Buddhist Association of Canada     Cham Shan Temple              Updated Mar 2010
Buddhist Association of Canada          Cham Shan Templená       mó    fó            tuó南        無      佛             陀   ...
Buddhist Association of Canada  Exercise the Orientation of a Sense-Door Where is your attention? What sense impression ...
Buddhist Association of Canada  Technique of Mental Noting A useful device to support meditative  attention is naming the...
Buddhist Association of Canada   Four Spheres of Attention1. Attention to the Body – All forms, four   elements, six doors...
Buddhist Association of Canada       Two Modes of Meditation       “Samatha and Vipassana” Samatha – Serenity meditation ...
Buddhist Association of Canada        Appreciate The Nature of          “Arts of Attention”1. Not to control the practive ...
Buddhist Association of Canada     Three-Fold Strategy of Practice     1. Restraint of behaviors in order to            ha...
Buddhist Association of Canada     Three-Fold Strategy of Practice     2. Recollectedness for developing the          medi...
Buddhist Association of Canada                 Right EffortMental energy is the force behind the right effort;  it can occ...
Buddhist Association of Canada             Right Mindfulness Right mindfulness is to perfect the faculty of cognition. It...
Buddhist Association of Canada          Right Concentration Right concentration, refers to the development of a mental fo...
Buddhist Association of Canada     Three-Fold Strategy of Practice       3.   Discernment and InsightDiscernment is the in...
Buddhist Association of Canada加拿大佛教會                           © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
Buddhist Association of Canada加拿大佛教會                           © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
Buddhist Association of Canada   Chapter Five: The Parable of the          Medicinal HerbsAt that time the World-Honored O...
Buddhist Association of Canada"Kashyapa, you should understand this. TheThus Come One is king of the doctrines. Inwhat he ...
Buddhist Association of Canada"Kashyapa, it is like the plants and trees, thicketsand groves, and the medicinal herbs, wid...
Buddhist Association of Canada"Kashyapa, you should understand that theThus Come One is like this. He appears inthe world ...
Buddhist Association of CanadaThose who have not yet crossed over I willcause to cross over, those not yet freed Iwill fre...
Buddhist Association of Canada"Once these living beings have heard the Law,they will enjoy peace and security in theirpres...
Buddhist Association of Canada"The Law preached by the Thus Come One is ofone form, one flavor, namely, the form ofemancip...
Buddhist Association of Canada"Living beings exist in a variety of environments,but only the Thus Come One sees the trueci...
Buddhist Association of Canada"You and the others, Kashyapa, have done a veryrare thing, for you can understand how the Th...
Buddhist Association of Canada                   Chapter Six: Bestowal of ProphecyAt that time the World-Honored One, havi...
Buddhist Association of Canada"His realm will be majestically adorned, free of defilement or evil, shardsor rubble, thorns...
Buddhist Association of CanadaAt that time the great Maudgalyayana, Subhuti and Mahakatyayana, allof them trembling with a...
Buddhist Association of CanadaAt that time the World-Honored One once more spoke to the multitude of monks: "NowI say this...
Buddhist Association of Canada"His land will be level and smooth, the ground made of crystal, adornedwith jeweled trees, w...
Buddhist Association of CanadaAt that time the World-Honored One spoke to the great assembly: "NowI say to you. Great Maud...
Buddhist Association of Canada"Then he will be able to become a Buddha with the title TamalapatraSandalwood Fragrance Thus...
Buddhist Association of Canada"Then he will be able to become a Buddha with the title TamalapatraSandalwood Fragrance Thus...
Buddhist Association of Canada Questions and Comments 討論www.ChamShanTemple.orgwww.shengguangshi.blogspot.comShengguangShi@...
Buddhist Association of Canada回向                                             yuàn xiāo                zhàng zhū fán năo   ...
