How much do I know about Tiantai School of Buddhism
天台宗知多少
B Classification of Buddha teachings by Tiantai School
天台宗的判教
1...
Lotus & Nirvana

Prajna

Vaipulya

Avatamsaka
Agamas
Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s
teaching as classified by Tiantai School
五時教
Avatamsaka or first period in three ...
Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s
teaching as classified by Tiantai School
五時教

Agamas (or Lumbini) Period: the twe...
Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s
teaching as classified by Tiantai School
五時教
Vaipulya Period: the eight years of ...
Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s
teaching as classified by Tiantai School
五時教
Prajna Period: the twenty-two years ...
Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s teaching
as classified by Tiantai School 五時教
The Lotus and Nirvana Period: 8 year...
Metaphor orAnalogies of the five 五時的比喻
Avatamsaka Period 華嚴時,講说《華嚴經》,
At sun rise, sun shines only summits
譬喻東方日出照高峰。

Onl...
Metaphor orAnalogies of the five 五時的比喻

Vaipulya Period 方等時,
Buddha preached broadly on Tripitaka 藏, Shared 通,
Distinct 別 ...
Metaphor orAnalogies of the five 五時的比喻
Lotus and Nirvana Period 法華涅槃時,
Buddha preached the Lotus Sutra and the Nirvana Sut...
The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s
teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化儀四教
天臺教觀的“八教”是化儀四教和化法四教的合稱。
化儀是指佛祖說法時,所使用的儀式和方式方法。其中有頓...
The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s
teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化儀四教
對許多法門大家都知道,對不同的物件,採取不同的教學方
法(因材施教),小乘人可知大乘法,大乘人可知小...
The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s
teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化法四教
天臺教觀的化法是指佛祖的教法內容。按教理的深淺分為
:藏、通、別、圓四教。
藏教 Tripitaka...
The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s
teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化法四教
别教 Distinct Teaching 是三界外的大菩薩所學修的教義
,也是最高成就為某一大菩薩(...
According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings,
five periods are only theoretical and not
necessarily in sequence nor fixe...
According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings,
five periods are only theoretical and not
necessarily in sequence nor fixe...
According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings,
five periods are only theoretical and not
necessarily in sequence nor fixe...
According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings,
five periods are only theoretical and not
necessarily in sequence nor fixe...
According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings,
five periods are only theoretical and not
necessarily in sequence nor fixe...
Open

Indeterminate

Secret

Sudden

Gradual

Determinate

Not
Not
Gradual Sudden

Prajna

Lotus & Nirvana

Vaipulya

Avat...
Sudden

Avatamsaka Period

Agamas Period

Gradual

Tripitaka

Shared
Distinct

Vaipulya Period

Secret
Indeterminate

Praj...
天台宗知多少 05 Tiantai School
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天台宗知多少 05 Tiantai School

