California Contract Cities Association Fall Seminar
September 26, 2009
The Importance of Groundwater
in South Los Angeles ...
Water Table (groundwater)Water Table (groundwater)
Underground (soil)Underground (soil)
What is Groundwater?What is Ground...
Water that exists in pore spaces in the groundWater that exists in pore spaces in the ground
SandSand
Rocks & GravelRocks ...
Water from rivers, streams andWater from rivers, streams and
rain percolate into the soilrain percolate into the soil
Wate...
GroundwaterGroundwater
How Do We Access Groundwater?How Do We Access Groundwater?
Groundwater WellGroundwater Well
Water Wells – over 500 active wellsWater Wells – over 500 active wells
WestWest
CoastCoast
BasinBasin
CentralCentral
BasinBasin
Whittier
Pacific
Ocean
Los Angeles
Long Beach
Torrance
Inglewood
...
WestWest
CoastCoast
BasinBasin
CentralCentral
BasinBasin
Whittier
Pacific
Ocean
Area = 420 mi2
Los Angeles
Long Beach
Torr...
WestWest
CoastCoast
BasinBasin
CentralCentral
BasinBasin
Whittier
Pacific
Ocean
Los Angeles
Long Beach
Torrance
Inglewood
...
1900s-1950s1900s-1950s
No regulationNo regulation
of pumpingof pumping
WEST COAST BASIN KEY WELL
-110
-90
-70
-50
-30
-10
...
 Basins adjudicated in earlyBasins adjudicated in early
1960s1960s
 Pumping rights exceededPumping rights exceeded
natur...
Replenishment of groundwaterReplenishment of groundwater
Groundwater Clean UpGroundwater Clean Up
Basin monitoringBasin mo...
WestWest
CoastCoast
BasinBasin
CentralCentral
BasinBasin
Whittier
Pacific
Ocean
Los Angeles
Long Beach
Torrance
Inglewood
...
San GabrielSan Gabriel
spreadingspreading
groundsgrounds
Rio HondoRio Hondo
spreadingspreading
groundsgrounds
Forebay
(unconfined aquifers)
Surface Recharge
Spreading Basin
Bedrock
(Pico
Form
ation)
Pressure Area
(confined aquifers)...
Seawater IntrusionSeawater Intrusion
Coastal Aquifer - No PumpingCoastal Aquifer - No Pumping
Water TableWater Table
Ocean...
Water TableWater Table
OceanOcean
FreshFresh
WaterWater
Sea LevelSea Level
BrackishBrackish
WaterWater
Coastal Aquifer - W...
Water TableWater Table
OceanOcean
Brackish WaterBrackish Water Fresh WaterFresh Water
Sea LevelSea Level
FreshFresh
WaterW...
Water TableWater Table
OceanOcean
Brackish WaterBrackish Water Fresh WaterFresh Water
Sea LevelSea Level
FreshFresh
WaterW...
Water TableWater Table
OceanOcean
Brackish WaterBrackish Water Fresh WaterFresh Water
Sea LevelSea Level
FreshFresh
WaterW...
Tertiary TreatedTertiary Treated MicrofiltrationMicrofiltration
Reverse OsmosisReverse OsmosisUltra Violet LightUltra Viol...
 Water supplies are heavily testedWater supplies are heavily tested
and monitored for over 100and monitored for over 100
...
Over 250
monitoring
wells at 54
locations (more
wells planned)
Monitoring the Groundwater ConditionsMonitoring the Groundw...
NestedNested
MonitoringMonitoring
WellsWells
SamplingSampling
DrillingDrilling
City of NorwalkCity of Norwalk City of Huntington ParkCity of Huntington Park
City of BellCity of Bell
City ofCity of
Sout...
WRD’s GoldsworthyWRD’s Goldsworthy
Brackish GroundwaterBrackish Groundwater
Desalination PlantDesalination Plant
(Torrance...
WEST COAST BASIN KEY WELL
-110
-90
-70
-50
-30
-10
10
Feb-30
Feb-40
Feb-50
Feb-60
Feb-70
Jan-80
Jan-90
Jan-00
Date
WaterSu...
Benefits of GroundwaterBenefits of Groundwater
 Local reliable supplyLocal reliable supply
 Provides drought protectionP...
-
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
Past Current Future
AcreFeet
Imported Recycled Stormwater
WRD’s WIN Program willWRD’s WIN...
Upper GRIP Pipeline
GRIP-AWTP
Lower GRIP Pipeline
GRIP Facilities LocationGRIP Facilities Location
GGroundwaterroundwater
...
