable; if there are changes in the applicable CQC staff, onsite production supervision or work crew; if work on a definable feature is resumed after a substantial period of inactivity; or if other problems develop.
  45. 45. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 43 Supply Chain ManagementSupply Chain Management Now assume drawings are complete – What next?  (Note: Turner Model)  Pull Management  Game Plan for: 1. Submittal & Delivery Process • The Good: Empire State Building Ravenel Bridge • The Bad: Hospital - Window Wall - Owner-Furnished Equipment (More than just completing submittal log – putting on schedule) 2. Material Handling – Storage/Inventory/Movement – Just-In-Time Concepts • The Good: Empire State Building • The Bad: Hospital - Casework Note: Talk to your friendly manufacturer! Spend some time in a factory to see what is going on.
  46. 46. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 44 PlanningPlanning (see LeanConstruction.org)  Schedulers know how to use software  Field Supervisors know how to build the project. Field supervisors (including subcontractors and key suppliers) should be involved deeply in initial planning process, and continuously throughout the project. The Role of Real Collaboration at the Field Level  Flow of Work  Short Interval Objectives developed by all trades working together. o 3 to 6 week look-ahead; 1 week look-ahead; daily o Another opportunity to “clean up drawings”  Measureable Performance Goals  Coordination of Craft Contractors  State of Readiness  Method of Resolving Conflicts o Priority Conversations  Focus Meetings for Improvement  Waste Management Goals: o Workmanship o Backcharge Avoidance o Finding problems in office, not in field o Material handling o Maintaining production flow (for all trades)  Managing Home Office THE ROLE OF FIELD PERSONNEL
  47. 47. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 45 PlanningPlanning (cont(cont’’d)d) The process is about:  Thinking about best way to build, best way to avoid problems, best way to overcome problems  A network of promises • And promises fulfilled “My crew will be there Monday” – and it is! “The area will be ready for your crew” – and it was!  Conversations, skull sessions • Continuous information, preparation.  Creativity and Improvement • How can we build the Empire State Building in 13 months rather than living in status quo?  Planning and Execution (PLEX) • Promise to do it! Do it!  Mood • Mood of Ambition or Role of Despair CONCEPTS OF THE PLANNING PROCESS
  48. 48. ©©2011 Thomas N. Frisby2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.orgwww.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.comThomasFrisby@msn.com 46 PlanPlan SHORT TERM PRIORITIES – ACTION LIST (Ball in Court) Item Schedule Responsibility Comment/Status 1. Decisions A. B. 2. Approvals A. B. 3. Deliveries A. B. 4. Installation A. B. 5. Resources Needed A. B.
  49. 49. ©©2011 Thomas N. Frisby2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.orgwww.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.comThomasFrisby@msn.com 47 Project CloseProject Close--Out ProcessOut Process 1. Begin Close-out at start of job:  Read contract for close-out requirements  What is required for substantial completion  What is required for final acceptance  Owner should consider commissioning agent on selective projects 2. Include Close-out requirements in subcontract agreements purchase orders 3. Meeting with key personnel including designer, owner, subs, suppliers to initiate close- out plan to include:  Administrative requirements  Commissioning TAB  Completion of punchlist  Training  Deliverables
  50. 50. ©©2011 Thomas N. Frisby2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.orgwww.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.comThomasFrisby@msn.com 48 Project CloseProject Close--Out ProcessOut Process (cont(cont’’d)d) 4. Develop quality plan (P-I-F)  Insert in schedule dates for preparatory, interim, final inspections for at least key work activities  Insert in schedule activities such as testing, training, commissioning, TAB  Maintain as-builts on a daily basis 5. Periodic project meeting dealing with close-out plan  Identify & resolve restraints to progress 6. Contractor should always know where he really is based on realistic schedule updates and earned value reports 7. Avoid adding work in last 25% of project (retrofit where possible)
  51. 51. ©©2011 Thomas N. Frisby2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.orgwww.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.comThomasFrisby@msn.com 49 Project CloseProject Close--Out ProcessOut Process (cont(cont’’d)d) 8. At 75% point have major “close-out” meeting. Review close-out plan, intensify daily planning.  Avoid overtime unless selective & productive  Avoid adding manpower unless selective & wise  Develop schedule for negotiating all change orders 9. Grant reasonable time extensions to avoid “two pounds in a one pound bag” syndrome. 10. Contractor(s) own its (their own punch lists). Designer is not the inspector – the project should be ready for substantial completion when the designed is asked to run final punchlist and issue certificate of substantial completion.
  52. 52. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 50 TheThe Creation of the ScheduleCreation of the Schedule  This can be a major activity in developing a collaborative process  Scheduling consultant should be a Facilitator and not a Dictator  ALL parties, including decision-makers and stakeholders, should be involved  Brainstorming/StoryBook (Creative Planning such as the Empire State Building) 1. Develop a logical flow of work 2. Identify Priorities and objectives for first part of project 3. Identify Decisions Which are required 4. Identify and discussion constraints and how to resolve 5. Identify game plan for craft coordination 6. Identify risks and approach to mitigate or avoid GORDON ARONSON
  53. 53. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 51 TheThe Creation of the ScheduleCreation of the Schedule (cont(cont’’d)d)  Work together to develop short term schedule  Work together to develop approach for continuing short term schedule process  Establish game plan for coordinating trades  Establish best material handling approach  Discussion on HOW DO YOU REALLY USE A CPM AS A PRODUCTIVITY TOOL: 1. Establishing productivity goals (such as pounds of sheet metal per floor) 2. Use of Schedule for Early Warning Signals LAST 10%:
  54. 54. ©2011 Thomas N. Frisby www.frisbygroup.org ThomasFrisby@msn.com 52  Obviously, maintain the momentum throughout the project established in the first 25%. All those processes are simply rubber banded throughout to assure continuation of collaborative driven success  At 75% point, pretend it is DAY ONE and repeat what you did at the outset of the project. 1. Identify the variances that are occurring and work toward developing rhythm 2. Determine constraints and resolution 3. Implement commissioning/start up plan 4. Include punch lists on schedule and plans 5. Flush out any owner/designer changes. Retrofit where possible. 6. Add deliverables required for Substantial and Final Completion TheThe Creation of the ScheduleCreation of the Schedule (cont(cont’’d)d)

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