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天台宗知多少 05 Tiantai School

  1. 1. How much do I know about Tiantai School of Buddhism 天台宗知多少 B Classification of Buddha teachings by Tiantai School 天台宗的判教 1. The five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s teaching 簡說五時 2. Metaphor or Analogies of the five periods 五時的比喻 3. The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s teaching 簡說八教 4. According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings, five periods are only theoretical and not necessarily in sequence nor fixed length 通別五時,實不定先後長短 5 Relationship among all these classifications 五時八教的互相關係
  2. 2. Lotus & Nirvana Prajna Vaipulya Avatamsaka Agamas
  3. 3. Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s teaching as classified by Tiantai School 五時教 Avatamsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of Avatamsaka sutra ( 華嚴經 ). After the Buddha's enlightenment, he expounded the Avatamsaka-sutra for 21 days for bodhisattvas. This was a teaching for those of very sharp faculties, and according to this teaching such bodhisattvas may directly awaken to the reality-principle. 華嚴時︰指佛初成道時,於三七(二十一日)間,闡說 《華嚴經》的時期。「華嚴時」係依所說經題而立名,其 所說之法既示圓教,兼示別教,謂「圓兼一別」,乃對大 菩薩眾及大乘根熟之凡夫(即別圓大機)所說。自佛之化 意來說,是佛向鈍根機類擬自證之佛慧,試其是否適合而 說,故依擬機之宜樂,此期稱作擬宜時。結果,其機如聾 ,如啞,未更發大乘之機。
  4. 4. Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s teaching as classified by Tiantai School 五時教 Agamas (or Lumbini) Period: the twelve years of his preaching the Agamas sutra ( 阿含經 ) in the Deer Park. After delivering the Avatamsaka sutra, ordinary people of undeveloped faculties are not able to understand, so he discards this teaching in favor of guiding people through expedient teachings 阿含時(鹿苑時)︰謂繼華嚴時之後,十二年間,於 十六大國說小乘四阿含經之時期。因其最初說法處在鹿野 苑,故又作鹿苑時。今稱阿含時,是從經立名。此時所說 之法,僅限於三藏教。從佛化眾之立意來說,此時之教法 ,係為誘引不堪大化之機類而說,故又稱誘引時 (attracting period) 。
  5. 5. Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s teaching as classified by Tiantai School 五時教 Vaipulya Period: the eight years of preaching Mahayanacum-Hinayana doctrines. For the people that had grasped the Hinayana teachings, the Buddha now teaches Mahayana Sutras such as listed below, broadly explaining the Tripitaka, Shared, Distinct and Perfect Teachings. This is intended to convert people from Hinayana to Mahayana. 方等時︰謂阿含時之後八年間,說示大乘《維摩 Vimalakirti 》、《思益 Visesacintabrahma pariprccha 》、《楞伽 Lankavatara 》、《楞嚴 Shurangam 》、《金光明 Golden Light 》、《勝鬘 Srimala 》等經典的時期。此時教法並說藏 、通、別、圓四教,乃釋尊為訶責於阿含時得小乘證果,而執 其所證與佛相同之人,令其興起恥小慕大之念而說,故從佛之 化意來說,此時又稱彈訶時 (accusing & blaming period) 。
  6. 6. Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s teaching as classified by Tiantai School 五時教 Prajna Period: the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajna or wisdom sutras in order to awaken people to the principle of emptiness. 般若時︰謂方等時後二十二年間,說《摩訶般若》等 諸部般若經典之時期,亦依所說經名而稱般若時。其教法 說示別、圓二教,兼說通教。從佛的化意來說,係為淘 汰由前時所說而引起之大小別見情執,而說一切法空之時 期,故又稱淘汰時 (eliminate period) 。
