Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Temple 加拿大佛教會 湛山精舍 禪修學佛入門 Introduction to Buddhism and Meditation 2011/07/16
Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Temple ná mó fó tuó 南 無 佛 陀 Namo Buddha ná mó dá mó 南 無 達 摩 Namo Dharma ná mó sēng qié 南 無 僧 伽 Namo Sangha
Buddhist Practice and Cultivation in Four Lines 1 Take refuge in the Three Treasures of the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. 皈依佛法僧(三寶) 2 Earnestly cultivate the Three Perfections of Morality, Calmness, and Wisdom. 勤修戒定慧(三學) 3 Shed the Three Poisons of Greed, Anger and Delusion. 息滅貪瞋癡(三毒) 4 Purify the Three Karmas of Action, Speech and Thought. 清淨身口意(三業)
A disciple of this school has to meditate on the unreality of self and the unreality of things in order to achieve Nirvana.
Name Cheng-shih [成實] was translated from Sanskrit word 'Satyasiddhi', which was the short form of a shastra written by Harivarman called 'SatyasiddhiShastra'. The sect was named after the shastra, as it was the principal text of this sect. In Chinese, 'Cheng' means 'establishment' and 'Shih' means 'truth'. The name of the text is derived from the claim that it emphasizes the true meaning of the shastra.
Development The shastra was translated in Chinese by Kumarajiva. His followers studied it and established as a sect. The sect was popular in Six Dynasties till Tang Dynasty. Principal Text SatyasiddhiShastra is the principal text, written by Harivarman in the 3rd century. The shastra was widely studied from the time of its translation in Chinese by Kumarajiva in early 5th century.
Main Doctrines This sect is regarded as the most liberal amongst Hinayana sects. It expounded the views on the emptiness of 'self' and 'Dharma', which was unique and spectacular by that time. Two-Truth or Two-Emptiness Theory There are 2 main truths: 1. Contemplating the emptiness of Five Skandhas, we should not hold the views of self, others, or sentient beings as a real and concrete entity. 2. Contemplating the emptiness of all Dharmas derived from Five Skandhas, we should understand these are just names given or titles adopted by us, but their own entities. If all Dharmas and human beings are empty in nature, all the existence and phenomena will be reverted to the state of Nirvana the ultimate truth of Hinayana
Two-Obstruction or Two-Hindrance Theory There are 2 kinds of obstructions that hinder us from Enlightenment: 1. The obstruction by afflictions -- it is equivalent to the delusion of the views and thought. The obstruction can be removed by contemplating the emptiness of self and others. 2. The obstruction by knowledge -- the worldly knowledge is the accumulation of our experiences in the past, which is conditional. That means it is not universally true. It may lead many people to become more subjective, thus hinder us from Enlightenment. The obstruction can be removed by contemplating the emptiness of Dharmas.
Fruition upon cultivation This sect lists 28 levels of fruition in the course of cultivation. The highest level is Arhatship. Thus the sect is regarded as Hinayana, though its doctrines are close to Mahayana, particularly the Theory of the Emptiness of Dharma. As an Arhat, the practitioner enters in the state of Non-residual Nirvana, which transcends the Three Realms and, of course, liberate from reincarnation. However, amongst the Ten Realms, Arhat is inferior to Bodhisattva and Buddha. The practitioner has to give back Hinayana and set goal to Mahayana and One Vehicle. During the attainment of the Supreme Enlightenment in Buddhahood, all will be empty, including Samsara , Nirvana, and even Buddhahood and emptiness itself.
Esoteric Buddhism in China Esoteric teachings followed the same route into northern China as Buddhism itself, arriving via the Silk Road sometime during the first half of the 7th century, during the Tang Dynasty. Esoteric Mantranaya practices arrived from India just as Buddhism was reaching its zenith in China, and received sanction from the emperors of the Tang Dynasty. During this time, three great masters came from India to China: Śubhakarasiṃha善無畏, Vajrabodhi金剛智, and Amoghavajra不空. These three masters brought the esoteric teachings to their height of popularity in China. During this era, the two main source texts were the Mahāvairocana AbhisaṃbodhiTantra大瑜伽續, and the TattvasaṃgrahaTantra大日經金剛頂經. Traditions in the Sinosphere still exist for these teachings, and they more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon, with many of its students themselves traveling to Japan to be given transmission at Mount Koya.
