Theory of architecture 2


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Theory of architecture 2

  1. 1. Theory of Architecture 2: Manuals Architectural Design Process and Methodologies The question of the actual design process and methodology of design is more confusing when dealing with architectural design because architectural design more often involves in a team work. Before, most architects are considered more of an artist; they can design but was not able to explain or defends the need to add a significant amount of funds for the particular design. In today’s architectural trends, there are set of rules and guidelines to be followed that could affect or help in making a design. The process should involve the following step. [TSSF Inc.] 1. Assemble the team – As stated above the architectural design involves a team of people. At the outset of the project there should be a scheduling or at least a tentative assembly of efficient architects and consultant who identify the project’s scope and purpose. There should be a project’s team leader who holds the overall responsibility and identifying the right person/s in their fields. 2. Clear Communication – As again stated before, the design part involves a team. The communication should be always available for any enquiry of the different involves, especially for the owner or their representative/s. The Project Architect coordinates regular meetings to design staff, specialists and the Owner’s representative. 3. Budget and Cost Control - Cost control is critical to the success of any project. This is true not only for initial construction, but also when considering the cost of operation. The project’s budget is developed during the schematic design phase. It’s monitored and updated during the design development phase, and finally confirmed during the preparation of construction documents. The Architect performs construction cost estimating, which involves confirming current unit costs for materials and equipment with contractors and suppliers. 4. Staying on Track - Hold regularly-scheduled job progress meetings with the Owner’s Representative and contractors. These meetings help establish and maintain good communication, assure smooth progress and result in the project’s timely completion. Methodology [The LaBICHE ARCHITECTURAL GROUP, INC.,] The Development Process Schematic Design - Review of program with Client - Preliminary design concepts - Landscape consultant input - Presentation of design concepts to Owner - Owner review and input - Schematic design finalized Design Development - Preliminary design of building systems with consulting engineers - Presentation of design development to Owner
  2. 2. - Review of project cost estimate with Owner - Owner review and input - Design finalized Construction Documents - Working drawings and specifications production - Owner review Bidding & Negotiations - Competitive bidding - Bid evaluation - Contract awarded Construction - Construction begins with on-site construction observation - Substantial completion - Owner occupancy - One-year building review by Architect Biophilic Design The interiors of the first Optimum Performance Home aredesigned using the concept of Biophilia: the human need fornature. I have defined and discussed biophilic design in previousarticles in Ultimate Home Design as an importantapproach to creating environments that enhance our physicaland psychological health and well being by providing fordirect and indirect experiences with nature. The argument forbiophilic design is compelling. Research indicates that weneed to experience and interact with nature as a central partof our lives to enjoy a variety of benefits including improvedphysical skills, concentration and memory; increased productivity;relief from stress and mental fatigue; as well asenhanced aesthetic and spiritual experiences. Biophilic design is an excellent (and natural) way to meetthe challenges of combining sustainable, universal designqualities with the technologies of a “digital home” in a lifeenhancing,aesthetically pleasing environment. This approachrepresents the new design paradigm that seeks to createenvironments that are healthy for the planet and for people ofall ages by understanding our deeply rooted human-natureconnection. Because biophilic design is based upon the universal,inherent needs we have as human beings to experiencenature as a vital part of our lives, it is essential to integratebiophilic design attributes into all aspects of the designfrom site to structure to interiors. Biophilic design attributes are elements and qualities of thephysical environment that connect us to the physical, psychological,and cognitive benefits resulting from direct experienceswith nature. Dynamic natural light and ventilation,access to open and/or moving water, frequent opportunitiesfor spontaneous interaction with nature, sensory connectionswith nature, and the use of fundamental natural forms andlocal natural materials are biophilic design attributes that providephysical links with nature in the home. Symbolic links thatappeal to our genetically based affiliation and association withnature and the essential sense of meaning we attribute to thenatural world are also important biophilic design attributes. They include concepts of environmental complexity and order,a sense of mystery, and prospect and refuge (strategic viewingconditions from a position of safety and security). Thesephysical and symbolic attributes were discussed in-depth asthey applied to the first Optimum Performance Home in theJuly/August 2006 issue of Ultimate Home Design (Issue 4)and they will be illustrated and discussed further in future articlesas the home is completed. Quality Over Quantity
