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REPORT ON UC, UTI, BUN, CATH, and WATER By: Temitope Olubode
URINE CULTURE (UC) <ul><li>A  urine culture  is a test to find and identify germs (usually bacteria) in urine </li></ul><u...
Why It Is Done <ul><li>A urine culture may be done to: </li></ul><ul><li>Find the cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI)...
What Affects the Test   <ul><li>Taking antibiotics or just finished taking them </li></ul><ul><li>Taking water pills ( diu...
URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI) <ul><li>A  urinary tract infection is a bacterial  infection  that affects any part of the  ...
Types f UTI’s <ul><li>Acute  cystitis  ( bladder infection)  </li></ul><ul><li>Pyelonephritis (infection of the upper urin...
Symptoms of UTI   <ul><li>Cloudy  or bloody urine, which may have a foul odor  </li></ul><ul><li>Low fever (not everyone w...
Causes of Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>The most common cause of UTIs are bacteria from the bowel that live on the skin...
Diagnosis of UTI   <ul><li>The number of bacteria and white blood cells in a  urine sample  is the basis for diagnosing  u...
Treatments of UTI <ul><li>Antibiotics taken by mouth are usually recommended because there is a risk that the infection ca...
BLOOD UREA NITROGEN <ul><li>A  blood urea nitrogen  (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes fr...
Why It Is Done <ul><li>A  blood urea nitrogen (BUN)  test is done to: </li></ul><ul><li>See if your kidneys are working no...
CATHETERIZATION <ul><li>In urinary catheterization, or &quot;cathing&quot; for short, a plastic tube known as a urinary  c...
Types of catherters <ul><li>Foley catheter  ( indwelling urinary catheter )is retained by means of a balloon at the tip wh...
Sex differences <ul><li>In males, the catheter tube is inserted into the urinary tract through the  penis   </li></ul><ul>...
Combating infections   <ul><li>Everyday care of catheter and drainage bag is important to reduce the risk of infection Suc...
Effects of long term use   <ul><li>The duration of cathetarization can have significance for the patient </li></ul><ul><li...
WATER (H2O) <ul><li>Water is the  chemical substance  with  chemical formula  H2O:  </li></ul><ul><li>one  molecule  of wa...
Chemical and physical properties of water <ul><li>Water is a tasteless, Odorless  </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid at  standard te...
Role of Water <ul><li>Water plays an important role in the  world economy , as it functions as a  solvent  for a wide vari...
REFERENCES: <ul><li>www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ urine - culture </li></ul><ul><li>www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ urine - cu...
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Transcript of "Report on uc, uti, bun,"

  1. 1. REPORT ON UC, UTI, BUN, CATH, and WATER By: Temitope Olubode
  2. 2. URINE CULTURE (UC) <ul><li>A urine culture is a test to find and identify germs (usually bacteria) in urine </li></ul><ul><li>A urine sample is kept under conditions that allow bacteria and other organisms to grow </li></ul><ul><li>If few organisms grow, the test is negative </li></ul><ul><li>If organisms grow in numbers large enough to indicate an infection, the culture is positive </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why It Is Done <ul><li>A urine culture may be done to: </li></ul><ul><li>Find the cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI) </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions about the best treatment for a UTI, called sensitivity testingFind out whether treatment for a UTI worked </li></ul><ul><li>A clean-catch midstream urine sample for testing </li></ul><ul><li>The first urine of the day is preferred because bacterial levels will be higher </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Affects the Test <ul><li>Taking antibiotics or just finished taking them </li></ul><ul><li>Taking water pills ( diuretics ) or drinking a large amount of liquid, (This may dilute your urine and reduce the number of bacteria in the sample) </li></ul><ul><li>Taking a lot of vitamin C </li></ul>
  5. 5. URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI) <ul><li>A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract . The main etiologic agent is Escherichia coli </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types f UTI’s <ul><li>Acute cystitis ( bladder infection) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyelonephritis (infection of the upper urinary tract or kidney) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms of UTI <ul><li>Cloudy or bloody urine, which may have a foul odor </li></ul><ul><li>Low fever (not everyone will have a fever) </li></ul><ul><li>Pain or burning with urination </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure or cramping in the lower abdomen or back </li></ul><ul><li>Strong need to urinate often, even right after the bladder has been emptied </li></ul>
  8. 8. Causes of Urinary Tract Infections <ul><li>The most common cause of UTIs are bacteria from the bowel that live on the skin near the rectum. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Female anatomy can make women more prone to urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting too long to urinate </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors that also may increase a woman's risk of developing UTI include pregnancy , menopause or diabetes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diagnosis of UTI <ul><li>The number of bacteria and white blood cells in a urine sample is the basis for diagnosing urinary tract infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Urine is examined under a microscope and cultured in a substance that promotes the growth of bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>A pelvic exam also may be necessary </li></ul>
