Report on uc, uti, bun,

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  • 1. REPORT ON UC, UTI, BUN, CATH, and WATER By: Temitope Olubode
    • A urine culture is a test to find and identify germs (usually bacteria) in urine
    • A urine sample is kept under conditions that allow bacteria and other organisms to grow
    • If few organisms grow, the test is negative
    • If organisms grow in numbers large enough to indicate an infection, the culture is positive
  • 3. Why It Is Done
    • A urine culture may be done to:
    • Find the cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI)
    • Make decisions about the best treatment for a UTI, called sensitivity testingFind out whether treatment for a UTI worked
    • A clean-catch midstream urine sample for testing
    • The first urine of the day is preferred because bacterial levels will be higher
  • 4. What Affects the Test
    • Taking antibiotics or just finished taking them
    • Taking water pills ( diuretics ) or drinking a large amount of liquid, (This may dilute your urine and reduce the number of bacteria in the sample)
    • Taking a lot of vitamin C
    • A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract . The main etiologic agent is Escherichia coli
  • 6. Types f UTI’s
    • Acute cystitis ( bladder infection)
    • Pyelonephritis (infection of the upper urinary tract or kidney)
  • 7. Symptoms of UTI
    • Cloudy or bloody urine, which may have a foul odor
    • Low fever (not everyone will have a fever)
    • Pain or burning with urination
    • Pressure or cramping in the lower abdomen or back
    • Strong need to urinate often, even right after the bladder has been emptied
  • 8. Causes of Urinary Tract Infections
    • The most common cause of UTIs are bacteria from the bowel that live on the skin near the rectum.
    • Sexual intercourse
    • Female anatomy can make women more prone to urinary tract infections
    • Waiting too long to urinate
    • Other factors that also may increase a woman's risk of developing UTI include pregnancy , menopause or diabetes
  • 9. Diagnosis of UTI
    • The number of bacteria and white blood cells in a urine sample is the basis for diagnosing urinary tract infections.
    • Urine is examined under a microscope and cultured in a substance that promotes the growth of bacteria.
    • A pelvic exam also may be necessary
  • 10. Treatments of UTI
    • Antibiotics taken by mouth are usually recommended because there is a risk that the infection can spread to the kidneys.
    • Commonly used antibiotics include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, Augmentin, doxycycline, and fluoroquinolones
    • Your doctor may also recommend drugs to relieve the burning pain and urgent need to urinate
    • A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea
    • Urea is made in the liver when protein is broken down in your body and passed out of your body in the urine
  • 12. Why It Is Done
    • A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is done to:
    • See if your kidneys are working normally
    • See if your kidney disease is getting worse
    • See if treatment of your kidney disease is working
    • In urinary catheterization, or "cathing" for short, a plastic tube known as a urinary catheter that is gently slid into a patient's bladder via his or her urethra
    • Catheterization allows the patient's urine to drain freely from the bladder for collection, or to inject liquids used for treatment or diagnosis of bladder conditions
  • 14. Types of catherters
    • Foley catheter ( indwelling urinary catheter )is retained by means of a balloon at the tip which is inflated with sterile water
    • Robinson catheter is a flexible catheter used for short term drainage of urine. Unlike the Foley catheter, it has no balloon on its tip and therefore cannot stay in place unaided
    • A Coudé catheter is designed with a curved tip that makes it easier to pass through the curvature of the prostatic urethra
    • A hematuria (or haematuria) catheter is a type of Foley catheter used for Post-TURP hemostasis
    • An external Texas or condom catheter is used for incontinent males and carries a lower risk of infection than an indwelling catheter
  • 15. Sex differences
    • In males, the catheter tube is inserted into the urinary tract through the penis
    • In females, the catheter is inserted into the urethral meatus , after a cleansing using povidone-iodine
  • 16. Combating infections
    • Everyday care of catheter and drainage bag is important to reduce the risk of infection Such precautions include:
    • Cleansing the urethral area (area where catheter exits body) and the catheter itself
    • Disconnecting drainage bag from catheter only with clean hands
    • Keeping drainage bag connector as clean as possible and cleansing the drainage bag periodically
    • Drinking sufficient liquid to produce at least two liters of urine daily
  • 17. Effects of long term use
    • The duration of cathetarization can have significance for the patient
    • Incontinent patients commonly are catheterized to reduce their cost of care
    • Llong-term catheterization carries a significant risk of urinary tract infection
    • Other long term complications may include blood infections ( sepsis ), urethral injury , skin breakdown, bladder stones , and blood in the urine ( hematuria )
    • After many years of catheter use, bladder cancer may also develop
  • 18. WATER (H2O)
    • Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O:
    • one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom
    • Water is a liquid at ambient conditions , but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice , and gaseous state, water vapor or steam
  • 19. Chemical and physical properties of water
    • Water is a tasteless, Odorless
    • Liquid at standard temperature and pressure
    • The color of water is intrinsically, a very slight blue hue, although it appears colorless in small quantities
    • Water is transparent , and thus aquatic plants can live within the water because sunlight can reach them.
    • Water covers 70.9% of the Earth 's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life On Earth
    • Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration ( evapotranspiration ), precipitation , and runoff , usually reaching the sea
  • 20. Role of Water
    • Water plays an important role in the world economy , as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation Approximately 70% of freshwater is consumed by agriculture
    • Clean drinking water is essential to human and other lifeforms
    • urine - culture
    • urine - culture