  7. 7. Five periods or divisions of Sakyamuni‘s teaching as classified by Tiantai School 五時教 The Lotus and Nirvana Period: 8 years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. Buddha made clear that the final goal of Hinayana & Mahayana is to same. Thus it is also called the Teaching of the Single Vehicle, wherein the presence of Buddha-nature in each person is affirmed. 法華涅槃時︰由於前四時,四十餘年之調停方便,眾生 根機逐漸純熟,釋尊為使彼等入佛知見,在最後八年間, 說示《法華經》,更於涅槃之際,在一日一夜間,宣說 《涅槃經》。其所說之法乃純圓獨妙之教,圓體與前無別。 但前四時所說之圓是相對於藏、通、別之圓,此時的圓是 開會前四時之二乘、三乘之權法,而顯真實之圓,即開顯 之圓。由此說示,二乘小機開會得入一佛乘,佛之化意至 此圓滿,故此時又作開會時 Assembling Period 。
  8. 8. Metaphor orAnalogies of the five 五時的比喻 Avatamsaka Period 華嚴時,講说《華嚴經》, At sun rise, sun shines only summits 譬喻東方日出照高峰。 Only Budhisattvas beyond the 3 realms can understand 只有三界外大菩薩能領悟。 It is like raw milk directly from the cow 故比喻如牛出乳之味。 Agamas Period 阿含時, Buddha preached Agamas sutras spoke Hina-yana. 說《阿含經》,談小乘(藏教)法門。 It is like 8~9 am, when sun shines on valleys & streams. 譬喻上午八九點鐘,日照幽谷山澗。 Tastes like yogurt. 味為如由乳出酪。
  9. 9. Metaphor orAnalogies of the five 五時的比喻 Vaipulya Period 方等時, Buddha preached broadly on Tripitaka 藏, Shared 通, Distinct 別 & Perfect 圓 Teachings. 這一時期佛廣說藏、通、別、圓四教。 It is like 9~10 am, when the sun shines to all places. 譬喻九、十點鐘,普照一切。 Tastes like butter oil. 味如酪生酥。 Prajna Period 般若時,   Buddha preached Prajna sutra 說《般若經》, to let Hina-yana people move to Maha-yana. 使小乘人趣向大乘。 It is like 10~11 am when sun shines to deep low places. 如中午前的十、十一點鐘,日照幽深處味 Tastes like butter. 如生酥成熟酥。
  10. 10. Metaphor orAnalogies of the five 五時的比喻 Lotus and Nirvana Period 法華涅槃時, Buddha preached the Lotus Sutra and the Nirvana Sutra 說《妙法蓮華經》和《涅槃經》, It is like noon, when the sun is high and shines evenly everywhere whether high or low is the same. 譬喻日當正午,如“日光普照,高下悉均平”。 Buddha taught fundamentally the Single Vehicle, True form of Prajna Wisdom. 說佛教的根本一乘實相般若。 Just like butter becoming cream cheese. 如熟酥成醍醐, Tastes so wonderful like sprinkling overhead. 成妙味灌頂。
  11. 11. The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化儀四教 天臺教觀的“八教”是化儀四教和化法四教的合稱。 化儀是指佛祖說法時,所使用的儀式和方式方法。其中有頓 、漸、秘密、不定四種。對不同物件用不同的教法。 如對大菩薩就用頓教 Sudden Teaching , 對聲聞、緣覺就用漸教 Gradual Teaching , 對同一法會如有菩薩、聲聞、緣覺,還有天龍八部鬼神等就 用同一語言說不同的法(加上理解不同),互相之間誰也不 通氣,這就叫秘密 Secret Teaching 。
  12. 12. The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化儀四教 對許多法門大家都知道,對不同的物件,採取不同的教學方 法(因材施教),小乘人可知大乘法,大乘人可知小乘法, 互為補充。故叫不定 Indeterminate Teaching 。 其不定教中還可分“顯露不定”和“秘密不定”二種。 “ 顯露不定 Open Indeterminate Teaching” 是指聽眾有大小菩 薩、聲聞、緣覺、天龍八部等,根性不齊,佛講說教理或淺 或深、或頓或漸,但各有收益。 “ 秘密不定 Secret Indeterminate Teaching” 是指佛在講說教理 或淺或深、或頓或漸,對於聽眾來說由於理解不同,悟性不 同,次第不同,心性不同,各各不相知;但在各人的基礎上 都有得益。叫秘密不定。