  3. 3. A complimentary aesthetic approach to biophilic design isthe design principle described by architect and author ofTheNot So Big House series of books and contributor to UltimateHome Design Sarah Susanka as “quality over quantity.” Thisdesign principle embraces the sustainable idea of reducingresource and energy use by designing a smaller overall “footprint”for the home (i.e. fewer square feet). It also emphasizesthe need to fully inhabit our homes by designing flexible,adaptable spaces rich in detail and meaning so that nospace is wasted, no space is unused, and all spaces arespecial. Susanka provides guidelines to achieve a smaller-is-betterdesign that include biophilic design attributes such asdynamic, natural light and visually/physically connecting interiorspaces to exterior spaces. The intimate experience of ourhomes is greatly enhanced by combining biophilic designattributes with this quality-overquantity approach. The interiorsof the first Optimum Performance Home are designed withintricate details inspired by and similar to those found innature that fascinate us and connect us with the larger world. Privacy Needs Unless we design smaller homes with careful consideration,they often fail to provide for the diverse privacy requirementsa family has over time. Privacy, the ability to controlhow much and what types of interactions we have with others,is central to achieving a high quality of life. People of all ages,all backgrounds, and all cultures require privacy to maintainphysical and emotional well-being. But achieving privacy it isnot a factor of square feet; it is a factor of good design. The book I co-authored, Designing For Privacy AndRelated Needs, discusses the diverse needs for privacy weexperience in all environments, including our homes andthroughout the stages of life. Our privacy needs indeed dochange as we age. Therefore, any universal home designmust be responsive to these changes. But because we tendto equate the ability to achieve privacy with more space, wealso tend to equate larger homes with more rooms as beingmore private. The reality usually is: more space is simply morespace, and often these voluminous spaces actually provideless privacy than well-designed smaller spaces.Designing for privacy requires interior features that 1) providespatial hierarchy (a sequence of spaces that progressfrom less to more private; 2) create circulation paths thatconnect but do not pass directly through private spaces; 3)delineate “thresholds” (places of transition) between publicand more private spaces; 4) provide stimulus shelters (placesto retreat such as alcoves and window seats within largerrooms; and 5) design opportunities for prospect and refuge (avantage point from which to view your surroundings relativelyunobserved). These interior features subtly but effectively provideadaptable, flexible conditions for privacy that are integratedseamlessly into the overall design of the first OptimumPerformance Home. The Process Once the functional design concepts and aestheticapproaches have been fully defined, the process of designingthe interiors becomes a focused effort involving many individuals. Designing the interiors of any home is a collaborativeprocess between the interior designers, other design professionalsinvolved with the project, and the homeowners. But,as qualified, experienced interior designers know, the interiorsare not a separate element of the home, but rather an integratedcomponent of the entire exterior/interior environment ofwhich the home is a part. Creating a successful interior environmentfor a sustainable, universally accessible, technologicallyinnovative home requires research and education aboutproducts and processes as well as an integrated designapproach. It also requires a commitment to a changed andenhanced lifestyle. Determining Owner Needs And Requirements The challenge is to develop interiors that incorporate thehomeowners’ functional and aesthetic requirements while alsoallowing them to fully experience the enhanced lifestyle oftheir high performance home. For the first OptimumPerformance Home, this challenge involves meeting the multifunctionalrequirements of an environment that serves as afamily gathering place, home office, state-of-the-art home theatre,and intimate retreat––all within a series of sustainable,healthy, adaptable, supportive, and beautiful spaces in astunning Pacific Coast natural setting.
  4. 4. Research And Education (Products, Processes,Technology) The process begins with research and education. Sustainable products, processes, and technologies arechanging and advancing rapidly––as are universal designand home technology products and processes. To be betterinformed about these changes and innovations, homeownersand their design professionals should attend some of therelated design industry conferences, seminars, and workshopsheld each year throughout the United States andCanada. For example, a wealth of sustainable design information is now available to everyone from the United StatesGreen Building Council's gigantic annual GreenBuild internationalconference, to local and state sustainable design conferences,to workshops and seminars offered by colleges anduniversities. Some sustainable design events are directed specificallyto design professionals, while others cater more to the generalpublic. The annual West Coast Green conference in SanFrancisco is the largest residential green building event in thecountry, combining three days of professional level trainingcourses, seminars, and networking for design and buildingprofessionals with a full day for the general public includingentry level training and keynote speakers. As a designer, Ihave found the USGBC’s annual GreenBuild conference andthe annual EnvironDesign conference to be excellent sourcesfor design professionals. Optimum Performance homeowner,Gary Reber suggests also the National Green BuildingConference, The Green Building Conference, GreenBuildExpo, Pacific Coast Builder’s Show (PCBC), Solar Power2007, the Sustainable Living Fair, AltBuild, SolFest, and theNational Association of Home Builders Building for Boomers &Beyond: 50+ Housing Symposium. Numerous magazines, newsletters, and books for designprofessionals provide in-depth, state-of-the-art informationabout sustainable and universal design, and home technologies.The United States Green Building Council’s Web provides excellent information on all aspectsof green design and