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    Comenius1 Comenius1 Presentation Transcript

    • POLAND KRAKÓW
    • Republic of POLAND• Location: Central Europe• Capital city: Warsaw• Member of European Union since 2004• Area: 312,685 km2 (water: 3.07%)• Population: ~38 mln• Terrain: mostly flat, mountains on the south• Coastline with Baltic sea: ~491km
    • Kraków• Second biggest city in Poland (after Warsaw)• Lies in the southern part of Poland, on the Vistula River (Wisła) 219 m above sea level• City area: 327 km2• Population (31 December 2011): ~756 000 (~1,400,000 in metropolitan area)• Density: ~2,300 / km2
    • GABRIELA | KAROLINA | WERONIKA | MACIEK VIII PALO
    • Water sources• Possible water production per day – 297.4 thousand m 3• Total length of water supply network – 2056 km• Estimated number of citizens exploiting from the water supply network - 99.5%
    • Water Treatment Plants (WTP) in Kraków• The “Bielany” WTP - Zbiornik Dobczycki• The “Rudawa” WTP - Rudawa river – Podkamyk reservoir• The “Dłubnia” WTP – Dłubnia river and Mistrzejowice deep wells• The “Raba” WTP – Sanka river
    • Water distribution
    • Water production 2007-2011
    • Process of water purification
    • Process of water purification• The process of purification and of becoming drinking water for our school takes place in ZUW (place of water conditioning) Raba. It consists in mixing water with ozone, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection.• Mixing water with ozone is one of the ways of disinfection of water. It provides microbiological purity of water.• Coagulation consists in joining of colloidal molecules present in water into larger aggregates that falls down rapidly. As a result a precipitate is created and above it there is a clear water.
    • Process of water purification• Colloids – natural elements of water coming of mineral or organic origin which cause the opacity and influence the colour of water.• Sedimentation – the process of self-acting subsiding of particles present if water if their density is greater than the density of water.• During the filtration water is put through a filter that puts a physical barriers of undesirable particles• Disinfection consists in deactivation and destruction of killing and pathogenic particles. It results in termination of their growth and reproduction.
    • Sources of water in Kraków <http://www.wodociagi.krakow.pl/> Definitions taken from <http://zasoby.open.agh.edu.pl/> and < http://www.lenntech.com>
    • ZUW RABA (taken from <http://www.wodociagi.krakow.pl>
    • ZUW RABA (taken from <http://www.wodociagi.krakow.pl>
    • Quality of water in Kraków
    • OCCUPATIONAL PLACE OF WATER CONDITIONING EXPOSURE LIMIT according WATER QUALITY to the norm of UNIT INDEX RABA RUDAWA DŁUBNIA BIELANY Poland EU colour mg Pt/l 2 1 2 2 BNZ (15)5 accept. opacity NTU 0,15 0,11 0,17 0,21 1 accept. pH 7,90 7,51 7,54 7,52 6,5-9,5 6,5-9,5tendency to oxidise with mg/l 1,0 <0,5 1,0 1,0 5 5 KMnO4 chlorides mg/l 15,3 27,4 25,8 43,4 250 250 ammonium ions mg/l <0,02 <0,02 0,022 0,025 0,5 0,5 nitrites mg/l <0,01 <0,01 <0,01 <0,01 0,5 0,5 nitrates mg/l 7,6 13,2 17,8 11,3 50 50 general hardness mg/l 128 259 298 281 60-500 - calcium mg/l 41,2 95,6 104,2 101,0 - - magnesium mg/l 5,1 10,5 9,2 10,8 125 - iron mg/l <0,025 <0,025 <0,025 <0,025 0,2 0,2 manganese mg/l <0,015 <0,015 <0,015 <0,015 0,05 0,05 copper mg/l <0,005 <0,005 <0,005 0,006 2,0 2,0 chromium mg/l <0,005 <0,005 <0,005 <0,005 0,05 0,05 nickel mg/l <0,006 <0,006 <0,006 <0,006 0,02 0,02 cadmium mg/l <0,001 <0,001 <0,001 <0,001 0,005 0,005 THM µg/l <0,1 <0,1 <0,1 <0,1 150 100 chloroform µg/l <0,1 <0,1 <0,1 <0,1 30 - PAH µg/l <0,002 <0,002 <0,002 <0,002 0,1 0,1 benzopyrene µg/l <0,003 <0,003 <0,003 <0,003 0,01 0,01 Escherichia coli CFU/100 ml 0 0 0 0 0 0 Enterococcus faecalis CFU/100 ml 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clostridium perfringens CFU/100 ml 0 0 0 0 0 0overall number of bacteria CFU/1 ml 1 0 1 1 BNZ (100)5 BNZ at 220C after 72 h Statistics taken from: <http://www.wodociagi.krakow.pl/upload/Subpages/komunikat_20_VIII_2012.pdf>, the state from 2.07 – 20.08.2012)
    • The hardness of water in Kraków
    • AREA OF HARDNESS OF WATER IN THE WATER SYSTEM OF KRAKÓW SUPPLY ZUW RABA ZUW RUDAWA ZUW DŁUBNIA ZUW BIELANY UNIT average max average max average max average max mg CaCO3/dm3 128 134 259 263 298 308 281 295 mmol/dm3 1,28 1,34 2,59 2,63 2,98 3,08 2,81 2,95 mval/dm3 2,56 2,68 5,18 5,26 5,96 6,16 5,62 5,9German Degrees [0N] 7,17 7,51 14,51 14,70 16,69 17,25 15,74 16,52English Degrees [0A] 8,96 9,38 18,13 18,41 20,86 21,56 19,67 20,65French Degrees [0F] 12,8 13,4 25,9 26,3 29,8 30,8 28,1 29,5
    • Quantity of water in Poland
    • POLAND EUROPEAVERAGE AMOUNT OF WATER PER CAPITA 1660 m3 4560 m3 Data taken from < http://www.ekoportal.gov.pl>, 21. 10. 2012 and <http://iche2002.pl/>, 22. 10. 2012. Map of Poland taken from < http://www.adam.krynicki.net/lo/mapy/pol_rzeki1.jpg>
    • Wisła - the biggest river in Poland
    • Wisła - the biggest river in Poland
    • Wisła - the biggest river in Poland
    • ZUW RABA (taken from <http://www.wodociagi.krakow.pl>
    • Is water from our taps drinkable?• YES!• but... there is still a common conviction that it should not be drunk without boiling, otherwise it may be dangerous• Even though bottled water market is doing well - in general there is a broad variety of tastes (depending on water source)
    • Industrial water treatment• In Kraków there are six waste water treatment institutions.• Two main : „Płaszów” and „Kujawy” and four small local ones : „Bielany” , „Łęg” , „Kliny” and „Dąbie”.• „Płaszów” is the biggest and the oldest, it is one of the first water treatment institutions in Poland.• „Kujawy” is right after „Płaszów”, before year 2003 it used to be the most modern institution in whole region of Poland, now „Płaszów” institution extension has been finished
    • „Płaszów”
    • „Płaszów”• It used to purify water mechanically, but now after modernization from 2003-2007,is more environmental friendly and purified in biological ways• It supports needs of over 780 thousands of Kraków inhabitants.• Average daily flow of sewage is about 165 000m3
    • „Kujawy”•From the beginning which is 1999 purifies water in biological ways•Average daily flow is about 52 000 m3
    • „Kujawy”
    • On the next slide you can see map of a sewage system in Kraków. Our school is also marked on the map.
    • The green line represents the way thatwater has to travel to the nearest industrialwater treatment
    • A few facts about sewage system inour city• It consists of two independent parts which end in different industrial water treatment institutions• It is about 1680 km long and still growing• Soon with growth of agglomeration of Kraków we will reach sewage capacity limits.