Managing your groundwater forManaging your groundwater for
today and the futuretoday and the future
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Robb Whitaker - Water Replenishment District, Water: Our Precious Resource

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  • Nested monitoring wells can monitor many depths or aquifers from a single well. Each pipe within the nested monitoring well reaches a different depth.
    200’ – 800’.
    Sampling is done twice per year.
  • The Robert W. Goldsworthy Groundwater Desalination Plant in Torrance was built to remove a saline plume that is trapped beneath the city. (On Madrona, at the City Yard)
    The plant currently has two extraction wells at the southern end of the plume and is removing 2,000 gallons of brackish water per minute. The plant returns more than 1 billion gallons of purified water per year to the Torrance water supply.
    At this rate, it could take 500 years to clean up this single plume. Additional wells would speed the clean up.
    The leftover brine is piped back to the ocean.
  • Robb Whitaker - Water Replenishment District, Water: Our Precious Resource

    1. 1. California Contract Cities Association Fall Seminar September 26, 2009 The Importance of Groundwater in South Los Angeles County
    2. 2. Water Table (groundwater)Water Table (groundwater) Underground (soil)Underground (soil) What is Groundwater?What is Groundwater?
    3. 3. Water that exists in pore spaces in the groundWater that exists in pore spaces in the ground SandSand Rocks & GravelRocks & Gravel WaterWater What is Groundwater?What is Groundwater?
    4. 4. Water from rivers, streams andWater from rivers, streams and rain percolate into the soilrain percolate into the soil Water Table (groundwater)Water Table (groundwater) Underground (soil)Underground (soil) How is Groundwater Formed?How is Groundwater Formed?
    5. 5. GroundwaterGroundwater How Do We Access Groundwater?How Do We Access Groundwater? Groundwater WellGroundwater Well
    6. 6. Water Wells – over 500 active wellsWater Wells – over 500 active wells
    7. 7. WestWest CoastCoast BasinBasin CentralCentral BasinBasin Whittier Pacific Ocean Los Angeles Long Beach Torrance Inglewood 5 miles 5 km OrangeOrange CountyCounty
    8. 8. WestWest CoastCoast BasinBasin CentralCentral BasinBasin Whittier Pacific Ocean Area = 420 mi2 Los Angeles Long Beach Torrance Inglewood Population 4 Million 5 miles 5 km OrangeOrange CountyCounty 43 Cities
    9. 9. WestWest CoastCoast BasinBasin CentralCentral BasinBasin Whittier Pacific Ocean Los Angeles Long Beach Torrance Inglewood 235 billion gallons of water used per year 5 miles 5 km OrangeOrange CountyCounty 40% is groundwater 60% is water imported from hundreds of miles away
    10. 10. 1900s-1950s1900s-1950s No regulationNo regulation of pumpingof pumping WEST COAST BASIN KEY WELL -110 -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 10 Feb-30 Feb-40 Feb-50 Feb-60 Feb-70 Jan-80 Jan-90 Jan-00 Date WaterSurfaceElevation(feetMSL) CENTRAL BASIN KEY WELL -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 Feb-30 Feb-40 Feb-50 Feb-60 Feb-70 Jan-80 Jan-90 Jan-00 WaterSurfaceElevation(feetMSL) Water table droppedWater table dropped to alarming levelsto alarming levels as populationas population increasedincreased History of Groundwater in L.A. CountyHistory of Groundwater in L.A. County
    11. 11.  Basins adjudicated in earlyBasins adjudicated in early 1960s1960s  Pumping rights exceededPumping rights exceeded natural replenishmentnatural replenishment  WRD formed in 1959 toWRD formed in 1959 to supplement naturalsupplement natural replenishmentreplenishment HistoryHistory NaturalNatural groundwatergroundwater wasn’t enoughwasn’t enough to meetto meet demanddemand
    12. 12. Replenishment of groundwaterReplenishment of groundwater Groundwater Clean UpGroundwater Clean Up Basin monitoringBasin monitoring Basin modelingBasin modeling How WRD Manages the Groundwater BasinsHow WRD Manages the Groundwater Basins
    13. 13. WestWest CoastCoast BasinBasin CentralCentral BasinBasin Whittier Pacific Ocean Los Angeles Long Beach Torrance Inglewood 5 miles 5 km OrangeOrange CountyCounty Surface Recharge Coastal Injection
    14. 14. San GabrielSan Gabriel spreadingspreading groundsgrounds Rio HondoRio Hondo spreadingspreading groundsgrounds
    15. 15. Forebay (unconfined aquifers) Surface Recharge Spreading Basin Bedrock (Pico Form ation) Pressure Area (confined aquifers) Clay (aquitard) Clay (aquitard) Clay (aquitard) Aquifer Aquifer Aquifer Ocean Surface Recharge of GroundwaterSurface Recharge of Groundwater