building–– from new commercial constructionto homes, including access to the LEED suite of ratingsystems. The Center for Universal Design (CUD) is aresearch center that provides information, technical assistanceon most aspects of universal design. CUD evaluates,develops, and promotes accessible and universal design inhousing, commercial and public facilities, outdoor environments,and products. Their Web site is A must attend conference and trade show isthe Custom Electronics Design and Installation Association(CEDIA) Expo and CEDIA Lifestyles Expo, where one canlearn about leading-edge home electronics and electronicsystem integration. Integration With Other Design Professionals Successful sustainable design rarely is achieved by usingthe conventional, sequential relay-race model for design andconstruction in which each design professional does his orher part of the work and then passes it off to the next designprofessional. This traditional process of design and constructionisolates professionals from each other, from the interdependentdetails, and from the larger goals of the project.Because every aspect of a building effects, and is affectedby, every other aspect, the approach to the design must behighly collaborative and multidisciplinary. The term “integrated design” refers to a design processthat brings together all key members of the project team towork together across disciplines throughout the process frombeginning to end. The goal of this process is to achieve highperformancebuildings that provide multiple synergetic benefitsat a lower cost. Participation from all design and constructionspecialties including architecture, engineering, lightingdesign, electronic lifestyle, interior design, landscape design,and construction is essential to the success of an integrateddesign approach. When all key players work together at keypoints in the design process, each part of the design is evaluatedfrom multiple perspectives producing more efficient andeffective design solutions. Integrated design ensures that all decisions about the interiorsthat affect the interiors of a sustainable home are neveran afterthought but rather are central to the overall design.The result is a beautiful, comfortable, energy and resourceefficient, healthy, life enhancing home for the entire span ofthe homeowners’ lives.
  5. 5. Value of Interior Design [US Army Corps of Engineers,] We all expect a facility to be functional and maintainable.Achieving coordination of the building interior andfurnishings, meeting human ergonomic and psychologicalneeds, and providing optimum aesthetic effect areidentifiable and attainable goals for every interior designproject.People's reactions to interior environments are critical to thesuccess of every facility type. These reactions were firstidentified in healthcare facilities, where color, texture,lighting,furnishings, and finishes all contribute to creatingan environment which supports patient recovery and wellbeing.Training, maintenance, laboratories, logistic support,medical,administrative, residential, morale, welfare andrecreation facilities all have unique functional and aestheticrequirements. When these requirements are satisfied,workers, residents, and customers react positively, takepride in their contributions and in the facility, and performto their maximum potential.Why should you insist on comprehensive interior design inyour facilities? - To improve the morale and increase the productivity ofthe people in your facility. To use your space and financial resources in the mostcost effective manner. To assure the health, safety and welfare of facilityoccupants. To project a professional image of your organization. To provide appropriate and maintainable buildingmaterials, finishes, furniture, and furnishings. Artistic aspects and self-expression It is characterized by a belief that individual self-expression—or one’s inner spiritual self and creative imagination, inner resources and intuition—should be utilised and/or be the base used when designing. These sentiments are closely linked to a number of artistic values found in movements like Expressionism and the Avant-garde art. Thus, this design value is closely related to abstract forms and expression, personal creative liberty, elitism and being ahead of the rest of society. The spirit of the time design value This design value is based on the conception that every age has a certain spirit or set of shared attitudes that should be utilised when designing. The Spirit of the Times denotes the intellectual and cultural climate of a particular era, which can be linked to an experience of a certain worldview, sense of taste, collectiveconsciousness and unconsciousness. Thus “form expression” which can be found, to some extent in the “air” of a given time and each generation, should generate an aesthetic style that expresses the uniqueness related to that time. The structural, functional and material honesty design value Structural Honesty is linked to the notion that a structure shall display its “true” purpose and not be decorative etc. Functional honesty is linked to the idea that a building or product form shall be shaped on the basis of its intended function, often known as “form follows function”. Material honesty implies that materials should be used and selected on the bases of their properties, and that the characteristics of a material should influence the form it is used for. Thus, a material must not be used as a substitute for another material as this subverts the materials “true” properties and it is “cheating” the spectator. The simplicity and minimalism design value This design value is based on the idea that simple forms, i.e. aesthetics without considerable ornaments, simple geometry, smooth surfaces etc., represents forms which are both truer to “real” art and represents “folk” wisdom. This design value implies that the more cultivated a person becomes, the more decoration disappears. In addition, it is linked to the notion that simple forms will free people from the everyday clutter, thus contribute to tranquillity and restfulness.