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20111126 white lotus sutra chapter 5 & 6 and art of attention

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Lotus Sutra, Meditation, arts of attention

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20111126 white lotus sutra chapter 5 & 6 and art of attention

  1. 1. Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Temple Updated Mar 2010
  2. 2. Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Templená mó fó tuó南 無 佛 陀 Namo Buddhaná mó dá mó南 無 達 摩 Namo Dharmaná mó sēng qié南 無 僧 伽 Namo Sangha Updated Mar 2010
  3. 3. Buddhist Association of Canada Exercise the Orientation of a Sense-Door Where is your attention? What sense impression is predominant now? Is it the eye-door as you are viewing the page, the ear-door attracted by sounds or the touch sensations of the body’s contact on the chair your are sitting on? “The Present Moment” is the time to establish the habit of being consciously present at a sense door and notice what is happening during a sense impression. Choose a sense-door and be attentive. What feeling is present? Is it pleasant, unpleasant or neutral? What thoughts are associated with it? Do you notice of any changes? 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  4. 4. Buddhist Association of Canada Technique of Mental Noting A useful device to support meditative attention is naming the various objects during the observation of your own mind and body. Noting is done by repeatedly making a mental note of what ever arises in your body/mind experience. When hearing, say I am hearing in my mind. When angry, say I am angry in my mind. Mental noting can be combined with the practice of orientating to your sense impressions. Be careful not to analyze what is being observed, just register or note it without reaction. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  5. 5. Buddhist Association of Canada Four Spheres of Attention1. Attention to the Body – All forms, four elements, six doors, postures, movements.2. Attention to Feelings or Sensations – Pleasant, unpleasant or neutral, be aware of primary feeling vs. emotional experience.3. Attention to the Consciousness and Mind- States – Knowing of anything, moment-to- moment awareness, alertness, layers of cause and conditions, arising and passing away of each mind-states.4. Attention to the Mental Content – Register the “things” in the mind i.e. thoughts, ideas, concepts without commentary. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  6. 6. Buddhist Association of Canada Two Modes of Meditation “Samatha and Vipassana” Samatha – Serenity meditation uses techniques of fixing on a single object to produce one-pointedness; practice mantras, respiration or contemplation. Vipassana – Awareness meditation, paying close attention to predominant object with moment-to-moment awareness; lead to insight knowledge. Make appropriate adjustments of these two modes during meditation. Too tense during insight meditation, switch to serenity meditation. Too drowsy during serenity meditation, switch to insight meditation to invigorate the mind. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  7. 7. Buddhist Association of Canada Appreciate The Nature of “Arts of Attention”1. Not to control the practive – Have a flowing receptivity to the experience without controlling it.2. Discipline in meditation is not to imposing your will to control the practice.3. Just follow the directions and persistently apply the instructions with sensitivity and alertness.4. Develop skills without controlling or interfering with the experience.5. Not to be reactive or judgmental by cultivating qualities of acceptance, empathy and let go.6. To be successful in self-managing your meditation practice, you need to study the “Three-Fold Strategy of Practice. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  8. 8. Buddhist Association of Canada Three-Fold Strategy of Practice 1. Restraint of behaviors in order to harmonize relationshipsFive Precepts a. Refrain from harming or taking life b. Refrain from taking what is not given c. Refrain from the misuse of the senses d. Refrain from false and harsh speech e. Refrain from taking intoxicantsCultivate positive behaviors i.e. honesty, generosity, bodhi mind, loving kindness, and compassion.Four Persuasions1. Giving, 2. Affectionate speeches,3. Beneficial Action and 4. Co-operation (Set a good example) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  9. 9. Buddhist Association of Canada Three-Fold Strategy of Practice 2. Recollectedness for developing the meditative art of focusingFull awareness (recollectedness) by three meditation skills:a. Right Effortb. Right Mindfulnessc. Right Concentration 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  10. 