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20110716 heart sutra and Satyasiddhi School


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Buddhism Heart Sutra Satyasiddhi School

Buddhism Heart Sutra Satyasiddhi School

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  • 1. Buddhist Association of Canada
    Cham Shan Temple
    加拿大佛教會 湛山精舍 禪修學佛入門
    Introduction to
    Buddhism and Meditation
  • 2. Buddhist Association of Canada
    Cham Shan Temple
    ná mó fó tuó
    南 無 佛 陀
    Namo Buddha
    ná mó dá mó
    南 無 達 摩
    Namo Dharma
    ná mó sēng qié
    南 無 僧 伽
    Namo Sangha
  • 3. Buddhist Practice and Cultivation in Four Lines
    1 Take refuge in the Three Treasures of the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.
    2 Earnestly cultivate the Three Perfections of Morality, Calmness, and Wisdom.
    3 Shed the Three Poisons of Greed, Anger and Delusion.
    4 Purify the Three Karmas of Action, Speech and Thought.
  • 4. Satyasiddhi School成實宗
  • 5.
    • This school is based upon the SatyasiddhiSastra [成實論]by Harivarman (4th century A.D.) translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva (5th century).
    • 6. This School flourished during the six-Dynasty and T'ang Dynasty (5th & 6th century).
    • 7. The main teaching of this school is to look upon the cosmos in realms:
    • 8. the worldly realm and the supreme realm.
    • 9. A disciple of this school has to meditate on the unreality of self and the unreality of things in order to achieve Nirvana.
  • Name
    Cheng-shih [成實] was translated from Sanskrit word 'Satyasiddhi', which was the short form of a shastra written by Harivarman called 'SatyasiddhiShastra'. The sect was named after the shastra, as it was the principal text of this sect. In Chinese, 'Cheng' means 'establishment' and 'Shih' means 'truth'. The name of the text is derived from the claim that it emphasizes the true meaning of the shastra.
  • 10. Development
    The shastra was translated in Chinese by Kumarajiva. His followers studied it and established as a sect. The sect was popular in Six Dynasties till Tang Dynasty.
    Principal Text
    SatyasiddhiShastra is the principal text, written by Harivarman in the 3rd century. The shastra was widely studied from the time of its translation in Chinese by Kumarajiva in early 5th century.
  • 11. Main Doctrines
    This sect is regarded as the most liberal amongst Hinayana sects. It expounded the views on the emptiness of 'self' and 'Dharma', which was unique and spectacular by that time.
    Two-Truth or Two-Emptiness Theory
    There are 2 main truths:
    1. Contemplating the emptiness of Five Skandhas, we should not hold the views of self, others, or sentient beings as a real and concrete entity.
    2. Contemplating the emptiness of all Dharmas derived from Five Skandhas, we should understand these are just names given or titles adopted by us, but their own entities.
    If all Dharmas and human beings are empty in nature, all the existence and phenomena will be reverted to the state of Nirvana the ultimate truth of Hinayana
  • 12. Two-Obstruction or Two-Hindrance Theory
    There are 2 kinds of obstructions that hinder us from Enlightenment:
    1. The obstruction by afflictions -- it is equivalent to the delusion of the views and thought. The obstruction can be removed by contemplating the emptiness of self and others.
    2. The obstruction by knowledge -- the worldly knowledge is the accumulation of our experiences in the past, which is conditional. That means it is not universally true. It may lead many people to become more subjective, thus hinder us from Enlightenment. The obstruction can be removed by contemplating the emptiness of Dharmas.
  • 13. Fruition upon cultivation
    This sect lists 28 levels of fruition in the course of cultivation. The highest level is Arhatship. Thus the sect is regarded as Hinayana, though its doctrines are close to Mahayana, particularly the Theory of the Emptiness of Dharma.
    As an Arhat, the practitioner enters in the state of Non-residual Nirvana, which transcends the Three Realms and, of course, liberate from reincarnation. However, amongst the Ten Realms, Arhat is inferior to Bodhisattva and Buddha. The practitioner has to give back Hinayana and set goal to Mahayana and One Vehicle. During the attainment of the Supreme Enlightenment in Buddhahood, all will be empty, including Samsara , Nirvana, and even Buddhahood and emptiness itself.
  • 14. Esoteric Buddhism in China
    Esoteric teachings followed the same route into northern China as Buddhism itself, arriving via the Silk Road sometime during the first half of the 7th century, during the Tang Dynasty. Esoteric Mantranaya practices arrived from India just as Buddhism was reaching its zenith in China, and received sanction from the emperors of the Tang Dynasty. During this time, three great masters came from India to China: Śubhakarasiṃha善無畏, Vajrabodhi金剛智, and Amoghavajra不空. These three masters brought the esoteric teachings to their height of popularity in China. During this era, the two main source texts were the Mahāvairocana AbhisaṃbodhiTantra大瑜伽續, and the TattvasaṃgrahaTantra大日經金剛頂經. Traditions in the Sinosphere still exist for these teachings, and they more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon, with many of its students themselves traveling to Japan to be given transmission at Mount Koya.