  6. 6. The nature and organic design value This design value is based on the idea that nature (i.e. all sorts of living organisms, numerical laws etc.) can provide inspiration, functional clues and aesthetic forms that architects and industrial designers should use as a basis for designs. Designs based on this value tend to be characterized by free-flowing curves, asymmetrical lines and expressive forms. This design value can be summed up in “form follows flow” or “of the hill” as oppose to “on the hill”. The classic, traditional and vernacular aesthetics design value This value is based on a belief that a building and product should be designed from timeless principles that transcend particular designers, cultures and climates. Implicit in this design value is the notion that if these forms are used, the public will appreciate a structure’s timeless beauty and understand immediately how to use a given building or product. This design value is also linked to regional differences i.e. varying climate etc. and folklore cultures, which creates distinctive aesthetical expressions. The regionalism design value This design value is based on the belief that building—and to some degree products—should be designed in accordance with the particular characteristics of a specific place. In addition, it is linked to the aim of achieving [20] visual harmony between a building and its surroundings, as well as achieving continuity in a given area. In other words, it strives to create a connection between past and present forms of building. Finally, this value is also often related to preserving and creating regional and national identity. SOCIAL DESIGN VALUES Many architects and industrial designers have a strong motivation to serve the public good and the needs of the user population. Moreover, social awareness and social values within architecture and design reflect, to some degree, the emphasis these values are given in society at large. It should be noted that social values can have an aesthetical impact, but these aspects will not be explored as the main aesthetical impact found in design has been covered in the previous sections. Social design values are at times in conflict with other design values. This type of conflict can manifest itself between different design movements, but it can also be the cause of conflicts within a given design movement. It can be argued that conflicts between social values and other design values often represent the continuing debate between Rationalism and Romanticism commonly found within architecture and industrial design. The Social Design Values category consisting of four design values. The social change design value This design value can be described as a commitment to change society for the better through architecture and industrial design. This design value is closely connected and associated with political movements and subsequent building programs. Architects and industrial designers that are committed to the design value of social change often see their work as a tool for transforming the built environment and those who live in it. The consultation and participation design value This design value is based on a belief that it is beneficial to involve stakeholders in the design process. This value is connected to a belief that user involvement leads to:
  7. 7. 1. 2. 3. Meeting social needs and an effective use of resources. Influencing in the design process as well as awareness of the consequences etc. Providing relevant and up-to-date information for designers. The crime prevention design value This design value is based on the belief that the built environment can be manipulated to reduce crime levels, which is attempted accomplished through three main strategies that are: 1. 2. 3. Defensible space. Crime prevention through environmental design. Situational crime prevention. The 'Third world' design value This is based on an eagerness to help developing countries through architecture and design (i.e. a response to the needs of the poor and destitute within the Third World).This design value implies that social and economic circumstances found in the Third World necessitate the development of special solutions, which are distinct from what the same architects and industrial designers would recommend for the developed world. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN VALUES [citation The 20th century has been marked by the re-emergence of environmental values within Western societies. needed] Concern for the environment is not new and can be found to a varying degree throughout history, and it is rooted in a number of perspectives including the aim of managing the ecosystems for sustained resource yields (sustainable development), and the idea that everything in nature has an intrinsic value (nature protection and preservation). Generally behind these types of thinking are the concepts of stewardship and that the present [18][38] generation owes duties to generations not yet born. Environmental problems and challenges found in the 19th and 20th centuries led to a development where [according environmental values became important in some sections of Western societies. It is therefore not surprising to whom?] that these values can also be found among individual architects and industrial designers. The focus on environmental design has been marked with the rediscovery and further development of many “ancient” skills and [citation needed] techniques. In addition, new technology that approaches environmental concerns is also an important characteristic of the environmental approach found among architects and industrial designers. These rather different approaches to environmental building and product technology can be illustrated with the development of environmental high-tech architecture, and the more “traditional” environmental movement within is ecological [39] based architecture. Environmental technology, along with new environmental values, have affected development in cities across the world. Many cities have started to formulate and introduce "eco-regulations concerning renewable resources, [39] energy consumption, sick buildings, smart buildings, recycled materials, and sustainability". This may not be [39] surprising, as about 50% of all energy consumption in Europe and 60% in the US is building-related. However, environmental concerns are not restricted to energy consumption; environmental concerns take on a number of perspectives generally, which are reflected in the focus found among architects and industrial designers. The environmental design values category consists of three design values. Green and sustainability