10. Buddhist Association of Canada Right EffortMental energy is the force behind the right effort; it can occur in either wholesome or unwholesome states. The same type of energy that fuels desire, envy, aggression, and violence can on the other side fuel self- discipline, honesty, benevolence, and kindness.Right effort is detailed in four types of endeavours that rank in ascending order of perfection:1. to prevent the arising of “not-yet arisen” unwholesome states,2. to abandon unwholesome states that have already arisen,3. to arouse wholesome states that have not yet arisen, and4. to maintain and perfect wholesome states already arisen. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  11. 11. Buddhist Association of Canada Right Mindfulness Right mindfulness is to perfect the faculty of cognition. It is the mental ability to see things as they are, with clear consciousness. The cognitive process begins with an impression induced by perception, or by a thought. But we almost always conceptualize sense impressions and thoughts immediately. Right mindfulness is anchored in clear perception and it penetrates impressions without getting carried away. Right mindfulness enables us to be aware of the process of conceptualization in a way that we actively observe and control the way our thoughts go.Buddha accounted for this as the four foundations of mindfulness:1. Contemplation of the body as formless and imperfection,2. Contemplation of feeling as suffering (repulsive, attractive, or neutral),3. Contemplation of the state of mind as inconsistence,4. Contemplation of the phenomena as non-self, 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  12. 12. Buddhist Association of Canada Right Concentration Right concentration, refers to the development of a mental force that occurs in natural consciousness. Concentration in this context is described as one-pointedness of mind, meaning a state where all mental faculties are unified and directed onto one particular object. Right concentration for the purpose of the eightfold path means wholesome concentration, i.e. concentration on wholesome thoughts and actions. Right concentration first directs the mind onto the object, then sustains concentration, and finally intensifies concentration step by step. Through this practice it becomes natural to apply elevated levels concentration also in everyday situations. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  13. 13. Buddhist Association of Canada Three-Fold Strategy of Practice 3. Discernment and InsightDiscernment is the intelligence that uncovers the true nature of things by seeing through the “content” mind to the underlying processes.It is based upon a non-reactive awareness, a perfectly attuned attitude and a penetrative attentiveness that has the potential to see what really is.The outcome of such practice is direct experiential knowledge of the three universal characteristics of existence: a. All conditional things are impermanent, b. The physical world can’t bring lasting satisfaction. (Nirvana is peace.) c. All phenomena are without self (non-self) “ ” 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  14. 14. Buddhist Association of Canada加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  15. 15. Buddhist Association of Canada加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  16. 16. Buddhist Association of Canada Chapter Five: The Parable of the Medicinal HerbsAt that time the World-Honored One saidto Mahakashyapa and the other majordisciples: "Excellent, excellent,Kashyapa. You have given an excellentdescription of the true blessings of theThus Come One. It is just as you havesaid. The Thus Come One indeed hasimmeasurable, boundless, asamkhyas ofblessings, and though you and the otherswere to spend immeasurable millions ofkalpas in the effort, you could never finishdescribing them. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  17. 17. Buddhist Association of Canada"Kashyapa, you should understand this. TheThus Come One is king of the doctrines. Inwhat he preaches, there is nothing that isvain. With regard to all the variousdoctrines, he employs wisdom as anexpedient means in expounding them.Therefore the doctrines that he expounds allextends to the point where there iscomprehensive wisdom. The Thus ComeOne observes and understands the end towhich all doctrines tend. And he alsounderstands the workings of the deepestmind of all living beings, penetrating themcompletely and without hindrance. And withregard to the doctrines he is thoroughlyenlightened, and he reveals to living beingsthe totality of wisdom. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  18. 