Building Materials (1ª parte)


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Building Materials (1ª parte)

  1. 1. BUILDING MATERIALS By: Tomás M. Bañegil Collado
  2. 2. BUILDING MATERIALS esquema.jpeg INDEX
  3. 3. Compact Rocks sillares.jpg Stone blocks of Limestone , Marble, Granite, Slate, etc. mampuesto3.jpg Cutted in square shape. Medium size without cutting. Ashlar Masonry STONY MATERIALS (I) adoquines.jpg In walls… In pavimentation… Cobblestone Losas de pizzarra.bmp Flagstone
  4. 4. Disgregated Rocks Variable size Fragments. Sillares STONY MATERIALS (II) Clay-ss-2005.jpg Clay GRAVEL~1.JPG Aggregate Fragments from the action of break down of other rocks. They can be thin or thick . Very little rock grains, chactericed by their property of absorbing water .
  5. 5. yeso.gif cal-viva.jpg <ul><li>When they’re mixed </li></ul>with water, they become doughty. <ul><li>When they dry, they </li></ul>become strong. It’s obtained from the heating of limestone. It’s used to paint walls or make bricks. Powdered mineral used to cover walls and ceilings. There are three tipes: black with impurities, white without impurities and pure plaster. Lime Plaster COMPOSITE MATERIALS (I)
  6. 6. <ul><li>It’s the most used aggregate. </li></ul><ul><li>The most used tipe of cement is Pórtland . I’t a </li></ul>mixture of lime and clay, from which we obtain clínquer, then it’s pulverized and it becomes cement. COMPOSITE MATERIALS (II) cemento_seco_01.jpg Cement proceso elaboracion cemento (2).jpg <ul><li>1-Quarry
  7. 7. 2-Crushing
  8. 8. 3-Prime matters
  9. 9. 4-Grinding of materials
  10. 10. 5-Homogenization
  11. 11. 6-Heat interchange
  12. 12. 7-Oven/ Cooler/ Clínquer
  13. 13. 8-Additions/ Grinding </li></ul>Elaboration process of Cement <ul><li>9-Silos/ Bulk Cargo
  14. 14. 10-Packagging/ Shipping </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>It’s a mixture of aggregates, composite materials (such as cement) and water.
  16. 16. Before it gets hard, it’s a doughty material and can be putted inside a recipient, like formings (encofrado). </li></ul>CONCRETE (I) Mass Concrete It’s used for walls and cimentation. hormigon en masa.jpg Cyclopean Concrete It contains aggregates wich are more than 30 cm in diameter. It’s also used in walls and cimentations. zapata horm.cicl.png
  17. 17. CONCRETE (II) Inside it , there are incorporated a structure of steel bars that can be tensed before the concrete gets hard ( Pre-stressed concrete ) or after it gets hard ( Post-tensed concrete ). Aerated_autoclaved_concrete_-_detail.jpg Reinforced Concrete Cellular Concrete (aerated) pilares horm.armado.jpg Before it gets hard, we add to the doughty concrete some chemicals that create air inside the material, making it lighter and improving the isolation propperties.
  18. 18. CERAMIC MATERIALS (I) Glazed Ceramic <ul><li>They’re prefabricated pieces of molded clay fired in kilns. </li></ul><ul><li>The procces of elaboration has two parts: Mixture & Molding , and fire in continuous kilns . </li></ul>_Pile_of_bricks_2005_Fruggo.jpg Bricks <ul><li>Pieces of fired clay wich are prism shaped with, or without holes. </li></ul>ColocacionTejas.jpg Tiles <ul><li>Pieces of fired clay used to cover roofs that make an aislation function. </li></ul>azulejos.jpg <ul><li>Squared pieces of fired clay wich the exterior part of them is covered with a vitrified cover wick makes it impermeable and make it look nice. Used for covering walls in kitchens and bathrooms. </li></ul>
  19. 19. CERAMIC MATERIALS (II) Porcelain <ul><li>It’s a mixture of clay, quartz and feldspar. Very resistant to erosion. Used to cover walls and paving. </li></ul>Stoneware gres-porcellanato-a-secco-03.jpg inodoro-porcelana-ultimo-diseno-mod-co1007.jpg <ul><li>It’s a glazed ceramic material used for making sanitary elements for bathrooms. </li></ul>roca5 porcelana.jpg
  20. 20. OTHER MATERIALS (I) <ul><li>It’s used as framewok of concrete, but also for girders, pillars and framework for roofs. </li></ul>Copper Metals Steel Alluminium cerchas de acero.jpg carpinteria_aluminio.jpg <ul><li>It’s used for cross sections of doors and windows, handrails and closures. </li></ul>cobre.jpg <ul><li>It’s used installations of water,gas and conditioning. </li></ul>
  21. 21. OTHER MATERIALS (II) <ul><li>It’s used in fewer constructions nowadays, but it’s used in roofs, doors, windows and covering of pavings and walls. </li></ul>cubierta madera.jpg Wood tuberias_pvc_imagenes.jpg Plastic <ul><li>It’s more frequen to use this material nowadays. It’s used for conductions of water, electric cables and as insulator. </li></ul>escaleras-de-vidrio-coloreado.jpg Glass <ul><li>It’s used in windows, doors, as decoration, in pavings, etc. It’s a mixture of soda, silica, lime and other substances. </li></ul>