HISTORYREVISION PACK:CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS. PAPER 1(Distributed April 2012)
Flashcards: The Background to the CrisisWho ruled Cuba before Castro? Batista, an army officer, who had seized power with the help of the USAWhy was Batista so unpopular? He allowed US companies to control much of Cuba’s industry and agriculture; there was little reform for much of Cuba’s population who remained very poorWhat reforms were introduced after Castro worked to end corruption inCastro overthrew Batista in 1959? government and improve the conditions of agricultural and industrial workersWhy did the USA grow increasingly Castro began appointing communists toconcerned by Castro’s reforms? his government and signed a trade agreement with the USSR in which Cuban sugar would be swapped for machinery, oil and economic aid (and conventional weapons such as machine guns)How did the USA react? In January 1960 the USA stopped buying Cuban sugar, and then banned all trade with Cuba; by January 1961 the USA stopped all diplomatic relations with CubaWhat effect did these reactions have? This pushed Castro closer to the USSR – they now planned something far more drastic, the Bay of Pigs InvasionWhat was the Bay of Pigs Invasion? This was to be led by Cuban exiles, living in Florida; the plan was supported by JFK. Weapons, training and transport were provided by the CIA. The exiles hoped to establish a base for guerrilla activities against Castro and were confident that the Cuban people would support themWhy was it such a disaster? This force of 1400 exiles landed in Cuba but found themselves facing over 20,000 Cuban troops; the people did not rise up in support of the exiles. Most importantly both Castro and Khrushchev knew it had been planned by the CIA – JFK was humiliated!What were the consequences of this • The invasion convinced Castroinvasion? that he needed more Soviet support to defend himself against possible US attacks • In September 1961 Khrushchev publicly announced that he would provide arms to Cuba • By 1962 Castro had a very well euipped army containing the latest tanks, missiles and ‘technicians’ (who were Soviet
military personnel) • Castro now declared himself to be a communist and nationalised all US industries in CubaFlashcards: The Crisis Develops!What did a U2 spy plane discover on It took pictures of what appeared to beOctober 14 1962? missile sites being built – some were very near to completion!What other worrying news was received There was a fleet of Soviet ships sailingby the Americans? to Cuba, presumably carrying more missiles for the new sitesWhat options were open to JFK? He could choose one of the following: • Launch an air strike against the missile sites • Launch an invasion of Cuba • Use diplomacy (including the UN) • Set up a naval blockade around CubaWhat were the dangers of launching an The missiles could be fired as soon as USinvasion of Cuba? troops landed on Cuban soil; furthermore the USSR would probably launch an invasion of West BerlinWhat were the dangers of launching an This would probably kill Sovietair strike? ‘technicians’ and escalate the crisis; furthermore the USSR would probably launch an invasion of West BerlinWhat did JFK decide to do on October 22 He decided to place a naval blockade1962? around Cuba, whilst also preparing troops for a possible invasion of Cuba; furthermore he called on the USSR to remove their missiles from CubaHow did Khrushchev respond? He replied there were no Soviet missiles on Cuba and that the USSR would ignore the blockadeWhat happened when Soviet ships They turned back and did not attempt toreached the naval blockade on October break the blockade: ‘Khrushchev just24 1962? blinked!’ However Soviet missiles still remained on CubaWhat offer was made by Khrushchev in The USSR would remove their nuclearthe letter sent on October 26? weapons if the USA lifted the blockade and promised not to invade Cuba – the USA was very happy with this!What offer was made by Khrushchev in The USSR would remove their nuclearthe letter sent on October 27? weapons if the USA removed theirs from TurkeyHow did JFK react? On the same day he received the second letter, a U2 spy plane was shot down over Cuba. JFK responded only to the
first letter, saying he agreed with its terms, but if the missiles were not removed and attack would follow. The President’s brother also informed the Soviet ambassador in Washington that the US would remove its missiles from TurkeyFlashcards: The Results of the CrisisWhat did the USA gain from this crisis? • Nuclear missiles were removed from Cuba • The missiles in Turkey were removed secretly • JFK was no longer seen as weak and inexperienced – his decision to impose a naval blockade was justifiedWhat did USSR gain from this crisis? • Cuba remained a Communist country only 90 miles from the USA • Cuba continued to look to the USSR for protectionWhat did the USA lose from this crisis? • Missiles in Turkey – this angered some of her NATO alliesWhat did USSR lose from this crisis? • The USSR was publicly seen to have backed down – this angered many Soviet politicians • Khrushchev was removed from office in 1964What did the world gain from this crisis? • A direct hot line phone link was set up between Washington and Moscow • A Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was set up in 1963What did Cuba gain from this crisis? • Her independence had been secured; she was now free from US interference • However Castro felt like a pawn in a very high stakes game which could have seen the destruction of this island