  8. 8. This value is based on a belief that a sustainable and/or environmentally friendly building approach is beneficial to users, society and future generations. Key concepts within this design value are: energy conservation, resource management, recycling, cradle-to-cradle, toxic free materials etc. Re-use and modification This is based on a belief that existing buildings, and to some degree products, can be continuously used through updates. Within this value there are two separate schools of thought with regards to aesthetics: one camp focuses on new elements that are sublimated to an overall aesthetic, and the other advocates for aesthetical contrast, dichotomy and even dissonance between the old and the new. Health This design value is based on the belief that the built environment can contribute to ensuring a healthy living environment. Built into this design value, are principles like: buildings should be freestanding; sites need to be distributed to maximize the amount of sunlight that reaches individual structures. Similarly, there is an emphasis on health based construction and reduction of toxic emissions through selection of appropriate materials. TRADITIONAL DESIGN VALUES Within both architecture and industrial design there is a long tradition of being both inspired by and re-use design elements of existing buildings and products. This is the case even if many architects and industrial designers argue that they are primarily using their creativity to create new and novel design solutions. Some architects and industrial designers have openly led themselves be inspired by existing building and products traditions, and have even used this inspiration as the main base for their designs solutions. This design tradition has a considerable history, which can be indicated in many of the labels associated with this tradition; this includes labels such as Classicism, Vernacular, Restoration and Preservation etc. In addition, as indicated in the previous section “Classic, Traditional and Vernacular aesthetics”, an important element of this tradition is to re-use and be inspired by already existing aesthetical elements and styles. However, the traditional approach also implies other aspects such as functional aspects, preserving existing building traditions as well as individual buildings and products. The Traditional Design Values category, consisting of three distinct values. The tradition based design value This relies on a belief that traditional “designs” are the preferred typology and template for buildings and products, because they “create” timeless and “functional” designs. Within this design value there are three main strategies: 1. 2. 3. Critical traditionalist/regionalist i.e. interpreting the traditional typologies and templates and applying them in an abstracted modern vocabulary. Revivalists i.e. adhering to the most literal traditional form. Contextualists who use historical forms when the surroundings “demands” it. The design value of restoration and preservation This is based on a commitment to preserve the best of buildings and products for future generations. This design value tends to represent restoring a building or product to its initial design and is usually rooted in three perspectives. These are:
  9. 9. 1. 2. 3. An archaeological perspective (i.e. preserving buildings and products of historical interest). An artistic perspective i.e. a desire to preserve something of beauty. A social perspective (i.e. a desire to hold on to the familiar and reassuring). The vernacular design value This value is based on a belief that a simple life and its design, closely linked to nature, are superior to that of modernity. The design value of Vernacular includes key concept such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. Reinvigorating tradition (i.e. evoking the vernacular). Reinventing tradition i.e. the search for new paradigms. Extending tradition i.e. using the vernacular in a modified manner. Reinterpreting tradition i.e. the use of contemporary idioms. GENDER BASED DESIGN VALUES This design values is closely linked to the feminist movement and theory developed within the 19th and 20th centuries. Design values based on gender are related to three tenets found in architecture and industrial design, which are: 1. 2. 3. Gender differences related to critique and reconstruction of architectural practice and history. The struggle for equal access to training, jobs and recognition in architecture and design. The focus on gender based theories for the built environment, the architectural discourse, and cultural value systems. Designers that adhere to the Design values based on gender typically have a focus on creating buildings that do not have the same barriers that children, parents and the elderly experience in much of the built environment. It also implies a focus on aesthetics that are deemed to be more 'feminine' than the 'masculine' aesthetics often created by male designers. THE ECONOMY DESIGN VALUE Many architects and industrial designers often dread the financial and business side of architecture and industrial design practice, as their focus is often geared towards achieving successful design quality rather than achieving successful economic expectations. This is the basis for a design value that can be characterised as 'voluntarism' or 'charrette ethos'. This value is commonly found among practising architects and designers. The 'volunteer' value is founded in the belief that good architecture and design requires commitment beyond the prearranged time, accountant’s budget, and normal hours. Implicit in the 'volunteer' value are elements of the following claim present: 1. 2. 3. Best design works comes from offices or individual designers which are willing to put in overtime (sometimes unpaid) for the sake of the design outcome. Good architecture and design is rarely possible within fees offered by clients. Architects and designers should care enough about buildings or products to uphold high design standards regardless of the payment offered. The 'volunteer' design value can be seen as a reaction to and a rejection of the client’s influence and control over the design project.