  10. 10. Treatments of UTI <ul><li>Antibiotics taken by mouth are usually recommended because there is a risk that the infection can spread to the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used antibiotics include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, Augmentin, doxycycline, and fluoroquinolones </li></ul><ul><li>Your doctor may also recommend drugs to relieve the burning pain and urgent need to urinate </li></ul>
  11. 11. BLOOD UREA NITROGEN <ul><li>A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea </li></ul><ul><li>Urea is made in the liver when protein is broken down in your body and passed out of your body in the urine </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why It Is Done <ul><li>A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is done to: </li></ul><ul><li>See if your kidneys are working normally </li></ul><ul><li>See if your kidney disease is getting worse </li></ul><ul><li>See if treatment of your kidney disease is working </li></ul>
  13. 13. CATHETERIZATION <ul><li>In urinary catheterization, or &quot;cathing&quot; for short, a plastic tube known as a urinary catheter that is gently slid into a patient's bladder via his or her urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Catheterization allows the patient's urine to drain freely from the bladder for collection, or to inject liquids used for treatment or diagnosis of bladder conditions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of catherters <ul><li>Foley catheter ( indwelling urinary catheter )is retained by means of a balloon at the tip which is inflated with sterile water </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson catheter is a flexible catheter used for short term drainage of urine. Unlike the Foley catheter, it has no balloon on its tip and therefore cannot stay in place unaided </li></ul><ul><li>A Coudé catheter is designed with a curved tip that makes it easier to pass through the curvature of the prostatic urethra </li></ul><ul><li>A hematuria (or haematuria) catheter is a type of Foley catheter used for Post-TURP hemostasis </li></ul><ul><li>An external Texas or condom catheter is used for incontinent males and carries a lower risk of infection than an indwelling catheter </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sex differences <ul><li>In males, the catheter tube is inserted into the urinary tract through the penis </li></ul><ul><li>In females, the catheter is inserted into the urethral meatus , after a cleansing using povidone-iodine </li></ul>
  16. 16. Combating infections <ul><li>Everyday care of catheter and drainage bag is important to reduce the risk of infection Such precautions include: </li></ul><ul><li>Cleansing the urethral area (area where catheter exits body) and the catheter itself </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnecting drainage bag from catheter only with clean hands </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping drainage bag connector as clean as possible and cleansing the drainage bag periodically </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking sufficient liquid to produce at least two liters of urine daily </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effects of long term use <ul><li>The duration of cathetarization can have significance for the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Incontinent patients commonly are catheterized to reduce their cost of care </li></ul><ul><li>Llong-term catheterization carries a significant risk of urinary tract infection </li></ul><ul><li>Other long term complications may include blood infections ( sepsis ), urethral injury , skin breakdown, bladder stones , and blood in the urine ( hematuria ) </li></ul><ul><li>After many years of catheter use, bladder cancer may also develop </li></ul>
  18. 18. WATER (H2O) <ul><li>Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: </li></ul><ul><li>one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom </li></ul><ul><li>Water is a liquid at ambient conditions , but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice , and gaseous state, water vapor or steam </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chemical and physical properties of water <ul><li>Water is a tasteless, Odorless </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid at standard temperature and pressure </li></ul><ul><li>The color of water is intrinsically, a very slight blue hue, although it appears colorless in small quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Water is transparent , and thus aquatic plants can live within the water because sunlight can reach them. </li></ul><ul><li>Water covers 70.9% of the Earth 's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life On Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration ( evapotranspiration ), precipitation , and runoff , usually reaching the sea </li></ul>
  20. 20. Role of Water <ul><li>Water plays an important role in the world economy , as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation Approximately 70% of freshwater is consumed by agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Clean drinking water is essential to human and other lifeforms </li></ul>
  21. 21. REFERENCES: <ul><li>www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ urine - culture </li></ul><ul><li>www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ urine - culture </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/blood-urea-nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_catheterization </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water </li></ul>
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