18. Buddhist Association of Canada"Kashyapa, it is like the plants and trees, thicketsand groves, and the medicinal herbs, widely rangingin variety, each with its own name and hue, thatgrow in the hills and streams, the valleys anddifferent soils of the thousand-millionfold world.Dense clouds spread over them, covering the entirethousand-millionfold world and in one momentsaturating it all. The moisture penetrates to all theplants, trees, thickets and groves, and medicinalherbs equally, to their big roots, big stems, big limbsand big leaves. Each of the trees, big and small,depending upon whether it is superior, middling orinferior in nature, receives its allotment. The rainfalling from one blanket of clouds accords with eachparticular species and nature, causing it to sproutand mature, to blossom and bear fruit. Though allthese plants and trees grow in the same earth andmoistened by the same rain, each has itsdifferences and particulars. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  19. 19. Buddhist Association of Canada"Kashyapa, you should understand that theThus Come One is like this. He appears inthe world like a great cloud rising up. Witha loud voice he penetrates to all theheavenly and human beings and theasuras of the entire world, like a greatcloud spreading over the thousand-millionfold lands. And in the midst of thegreat assembly, he addresses these words,saying: " I am the Thus Come One, worthyof offerings, of right and universalknowledge, perfect clarity and conduct,well gone, understanding the world,unexcelled worthy, trainer of people,teacher of heavenly and human beings,Buddha, World-Honored One. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  20. 20. Buddhist Association of CanadaThose who have not yet crossed over I willcause to cross over, those not yet freed Iwill free, those not yet at rest I will put torest, those not yet in nirvana I will cause toattain nirvana. Of this existence and futureexistences I understand the truecircumstances. I am one who knows allthings, sees all things, understands theway, opens up the way, preaches the way.You heavenly and human beings, asurasand others, you must all come here so thatI may let you hear the Dharma!" 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  21. 21. Buddhist Association of Canada"Once these living beings have heard the Law,they will enjoy peace and security in theirpresent existence and good circumstances infuture existences, when they will receive joythrough the way and again be able to hear theLaw. And having heard the Law, they willescape from obstacles and hindrances, andwith regard to the various doctrines will beable to exercise their powers to the fullest, sothat gradually they can enter into the way. It islike the rain falling from that great cloud uponall the plants and trees, thickets and groves,and medicinal herbs. Each, depending uponits species and nature, receives its full shareof moistening and is enabled to sprout andgrow. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  22. 22. Buddhist Association of Canada"The Law preached by the Thus Come One is ofone form, one flavor, namely, the form ofemancipation, the form of separation, the form ofextinction, which in the end comes down to awisdom embracing all species. When the livingbeings hear the law of the Thus Come One,though they may embrace, read and recite it, andpractice it as it dictates, they themselves do notrealize or understand the blessings they aregaining thereby. Why is this? Because only theThus Come One understands the species, theform, the substance, the nature of these livingbeings, he knows what things they dwell on, whatthings they ponder, that things they practice. Heknows what Law they dwell on, what Law theyponder, what Law they practice, through what Lawthey attain what Law. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  23. 23. Buddhist Association of Canada"Living beings exist in a variety of environments,but only the Thus Come One sees the truecircumstances and fully understands them withouthindrance. It is like those plants and trees, thicketsand groves, and medicinal herbs which do notthemselves know whether they are superior,middling or inferior in nature. But the Thus ComeOne knows that this is the Law of one form, oneflavor, namely, the form of emancipation, the formof separation, the form of extinction, the form ofultimate nirvana, of constant tranquility andemptiness. The Buddha understands all this. Butbecause he can see the desires that are in theminds of living beings, he guides and protectsthem, and for this reason does not immediatelypreach to them the wisdom that embraces allspecies. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  24. 