  10. 10. THE NOVEL DESIGNVALUE It is common within contemporary architecture and industrial design to find emphasis on creating novel design solutions. This emphasis is often accompanied by an equally common lack of emphasis on studying of the appropriateness of any already existing design solution. The novel design value has historical roots dating back to early design movements such as Modernism, with is emphasis on “starting from zero”. The celebration of original and novel design solutions is, by many designers and design scholars, considered one of the main aspects of architecture and design. This design value is often manifested through the working methods of designers. Some architects and designers with their emphasis on the “big idea” will have a tendency to cling to major design ideas and themes, even if these themes and ideas are faced with insurmountable challenges. However, the emphasis on design novelty is also associated with progress and new design solutions that, without this emphasis, would not see the light of day. The design value of novelty is not generally accepted within either architecture or design. This is indicated by the debate in architecture, focusing on whether buildings should harmonize with the surroundings in that they are situated in or not. Equally is the debate where architecture should be based on traditional topology and design styles i.e. classical and vernacular base architecture or if it should be an expression of its time. The same issues are indicated within the industrial design domain where it has been debated if retro design should be accepted or not as good design. MATHEMATIC AND SCIENTIFIC DESIGN VALUES A movement to base architectural design on scientific and mathematical understanding started with the early work of Christopher Alexander in the 1960s, Notes on the synthesis of form. Other contributors joined in, especially in investigations of form on the urban scale, which resulted in important developments such as Bill Hillier's Space syntax and Michael Batty's work on Spatial analysis. In architecture, the four-volume work The Nature of Order by Alexander summarizes his most recent results. An alternative architectural theory based on scientific laws, as for example A Theory of Architecture is now competing with purely aesthetic theories most common in architectural academia. This entire body of work can be seen as balancing and often questioning design movements that rely primarily upon aesthetics and novelty. At the same time, the scientific results that determine this approach in fact verify traditional and vernacular traditions in a way that purely historical appreciation cannot. Social and environmental issues are given a new explanation, drawing upon biological phenomena and the interactivity of groups and individuals with their built environment. The new discipline of biophilia developed by E. O. Wilson plays a major role in explaining the human need for intimate contact with natural forms and living beings. This insight into the connection between human beings and the biological environment provides a new understanding for the need for ecological design. An extension of the biophilic phenomenon into artificial environments suggests a corresponding need for built structures that embody the same precepts as biological structures. These mathematical qualities include fractal forms, scaling, multiple symmetries, etc.. Applications and extensions of Wilson's original idea are now carried out by Stephen R. Kellert in the Biophilia hypothesis, and in by Nikos Salingaros and others in the book "Biophilic Design". Design and public policy GOVERNMENT POLICY ON ARCHITECTURE 2009 - 2015 SEE THIS SITE:
  11. 11. %20Arch.pdf DESIGN DIPLOMACY: ARCHITECTURE’S RELATIONSHIP WITH PUBLIC POLICY [RICHARD SWETT, FAIA,] By expanding “design” from its aesthetic sense to incorporate people, society and quality of life issues, we shift the paradigm of architecture from the design of buildings to influencing the “design” process for solving problems in society. Upon my arrival in Denmark as the U.S. Ambassador two years ago, I quickly came to appreciate the Danish ideal evident in this country’s long-standing mix of good architecture, design and public policy. For nearly a decade prior to my posting here I have sought to build a bridge between architecture and public policy in the United States. My first impression of Denmark made me believe that I had finally come to a country where the bridge was already standing. As only the thirteenth architect to serve in the United States Congress and the only one of the twentieth century, I came to Denmark believing that the influence of design on public policy had been cultivated through the successful engagement of architects in the public arena. I quickly inquired about the long list of architects serving as elected public officials and was surprised to find that the profession is just as reticent about running for public office here as it is in the United States. However, here there is much more influence exerted by the profession through other means. Relationships between government officials and designers are more prevalent. The profession has, in the past, taken specific stands on social policy that have influenced legislative policy makers. Still, little is known about the relationship between design and public policy. The interplay of public policy and architecture needs to be examined in order to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of a successful society. The inherent connection between design and public policy is rarely discussed, if at all. I have been very privileged to wear many hats during my career as an architect and public servant. My architectural training has served me well throughout my working life. In private practice, it has enhanced and informed my abilities to provide constructive service to my clients and constituents, beginning with nongovernmental organizations and citizens’ groups. The practice of architecture continues to enhance and inform my career, where I have served the public as Congressman from New Hampshire and now as I serve my nation as Ambassador to Denmark. As a matter of fact, architecture played a role in my public service career right from the start. My first congressional campaign slogan was, “Every House needs a good architect.” Throughout, I have witnessed and participated in the maze of complex systems, governmental regulations, professional disciplines, special interest groups, grass-roots community organizations and big businesses, all seeking to impact our “built environment.” I have found that there are few people well equipped to sort through the cacophony of competitive interests in a constructive way that ultimately achieves harmony. By virtue of our training, skills and perspective, architects should play that role, but, sadly, we rarely do. From this morass of conflict, architects are expected to create sound structures of lasting value; works of art, if you will. These forms we create are more than art, however. They must function as protective machines providing order and place while they elevate the human condition, both spiritually and literally. And, as you all know, this is easier, much easier, said than done. But that IS what we architects are committed to do-it is the central mission of our profession. Daunting as this architectural mission is, the truth is that in today’s world it is no longer enough. We must be prepared to do more. Because of our singular focus on aesthetic design without regard to social design, because
