Severe Weather

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Severe Weather

  1. 1. Hurricanes! Hurricane Ivan September 2004
  2. 2. The 2004 Atlantic Hurricane season was one of the most deadly and expensive in recorded history… Hurricane Jeanne September 2004
  3. 4. Five hurricanes in a six-week period slam into the east Coast of the United States… 116 dead in Florida alone… Damages estimated over $50 billion dollars…
  4. 5. Alex curves north up the Atlantic seaboard… brushes by the Carolina coastline without making landfall.
  5. 6. 12 August: Bonnie makes landfall on Florida’s Gulf Coast, no damage to speak of…
  6. 7. Charley hits Punta Gorda, Florida on August 13
  7. 8. Hurricane Charley <ul><li>Makes landfall August 13 2004 at Punta Gorda, Florida; 150 mph </li></ul><ul><li>10 “direct” deaths, 20 indirect...all in Florida; 5 dead in Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Spawned 11 tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>$15 billion in damages </li></ul><ul><li>Most powerful ‘cane to hit U.S. since Andrew in 1992 </li></ul>
  8. 9. Hurricane Frances over the Atlantic Landfall: 5 September...
  9. 10. Hurricane Frances <ul><li>Makes landfall September 5 2004 at Seward’s Point, Florida; 105 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Moves “slow-mo” across Florida peninsula (took 24 hours…) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves 24 dead in U.S., 2,800,000 people evacuated </li></ul><ul><li>$2.5 billion in damages </li></ul><ul><li>Spawns 75 tornadoes in the South </li></ul>
  10. 11. Hurricane Ivan: Category 5 16 September 2004
  11. 12. Hurricane Ivan <ul><li>Makes landfall September 16 2004 west of Gulf Shores, AL; 120 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained hurricane-force winds for 14 CONSECUTIVE DAYS </li></ul><ul><li>Reached Category 5 status 3 times... </li></ul><ul><li>Death toll: tornado (7), storm surge (5), fresh water floods (4), mud slides (4), wind (3), and surf (2). 37 indirect deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Most destructive hurricane in 100 years </li></ul>
  12. 13. Hurricane Jeanne kills more than 3,000 in Haiti
  13. 14. kiLLER sTORMS 1899 Hurricane San Ciriaco 3,433+ 1928 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane 4,075+ 1775 Newfoundland Hurricane 4,000 – 4,163+ 1776 Point-a-Pitre Bay Hurricane 6,000+ 1963 Hurricane Flora 7,200 – 8,000 1930 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane 2,000 – 8,000 1974 Hurricane Fifi 8,000 – 10,000 1900 Galveston Hurricane 8,000 – 12,000 1998 Hurricane Mitch 9,000 – 18,000 1780 Great Hurricane of 1780 22,000 Season Name Deaths
  14. 15. Costliest storms <ul><ul><li>Name landed year cat cost (billions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Katrina La./Miss. 2005 4 80.03  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Andrew Fla./La. 1992 5 26.5  </li></ul><ul><li>3. Charley Fla. 2004 4 15.0  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Wilma Fla. 2005 3 14.43  </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ivan Ala./Fla. 2004 3 14.2  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Rita Tex./La. 2005 3 9.43  </li></ul><ul><li>7. Frances Fla. 2004 2 8.9 </li></ul><ul><li>8. Hugo S.C. 1989 4 7.0  </li></ul><ul><li>9. Jeanne Fla. 2004 3 6.9  </li></ul><ul><li>10. Allison Tex. 2001 TS 45.0 </li></ul>
  15. 18. Hurricane FAQs... <ul><li>Similar to wave cyclones (air rotating CCW inwards around a low pressure center), but do not involve a FRONT (what’s a front?) </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic hurricanes travel westward on the trade winds, but can switch direction & head east if they pass the 30 o line. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Storm Surge demo
  17. 20. Tornado!!
  18. 21. Homes lifted off foundations and carried some distance, cars thrown as far as 300 ft 1.0-3.1 100-315 261-318 F5 Well-constructed walls leveled 0.30-0.90 32-99 207-260 F4 Roof and walls torn down, trains overturned, cars thrown 0.10-0.29 10-31 158-206 F3 Considerable damage, mobile homes demolished, trees uprooted 0.03-0.09 3.2-9.9 113-157 F2 Mobile homes moved off foundations or overturned 0.01-0.03 1.0-3.1 73-112 F1 Chimneys damaged, trees broken less than 0.01 less than 1.0 less than 73 F0 Damage Path Width (mi) Path Length (mi.) Max. Winds (mph) Fujita Scale
  19. 26. http://www.britannica.com/thunderstorms_tornadoes/ocliwea124v4.html
  20. 30. T-storms <ul><li>Caused by upward movement of warm, moist air resulting from heating of earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Happen mostly in spring & summer </li></ul><ul><li>Usually occur later in the day… </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen in the middle of an air mass, or at a front (squalls) </li></ul>
  21. 31. Three stages... <ul><ul><li>Cumulus stage: warm, moist air rises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature stage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air rises, violent updrafts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulonimbus cloud develops (15 km high!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy rain, possible hail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downdrafts develop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissipation stage : downdrafts stop the updrafts; moisture runs out… </li></ul></ul>
  22. 33. Lightning <ul><li>Discharge of static electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud to ground (15%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within cloud, cloud to air, cloud to other cloud (85%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thunder: heated air expands, pressure wave is heard as thunder </li></ul>
  23. 35. Lightning FAQs <ul><ul><li>speed of light! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 million volts! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>air in the vicinity heated to 33,000 o C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cloud to ground: 9 miles long, cloud to cloud: 90 miles… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is struck 44,000 times a day by lightening… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 people/year die in U.S alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men are struck 4 times more often than women! </li></ul></ul>

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