  13. 13. The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化法四教 天臺教觀的化法是指佛祖的教法內容。按教理的深淺分為 :藏、通、別、圓四教。 藏教 Tripitaka Teaching 是小乘範疇,最終以成阿羅漢 為最高目標,主學《阿含經》。其中也包括聲聞、緣覺、 菩薩等,所以不稱小乘教而稱藏教,因為以《阿含經》為 經藏,毗尼為律藏,阿毗曇為論藏,以經律論為修學依據 ,所以也稱三藏教; 通教 Shared Teaching 是大乘初門,既可通別教,也可 通藏教,因為三教相通,故叫通教,最終以成大菩薩(如 佛)為目標;
  14. 14. The eight classifications of Sakyamuni Buddha‘s teaching 簡說 八教 --- 化法四教 别教 Distinct Teaching 是三界外的大菩薩所學修的教義 ,也是最高成就為某一大菩薩(如佛); 圓教 Perfect Teaching 是最終成佛之道,教會我們怎樣 成佛,具有圓妙、圓滿、圓足、圓頓,故名圓教。
  15. 15. According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings, five periods are only theoretical and not necessarily in sequence nor fixed length 通別五時,實不定先後長短 通別五時論 ( 最宜先知 ) 法華玄義云。夫五味半滿論別。別有齊限。論通通於初後。 章安尊者云: 人言。第二時。十二年中說三乘別教。若爾過十二年。有 宜聞四諦、十二因緣、六度。豈可不說。若說則三乘不止 在十二年中。若不說則一段在後宜聞者。佛豈可不化也。 定無此理。 經言。為聲聞說四諦。乃至說六度。不止十二年。蓋一代 中。隨宜聞者即說耳。如四阿含五部律。是為聲聞說。乃 訖於聖滅。即是其事。何得言小乘悉十二年中也。
  16. 16. According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings, five periods are only theoretical and not necessarily in sequence nor fixed length 通別五時,實不定先後長短 人言。第三時。三十年中說空宗般若維摩思益。依何經文 知三十年也。大智度論云。須菩提。於法華中。聞說舉手 低頭皆得作佛。是以今問退義。若爾。大品與法華。前後 何定也。 論曰。智者章安。明文若此。今人絕不寓目。尚自訛傳阿 含十二方等八之妄說。為害甚大。故先申通論。次申別論 。 先明通五時者。自有一類大機。即於此土。見華藏界舍那 身土常住不滅。則華嚴通後際也。只今華嚴入法界品。亦 斷不在三七日中。
  17. 17. According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings, five periods are only theoretical and not necessarily in sequence nor fixed length 通別五時,實不定先後長短 復有一類小機。始從鹿苑終至鶴林。唯聞阿含毘尼對法。 則三藏通於前後明矣。章安如此破斥。癡人何尚執迷。 復有一類小機。宜聞彈斥褒歎而生恥慕。佛即為說方等法 門。豈得局在十二年後僅八年中。且如方等陀羅尼經。說 在法華經後。則方等亦通前後明矣。 復有三乘須歷色心等世出世法。一一會歸摩訶衍道。佛即 為說般若。故云。從初得道乃至泥洹。於其中間常說般若。 則般若亦通前後明矣。
  18. 18. According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings, five periods are only theoretical and not necessarily in sequence nor fixed length 通別五時,實不定先後長短 復有根熟眾生。佛即為其開權顯實。開迹顯本。決無留待 四十年後之理。但佛以神力。令根未熟者不聞。故智者大 師云。法華約顯露邊。不見在前。祕密邊論。理無障礙。 且如經云。我昔從佛聞如是法。見諸菩薩授記作佛。如是 法者。豈非妙法。 又梵網經云。吾今來此世界八千返。坐金剛華光王座等。 豈非亦是開迹顯本耶。復有眾生。應見涅槃而得度者。佛 即示入涅槃。故曰。八相之中。各具八相不可思議。且大 般涅槃經。追敘阿闍世王懺悔等緣。並非一日一夜中事也 。
  19. 19. According to the Shared and Distinct Teachings, five periods are only theoretical and not necessarily in sequence nor fixed length 通別五時,實不定先後長短 次明別五時者。乃約一類最鈍聲聞。具經五番陶鑄。方得 入實。所謂初於華嚴不見不聞。全生如乳 ( 華嚴前八會中。 永無聲聞。故云不見不聞。至第九會入法界品。在祇園中。 方有聲聞。爾時已證聖果。尚於菩薩境界。如啞如聾。驗 知。爾前縱聞華嚴。亦決無益。然舍利弗等。由聞藏教。 方證聖果。方預入法界會。則知。入法界品。斷不說在阿 含前矣。人胡略不思察。妄謂華嚴局在三七日內耶 ) 。
  20. 20. Open Indeterminate Secret Sudden Gradual Determinate Not Not Gradual Sudden Prajna Lotus & Nirvana Vaipulya Avatamsaka Avatamsaka Agamas Perfect Distinct Real Shared Tripitaka Expedient
  21. 21. Sudden Avatamsaka Period Agamas Period Gradual Tripitaka Shared Distinct Vaipulya Period Secret Indeterminate Prajna Period Perfect Open Not Sudden nor Gradual Lotus & Nirvana R eal Not Secret nor Determinate

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