    16. 16. Seawater IntrusionSeawater Intrusion Coastal Aquifer - No PumpingCoastal Aquifer - No Pumping Water TableWater Table OceanOcean Sea LevelSea Level FreshFresh WaterWater BrackishBrackish WaterWater EquilibriumEquilibrium
    17. 17. Water TableWater Table OceanOcean FreshFresh WaterWater Sea LevelSea Level BrackishBrackish WaterWater Coastal Aquifer - With PumpingCoastal Aquifer - With Pumping Seawater IntrusionSeawater Intrusion
    18. 18. Water TableWater Table OceanOcean Brackish WaterBrackish Water Fresh WaterFresh Water Sea LevelSea Level FreshFresh WaterWater BrackishBrackish WaterWater Coastal Aquifer - Intrusion AdvancingCoastal Aquifer - Intrusion Advancing Seawater IntrusionSeawater Intrusion
    19. 19. Water TableWater Table OceanOcean Brackish WaterBrackish Water Fresh WaterFresh Water Sea LevelSea Level FreshFresh WaterWater BrackishBrackish WaterWater Coastal Aquifer - Pumping and InjectionCoastal Aquifer - Pumping and Injection Seawater IntrusionSeawater Intrusion
    20. 20. Water TableWater Table OceanOcean Brackish WaterBrackish Water Fresh WaterFresh Water Sea LevelSea Level FreshFresh WaterWater StrandedStranded BrackishBrackish WaterWater (Saline(Saline Plume)Plume) BrackishBrackish WaterWater Coastal Aquifer - Pumping and InjectionCoastal Aquifer - Pumping and Injection Seawater IntrusionSeawater Intrusion
    21. 21. Tertiary TreatedTertiary Treated MicrofiltrationMicrofiltration Reverse OsmosisReverse OsmosisUltra Violet LightUltra Violet Light To Barriers Leo J. Vander Lans PlantLeo J. Vander Lans Plant Purifying Recycled WaterPurifying Recycled Water
    22. 22.  Water supplies are heavily testedWater supplies are heavily tested and monitored for over 100and monitored for over 100 chemicals to ensure safety.chemicals to ensure safety.  Natural and man-madeNatural and man-made contamination can occur.contamination can occur.  When contaminants are detected,When contaminants are detected, water sources are shut down untilwater sources are shut down until treated.treated.  WRD can help to identify and cleanWRD can help to identify and clean up many sources of contamination.up many sources of contamination. Water QualityWater Quality
    23. 23. Over 250 monitoring wells at 54 locations (more wells planned) Monitoring the Groundwater ConditionsMonitoring the Groundwater Conditions
    24. 24. NestedNested MonitoringMonitoring WellsWells SamplingSampling DrillingDrilling
    25. 25. City of NorwalkCity of Norwalk City of Huntington ParkCity of Huntington Park City of BellCity of Bell City ofCity of South GateSouth Gate Wellhead TreatmentWellhead Treatment
    26. 26. WRD’s GoldsworthyWRD’s Goldsworthy Brackish GroundwaterBrackish Groundwater Desalination PlantDesalination Plant (Torrance)(Torrance) Removal of Sea Water ContaminationRemoval of Sea Water Contamination
    27. 27. WEST COAST BASIN KEY WELL -110 -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 10 Feb-30 Feb-40 Feb-50 Feb-60 Feb-70 Jan-80 Jan-90 Jan-00 Date WaterSurfaceElevation(feetMSL) CENTRAL BASIN KEY WELL -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 Feb-30 Feb-40 Feb-50 Feb-60 Feb-70 Jan-80 Jan-90 Jan-00 WaterSurfaceElevation(feetMSL) Results of WRDResults of WRD basinbasin managementmanagement Rising waterRising water levels & droughtlevels & drought protectionprotection
    28. 28. Benefits of GroundwaterBenefits of Groundwater  Local reliable supplyLocal reliable supply  Provides drought protectionProvides drought protection  Cost effective – less than half the cost of importedCost effective – less than half the cost of imported waterwater $- $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 CostperAcreFoot Imported Water Groundwater
    29. 29. - 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 Past Current Future AcreFeet Imported Recycled Stormwater WRD’s WIN Program willWRD’s WIN Program will eliminate need for importedeliminate need for imported water to replenishwater to replenish groundwatergroundwater
    30. 30. Upper GRIP Pipeline GRIP-AWTP Lower GRIP Pipeline GRIP Facilities LocationGRIP Facilities Location GGroundwaterroundwater RReliabilityeliability IImprovementmprovement PProgramrogram
    31. 31. Managing your groundwater forManaging your groundwater for today and the futuretoday and the future

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