24. Buddhist Association of Canada"You and the others, Kashyapa, have done a veryrare thing, for you can understand how the ThusCome One preaches the Law in accordance withwhat is appropriate, you can have faith in it, youcan accept it. Why do I say this? Because the factthat the Buddhas, the World-Honored Ones,preach the Law in accordance with what isappropriate is hard to comprehend, hard tounderstand."At that time the World-Honored One, wishing tostate his meaning once more, spoke in verse form,saying:The Dharma King, destroyer of being, ... 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  25. 25. Buddhist Association of Canada Chapter Six: Bestowal of ProphecyAt that time the World-Honored One, having finished reciting these verses,made an announcement to the great assembly, speaking in these words:"This disciple of mine Mahakashyapa in future existences will be able to enterthe presence of three thousand billion Buddhas, World-Honored Ones, tooffer alms, pay reverence, honor and praise them, widely proclaiming theinnumerable great doctrines of the Buddhas. And in his final incarnation hewill be able to become a Buddha named Light Bright Thus Come One, worthyof offerings, of right and universal knowledge, perfect clarity and conduct, wellgone, understanding the world, unexcelled worthy, trainer of people, teacherof heavenly and human beings, Buddha, World-Honored One.His land will be called Light Virtue and his kalpa will be called GreatAdornment. The life span of this Buddha will be twelve small kalpas. HisCorrect Law will endure in the world for twenty small kalpas, and hisCounterfeit Law for twenty small kalpas. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  26. 26. Buddhist Association of Canada"His realm will be majestically adorned, free of defilement or evil, shardsor rubble, thorns or briers, or the unclean refuse of latrines. The landwill be level and smooth, without high places or sags, pits or knolls. Theground will be of lapis lazuli, with rows of jeweled trees and ropes ofgold to mark the boundaries of the roads. Jeweled flowers will bescattered around, and everywhere will be pure and clean. Thebodhisattvas of that realm will number countless thousands of millions,and the multitude of voice-hearers will likewise be innumerable. Therewill be no workings of the devil, and although the devil and the devilspeople will be there, they will protect the Law of the Buddha."At that time the World-Honored One, wishing to state his meaning oncemore, spoke in verse form, saying: … 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  27. 27. Buddhist Association of CanadaAt that time the great Maudgalyayana, Subhuti and Mahakatyayana, allof them trembling with agitation, pressed their palms together with asingle mind and gazed up at the World-Honored One, their eyes neverleaving him for an instant. Joining their voices in a single sound, theyspoke in verse form, saying: …At that time the World-Honored One, understanding the thoughts in theminds of his major disciples, made this announcement to the monks:"Subhuti here in future existences will enter the presence of threehundred ten thousand million nayutas of Buddhas, offering alms, payingreverence, honoring and praising them. He will constantly carry outbrahma practices and fulfill the bodhisattva way, and in his finalincarnation he will be able to attain Buddhahood. His title will be RareForm Thus Come One, worthy of offerings, of right and universalknowledge, perfect clarity and conduct, well gone, understanding theworld, unexcelled worthy, trainer of people, teacher of heavenly andhuman beings, Buddha, World-Honored One. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  28. 28. Buddhist Association of CanadaAt that time the World-Honored One once more spoke to the multitude of monks: "NowI say this to you. Great Katyayana here in future existences will present variousarticles as offerings and will serve eight thousand million Buddhas, paying honor andreverence to them. After these Buddhas have passed into extinction, he will raise amemorial tower for each one measuring a thousand yojanas in height and exactly fivehundred yojanas in both width and depth. It will be made of gold, silver lapis lazuli,seashell, agate, pearl and carnelian, with these seven precious substances joinedtogether. Numerous flowers, necklaces, paste incense, powdered incense, incense forburning, silken canopies, streamers and banners will be presented as offerings to thememorial towers. And after this has been done, he will once more make offerings totwenty thousands of millions of Buddhas, and will repeat the entire process."When he has finished offering alms to all the Buddhas, he will fulfill the way of thebodhisattva and will become a Buddha with the title Jambunada Gold Light ThusCome One, worthy of offerings, of right and universal knowledge perfect clarity andconduct, well gone, understanding the world, unexcelled worthy trainer of people,teacher of heavenly and human beings, Buddha, World-Honored One. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  29. 