Chinese Esoteric Buddhism Esoteric traditions in China are similar in teachings to the Japanese Shingon school, though the number of practitioners was greatly reduced, due in part of the persecution of Buddhists under Emperor Wuzong of Tang, nearly wiping out most of the Chinese Esoteric Buddhist lineage. In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore, Chinese Esoteric Buddhism is commonly referred as Tángmì (唐密) "Tang Dynasty Secret Buddhism," or Hànchuánmìzōng (漢傳密宗) "Secret Buddhism of the Han Transmission" (Hànmì漢密 for short), or Dōngmì (東密) "Eastern Secret Buddhism." In a more general sense, the Chinese term Mìzōng (密宗) "The Secret Way", is the most popular term used when referring to any form of Esoteric Buddhism. These traditions more or less share the same doctrines as the Shingon school, with many of its students themselves traveling to Japan to be given transmission at Mount Koya. According to Master Hsuan Hua, the most popular example of esoteric teachings still practiced in many Zen monasteries of East Asia, is the ŚūraṅgamaSūtra楞严经and its dhāraṇī (SitātapatroṣṇīṣaDhāraṇī), along with the Great Compassion Dharani (NīlakaṇṭhaDhāranī), with its 42 Hands and Eyes Mantras.
Different stages of development of Buddhist Tantra: 1. Mantrayana was developed during the fourth century. It enriched Buddhism by the appurtenances of magical tradition for enlightenment. Many mantras, mudras, deities and mandalas were introduced randomly into Buddhism.
2. Vajrayana was developed during the middle of the eighth century. All previous teachings were systematized and grouped with the system of Five Tathagatas. 3. Kalacakra was developed during the tenth century. Kalacakra emphasizes astrology and syncretism.
Key Features of Vajrayana Ritual Goal and Motivation Upaya – Skillful Mean Two Truths Doctrine Vows and Behaviour Esoteric Transmission – Directly between master and student
Catergories of Tantra I. Action Tantra (Kriya-Tantra) Deities are visualized as external. Rituals and ceremonies are the main methods. Susiddhi Sutra is the main text. Methods used include mantras, seals, cleaning environment and ownself. II. Performance Tantra (Carya_Tantra) Deities are identical as adept. Rituals and internal methods are used, but rituals are being used more than internal methods. The training of "Body tantric, oral tantric, and mind tantric in harmony" is emphasized. Mahavairocana Sutra is the main text.
III. Yoga Tantra Power of deities are recognized as arisen from non-duality. Rituals and internal methods are equally emphasized.
IV. Highest Yoga Tantra Only internal methods are used. The Nyingmapa sect divides highest yoga Tantra into 3 sub-categories:
a. Mahayoga Visualization of deity is gradual. Focuses on the development stage. Emphasizes the clarity and precision of visualization as skillful means. Meditation on emptiness.
b. Annuyoga Emphasizes energy centers, wind and energy. Visualization on deity is generated instantly.
Empowerment (Abhiseka in Sanskrit or Wong in Tibetan) is a ceremony: 1. to authorize the disciples to learn certain Tantric lessons. 2. to cleanse obscurations 3. to confer power to the disciples, and 4. to establish relationship with certain deities in the mandala. (b) THE THREE SECRETS OF BODY, MOUTH AND MIND (c) THE THREE PROCEDURES OF TANTRIC TRAINING
Basic Terms 10 Chinese schools Life story of the Buddha Buddhist History in India Buddhist History in China Practice
The Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism: 1. Reality School or Kosa School or Abhidharma School.2. Satysiddhi School or Cheng-se School. 3. Three Sastra School or San-lun School.*4. The Lotus School or T'ien-t'ai School * 5. The Garland School or Hua-yen School or Avatamsaka School. 6. Intuitive School or Ch'an School or Dhyana School.7. Discipline School or Lu School or Vinaya School. *8. Esoteric School or Mi School or Mantra School.9. Dharmalaksana School or Wei-Shi School or Fa-siang School.*10. Pure-land School or Sukhavati School or Ching-t'u School. * Topic is still available for presentation. 中国的佛教共分十宗，分别是：俱舍宗、成实宗、三论宗、天台宗、华严宗、唯识宗、律宗、禅宗、净土宗、密宗。
The following topics are for the upcoming Saturday Meditation Class: July 16 - Satysiddhi School by Waifun Lai July 23 - Chan School by Kitty Cheung July 30 – Reality School by Kevin Loi August 6 – Garland School by Lee McCallum August 13 – Lotus School by Phyllis Parr August 20 - Dharmalaksana School by Dennis Yap August 27 – Vinaya School by Anson Law September 3 – Wutaishan Footages by Moshay Allen
Questions and Comments 討論 www.ChamShanTemple.org www.shengguangshi.blogspot.com ShengguangShi@hotmail.com Shengguang Shi 釋聖光 Tom Cheung 張相棠 Kam Cheung 張仁勤 Dennis Yap 葉普智