  • 15. Chinese Esoteric Buddhism
    Esoteric traditions in China are similar in teachings to the Japanese Shingon school, though the number of practitioners was greatly reduced, due in part of the persecution of Buddhists under Emperor Wuzong of Tang, nearly wiping out most of the Chinese Esoteric Buddhist lineage. In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore, Chinese Esoteric Buddhism is commonly referred as Tángmì (唐密) "Tang Dynasty Secret Buddhism," or Hànchuánmìzōng (漢傳密宗) "Secret Buddhism of the Han Transmission" (Hànmì漢密 for short), or Dōngmì (東密) "Eastern Secret Buddhism." In a more general sense, the Chinese term Mìzōng (密宗) "The Secret Way", is the most popular term used when referring to any form of Esoteric Buddhism. These traditions more or less share the same doctrines as the Shingon school, with many of its students themselves traveling to Japan to be given transmission at Mount Koya.
    According to Master Hsuan Hua, the most popular example of esoteric teachings still practiced in many Zen monasteries of East Asia, is the ŚūraṅgamaSūtra楞严经and its dhāraṇī (SitātapatroṣṇīṣaDhāraṇī), along with the Great Compassion Dharani (NīlakaṇṭhaDhāranī), with its 42 Hands and Eyes Mantras.
  • 16. Different stages of development of Buddhist Tantra:  
    1. Mantrayana was developed during the fourth century. It enriched Buddhism by the appurtenances of magical tradition  for enlightenment. Many mantras, mudras, deities and mandalas were introduced randomly into Buddhism. 
    2. Vajrayana was developed during the middle of the eighth century.  All previous teachings were systematized and grouped with the system of Five Tathagatas.  
    3. Kalacakra was developed during the tenth century. Kalacakra emphasizes astrology and syncretism.
  • 17. Key Features of Vajrayana
    Goal and Motivation
    Upaya – Skillful Mean
    Two Truths Doctrine
    Vows and Behaviour
    Esoteric Transmission – Directly between master and student
  • 18. Catergories of Tantra
              I.   Action Tantra (Kriya-Tantra)
                   Deities are visualized as external. Rituals and ceremonies are the main methods.
                   Susiddhi Sutra is the main text. Methods used include mantras, seals, cleaning environment and ownself.
              II.  Performance Tantra (Carya_Tantra)
                   Deities are identical as adept. Rituals and internal methods are used, but rituals are being used more than internal methods. The training of "Body tantric, oral tantric, and mind tantric in harmony" is emphasized. Mahavairocana Sutra is the main text.
              III. Yoga Tantra
                   Power of deities are recognized as arisen from non-duality. Rituals and internal methods are equally emphasized.
  • 19. IV.  Highest Yoga Tantra
              Only internal methods are used. The Nyingmapa sect divides highest yoga Tantra into 3 sub-categories:
            a. Mahayoga
                  Visualization of deity is gradual. Focuses on the development stage. Emphasizes the clarity and precision of visualization as skillful means. Meditation on emptiness.
             b. Annuyoga
                  Emphasizes energy centers, wind and energy. Visualization on deity is generated instantly.
             c. Atiyoga
                  Emphasizes mind development.
    (a)     EMPOWERMENT
             Empowerment (Abhiseka in Sanskrit or Wong in Tibetan) is a ceremony:
             1. to authorize the disciples to learn certain Tantric lessons.
             2. to cleanse obscurations
             3. to confer power to the disciples, and
             4. to establish relationship with certain deities in the mandala.
  • 21. Basic Terms
    10 Chinese schools
    Life story of the Buddha
    Buddhist History in India
    Buddhist History in China
  • 22. The Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism:
    1. Reality School or Kosa School or Abhidharma School.2. Satysiddhi School or Cheng-se School. 3. Three Sastra School or San-lun School.*4. The Lotus School or T'ien-t'ai School *
    5. The Garland School or Hua-yen School or Avatamsaka School. 6. Intuitive School or Ch'an School or Dhyana School.7. Discipline School or Lu School or Vinaya School. *8. Esoteric School or Mi School or Mantra School.9. Dharmalaksana School or Wei-Shi School or Fa-siang School.*10. Pure-land School or Sukhavati School or Ching-t'u School.
    * Topic is still available for presentation.
  • 23. The following topics are for the upcoming Saturday Meditation Class:
    July 16 - Satysiddhi School by Waifun Lai
    July 23 - Chan School by Kitty Cheung
    July 30 – Reality School by Kevin Loi
    August 6 – Garland School by Lee McCallum
    August 13 – Lotus School by Phyllis Parr
    August 20 - Dharmalaksana School by Dennis Yap
    August 27 – Vinaya School by Anson Law
    September 3 – Wutaishan Footages by Moshay Allen
  • 24. Questions and Comments 討論
    Shengguang Shi 釋聖光
    Tom Cheung 張相棠
    Kam Cheung 張仁勤
    Dennis Yap 葉普智