29. Buddhist Association of Canada"His land will be level and smooth, the ground made of crystal, adornedwith jeweled trees, with ropes of gold to mark the boundaries of theroads. Wonderful flowers will cover the ground, everywhere will be pureand clean, and all who see it will rejoice. The four evil paths ofexistence, hell and the realms of hungry spirits, beasts and asuras, willnot exist there. There will be many heavenly and human beings, andmultitudes of voice-hearers and bodhisattvas in innumerable tens ofthousands of millions will adorn the land. That Buddhas life span will betwelve small kalpas, his Correct Law will endure in the world for twentysmall kalpas, and his Counterfeit Law will endure in the world for twentysmall kalpas."At that time the World-Honored One, wishing to state his meaning oncemore, spoke in verse form, saying: … 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  30. 30. Buddhist Association of CanadaAt that time the World-Honored One spoke to the great assembly: "NowI say to you. Great Maudgalyayana here will present various kinds ofarticles as offerings to eight thousand Buddhas, paying honor andreverence to them. After these Buddhas have passed into extinction, foreach of them he will raise a memorial tower measuring a thousandyojanas in height and exactly five hundred yojanas in width and depth. Itwill be made of gold, silver, lapis lazuli, seashell, agate, pearl, andcarnelian, with these seven precious substances joined together.Numerous flowers, necklaces, paste incense, and powdered incense,incense for burning, silken canopies, streamers and banners will bepresented as offerings. After this has been done, he will also makeofferings to two hundred ten thousand million Buddhas, repeating theprocess. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  31. 31. Buddhist Association of Canada"Then he will be able to become a Buddha with the title TamalapatraSandalwood Fragrance Thus Come One, worthy of offerings, of rightand universal knowledge, perfect clarity and conduct, well gone,understanding the world, unexcelled worthy, trainer of people, teacherof heavenly and human beings, Buddha, World-Honored One. His kalpawill be named Joy Replete and his realm Mind Delight. The land will belevel and smooth, the ground made of crystal, jeweled trees will adornit, pearls and flowers will be scattered around, everywhere will be pureand clean, and all who see it will rejoice. There will be many heavenlyand human beings, and the bodhisattvas and voice-hearers will beimmeasurable in number. That Buddhas life span will be twenty-foursmall kalpas, his Correct Law will endure in the world for forty smallkalpas, and his counterfeit Law for forty small kalpas."At that time the World-Honored One, wishing to state his meaning oncemore, spoke in verse form, saying: … 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  32. 32. Buddhist Association of Canada"Then he will be able to become a Buddha with the title TamalapatraSandalwood Fragrance Thus Come One, worthy of offerings, of rightand universal knowledge, perfect clarity and conduct, well gone,understanding the world, unexcelled worthy, trainer of people, teacherof heavenly and human beings, Buddha, World-Honored One. His kalpawill be named Joy Replete and his realm Mind Delight. The land will belevel and smooth, the ground made of crystal, jeweled trees will adornit, pearls and flowers will be scattered around, everywhere will be pureand clean, and all who see it will rejoice. There will be many heavenlyand human beings, and the bodhisattvas and voice-hearers will beimmeasurable in number. That Buddhas life span will be twenty-foursmall kalpas, his Correct Law will endure in the world for forty smallkalpas, and his counterfeit Law for forty small kalpas."At that time the World-Honored One, wishing to state his meaning oncemore, spoke in verse form, saying: … 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  33. 33. Buddhist Association of Canada Questions and Comments 討論www.ChamShanTemple.orgwww.shengguangshi.blogspot.comShengguangShi@hotmail.comShengguang Shi 釋聖光Tom Cheung 張相棠Kam Cheung 張仁勤Dennis A. Yap 葉普智 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  34. 34. Buddhist Association of Canada回向 yuàn xiāo zhàng zhū fán năo s ā nParinamana (Transfer of Merit) 願消三障諸煩惱 We wish to rid ourselves of the three hindrances and all klesas. yuàn dé zhì huì zhēn míng l ĭ a o 願得智慧 真 明了 We wish to gain wisdom and real understanding. pŭ yuàn zuì zhàng xī chú x i ā o 普願罪障悉消除 We wish all sinful hindrances to be totally eradicated. shì shì cháng xíng pú sà dào 世世常行菩薩道 In one life after another we always follow Bodhisattvas’ paths. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada

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