  12. 12. we have turned our noses up at the more “mundane” or administrative aspects of our profession, and because we have narrowed our leadership responsibilities to avoid liability rather than expand them to gain influence, we have seen our roles as leading visionaries in society follow a diminishing path. It is time to change our perspective. The title of this article, “Design Diplomacy: Public Policy and the Practice of Architecture,” may have intrigued and even confused many of you.But let me explain what I mean by “Design Diplomacy.” By expanding “design” from its limited aesthetic sense and broadening it to incorporate people, society and quality of life issues, we shift the traditional paradigm of architecture from the design of buildings to influencing the “design” process for solving problems in society (or public policy formation). The creative process of architects is a constructive, inclusive process—therefore more diplomatic than the aggressive and adversarial methods of engagement in politics. Hence, “Design Diplomacy: Public Policy and the Practice of Architecture.” Architects are essential contributors, even the actual shapers, of the environment in which we live. Yet they have always seemed to be supporting actors at best or bit players at worst, in the various dramas unfolding on society’s main stage. It is time to take a fresh look at our profession and the role it plays in today’s world. So it seems logical to start off with a new definition and an outline of a few key topics and terms: 1. The “Global Village” & “Globalization” 2. The “New Economy” 3. Knowledge Management & High Technology 4. Management of the Environment & Energy Resources 5. Accountability and Responsibility to the Local Community 6. LEADERSHIP Perhaps not all of these topics seem, at first blush, to interface with the world of architecture and design, but they most certainly should. “The Global Village” and its recently coined noun, “Globalization,” has become a common catch phrase. But it fails to capture an inevitable but very unpredictable development of our global community: the creation of community infrastructure. Examples can be found all around us. Witness the Öresund Bridge in Copenhagen. The engineering feat of a sixteen-mile span of suspension bridge and tunnel is changing much more than the cultural and commercial lives in this city and Malmö across the sound in Sweden. This is the final piece of the transportation network that connects all of Europe. Now it is possible to truck goods and raw materials across all of Europe, all the way to the remotest parts of Northern and Eastern Europe and the vast terrain of the former Soviet Union. This bridge physically links the developed world with remote societies largely detached from the technology and prosperity we so often take for granted. This brings me to the “New Economy.” What does this sound-bite mean, especially for architects? As old paradigms are shifting, being redefined or being demolished altogether, how do we as a profession adapt? How do we remain in command of our established role while modern society is morphing around us? The traditional chain of command, where information is passed down in smaller and smaller increments, has been turned on its head. Now huge amounts of data are collected and transferred to the small group of decision-makers at the top. Already now, and more so in the near future, vast numbers of individuals will have access to information on choices in life no longer limited by their immediate, physical surroundings. These are opportunities created by this new surge of information. They will no longer have to travel in order to work, to shop or to educate themselves. We will have more and more of the planet’s economies vesting greater and greater resources into the development and expansion of global intellectual property. Where does the architect figure in this?
  13. 13. One example I can give where architects have already begun to play a role in helping to create the “New Economy” is the United States’ Intermodal Surface Transportation Act of 1992. Originally known as the “Highway Bill,” architects fought hard to expand the requirements of this legislation to do more than provide highway engineering and construction. Issues of sustainability and the creation of livable communities through social design were addressed. Architects and planners were made a part of the process so that “best use scenarios” would be examined prior to the creation of a new highway. Interconnections between transportation systems, or “intermodal points” enhanced the use of rail, air and sea transportation networks in conjunction with the highways-not separate from them. Let me quote a passage from Understanding Media: The Extensions of Mankind published nearly 40 years ago by Marshall McLuhan: “To reward and to make celebrities of artists a way of ignoring their prophetic work, and preventing its timely use for survival. The artist is any man in any field, scientific or humanistic, who grasps the implications of his actions and of the new knowledge in his own time. He is the man of integral awareness. The artist can correct the sense ratios before the blow of new technology has numbed conscious procedures. He can correct them before numbness and subliminal groping and reaction sets in. If this is true, how is it possible to present the matter to those who are in the position to do something about it?” Good Question! Obviously, before an answer can be formulated, the architectural profession must first take stock. The issue of knowledge management is broad and critical. How do we manage our knowledge? How do we employ high technology? How do we apply this ever-increasing body of knowledge to the task at hand? How do we communicate amongst ourselves? How do we communicate to the public at large, beyond the physical reality of the buildings we construct? How can we match our skills and demonstrate our value to society as effectively as those youngsters, the I.T. whiz-kids, who are now the highest paid professionals (many of whom are leaving our profession), cutting across all levels of socio-economic and cultural barriers? Perhaps the answer lies in our accountability and responsibility to our communities. Not just to the international community of architects, but to those in our home communities. This