Cold War Exam Practice: Cartoon Based QuestionsJanuary 2010(a) Study source A: What is the message of this cartoon? Use details of thecartoon and your own knowledge to explain your answer (7)(b) Explain why Kennedy could claim victory in the Cuban Missile Crisis (8) TOP TIP! For these style of cartoon questions you can earn 6/7 for a well explained answer that refers to only the cartoon or your own knowledge; the final mark is gained by doing both! TOP TIP! For the (b) type questions you must explain TWO reasons to earn your full 8 marks; if you explain just one reason you will earn 5-6 marks. Look at the answers below – what marks would they be awarded? The main message is that the good, clean cut guy Kennedy is standing up to the threat of the scoundrels who are riding into town. Kennedy is shown standing (up to the threat) whilst Castro is shown as a lesser threat by being shown on a donkey and dropping his gun. Khrushchev is larger and therefore more of a threat and is shown behind (backing / supporting) Castro. Kennedy decided to follow a policy of containment by introducing a blockade and persuading Khrushchev to turn his ships around. The hardliners in his government and some of his advisers wanted him to turn back Communism. This was a dangerous, high risk strategy which could have resulted in nuclearCartoons for you to Interpret: now being seen as a far more experienced war. However this resulted in JFK leader (who had previously sanctioned the Bay of Pigs Invasion) and respected around the world.
January 2012: (a) Describe the USA’s reaction to the Cuban Revolution (4) (b) Explain why Khrushchev placed missiles on Cuba (6) (c) The outcomes of the Cuban Missile Crisis were equally successful for (i) the USA (ii) the USSR (iii) Cuba How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer referring to only (i), (ii) and (iii) (10)June 2011: (a) Describe how Cuba changed under Castro (4) (b) Explain JFK’S options after missile sites were discovered in Cuba (6) (c) ‘The USA was more responsible for causing the Cuban Missile Crisis than the USSR.’ How far do you agree with this statement? (10)January 2011:How would you grade the following responses:(a) Describe the Bay of Pigs Invasion (4) ‘In April 1961, 1 400 exiles, trained by the CIA landed at the Bay of Pigs in an attemp to overthrow Castro. They were met by 20 000 Cuban troops.’ ‘The Cuban troops were successful, killing or capturing the exiles; furthermore there was no popular uprising in support of this invasion. JFK was forced to deny the involvement of the US government’(b) Explain why the Soviet Union became involved in Cuba (6) Khrushchev wanted to bargain with the USA. If he had missiles in Cuba he could agree to remove them if the USA removed their missiles from, Turkey. This would make the Soviet Union feel more secure. In the context of the Cold War, he was trying to see how strong the USA really was and to test the new President.JFK was young and inexperienced, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion led Khrushchev to question the capacity of the US president. Also Khrushchev was anxious to defend Cuba. It was the only Communist state in the Western hemisphere, and had willingly become Communist. In addition Cuba was in the US’s ‘backyard’. It was ideal to try to encourage Communist development in South America.
(c) ‘Kennedy handled the Cuban Missile Crisis better than Khrushchev did’.How far do you agree with this statement? (10)Complete the table below to plan a response to this question:Positive - Kennedy Positive - KhrushchevNegative - Kennedy Negative - KhrushchevJune 2010: (a) Describe the USA’s reaction to Castro’s seizure of power in Cuba (4) (b) Explain why the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion caused problems for the USA (6) This failed invasion created two main problems for the USA. Firstly it was a sign that the USA was not intending to directly interefere in Cuba, preferring instead to supply arms to Cuban exiles who had little hope of succeeding. This convinced Khrushchev that JFK was a weak and indecisive leader who would not stand up to Soviet power and influence. Secondly the invasion caused Cubans to seek protection from the USSR so its independence could be guaranteed. Soviet arms and ‘technicians’ flooded into Cuba who quickly developed a very well-equipped armed force. Months after the invasion the Cubans permitted the USSR to station nuclear weapons in their country, which directly threatened the USA.
(c) ‘The Cuban Missile Crisis was a victory for the USSR’ How far do you agree with this statement? (10)SPECIMEN:(a) What happened at the Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961? (4)(b) Explain why Khrushchev sent missiles to Cuba in 1962? (6)(c) ‘The Cuban Missile Crisis was never a threat to world peace.’ How far doyou agree with this statement? (10)