is an area unconsidered and under-valued by our profession. But of course, we are not alone in this. We stand to learn a great deal from our colleagues in public service on this account. The profession of Politics has a negative reputation in the public’s mind thanks to the glaring mistakes of some of its high-flyers. And so too does architecture when it becomes party to grave political misconceptions. To drop some infamous examples I offer Albert Speer’s Berlin or Brasilia, the utopian capital gone monumentally wrong. These are the worst-case scenarios realized out of grandiose political schemes met with equal fervor by likeminded architects. Examples of integrated artistic, social and environmental harmony created by architects who have served both their calling and the needs of society are harder to recall. They are not glamorous like the skyscrapers of corporate power nor are they the permanent reminders of empire building like the Roman Coliseum or the Great Wall of China. Pierre l’Enfant’s well-designed new capital of the United States, Washington, D.C. survives as an evolving example of a good base for comprehensive city planning. Even Strøget (or The Walking Street) of Copenhagen or the urban garden of Tivoli can be considered successfully harmonic examples. But what we can see here in Denmark are design ideals played out on broader and better, more integrated levels that transcend the traditional “top-down” approach. In the design of managed communities for senior citizens, in the day-care centers for Danish children, in the sensitively-restored period architecture and in the planned post-war suburban communities integrated into the rolling hills of the Danish landscape, Denmark provides a stellar example of a truly integrated and societal approach to architecture and public policy. Danish architects are as famous for their buildings of international acclaim as they are for their dining room chairs and their desk lamps. No design task is too small or inconsequential. All aspects of the design of a civilized life’s
  14. 14. accouterments, from the shelter we need to the implements for feeding ourselves, are treated with the same high standards of design integrity and respect. The awareness of architecture’s role in managing our precious natural resources and the responsibility to design the built environment with efficient energy use and conservation in mind are now universal. But making it a social, political and economic priority has led to a world-class role for the Danish industrial and architectural design community. The architects of the world should take note. This holistic approach forms the bedrock of a subtle, sustained leadership. It means taking many, many things into consideration. It involves combining the complex relationships architects must achieve to create their work while constructing purposeful physical structures with an inherent use of our environment. We are in an increasingly interdependent world in which not only commerce, but also professions and national interests overlap more and more. Despite occasional adversarial conflict in the arenas of trade, politics and special interest groups, it is interesting to note that architects remain one of the few academic professions still held in high regard by the public. Yet, the profession is losing market share. I would even go so far as to say it is losing touch with the environment, in which we not only live, but also are so integral in creating and managing. This interplay between the practice of architecture and public policy is at the crux of these questions. Architects have not adequately participated in the public policy debate in a way that I wholeheartedly believe would be so beneficial to our profession and to the public at large. By our very nature, architects are constructive, cooperative and creative problem solvers and as such, have splendid leadership qualities to offer. Likewise, public policy can only evolve and mature if architects better use their integrated creative skills to have a greater say in local, national and even international governmental affairs. I am not criticizing or downplaying the accomplishments of the profession in the public arena. Nor do I wish to diminish the very important role of design in our profession. I only suggest that architecture is made up of much more than just the aesthetics of design, and that we must consider a broader set of issues and set new objectives for participation in public life. Five years ago Herbert Muschamp wrote for The New York Times, a “Fleeting Homage to an Architect Who only Dreams:” “The realization of an architectural design isn’t purely a technical matter. It also has a cultural dimension....I’m thinking, for example, of an artist like Christo, who regards the process of realizing as an essential part of his art. When Christo wraps up a monument, like the Berlin Reichstag building, the project’s meaning is partly drawn from the involvement of public officials and private citizens in its creation. Architects draw on that level of meaning as a matter of a course. It is not only the public use of buildings that makes architecture a social art, it is also the architect’s engagement with clients, communities, contractors and others whose participation is required to alter the material world. If architects can fully gratify their creativity on paper, they are squandering the opportunity they have to activate the creativity of others.” We could only benefit by the effort of participation in public life and through it the activation of the creativity of the public. Thomas Jefferson, an architect of great skill and sensitivity and an unparalleled politician, played a pivotal role in designing the blueprint of the American democratic system. In doing so, he effectively realized the confluence of the arts, democratic politics and morality. In a letter to James Madison written in 1785, he wrote, “I am enthusiastic on the subject of the arts. But it is an enthusiasm of which I am not ashamed, as its object is to improve the taste of my countrymen, to increase their reputation, to reconcile them to the rest of the world, and to procure them praise.”
  15. 15. There are great opportunities, as so nobly expressed by Jefferson, for our profession to seize. How many architects hold senior government positions charged with Housing and Urban Affairs, Culture, Transportation and Environmental Management? How many architects are politically active and practically involved in their local and national governments? Buildings have been designed and built, but beyond that, what is the legacy of leadership that architects have left for societies? Will gated communities cut off from their neighbors be the future? Will glass and marble towers be gracefully integrated into their surroundings or alienate themselves from the very blocks on which they are located? The fact is too many architects are seriously marginalized, and I would go so far as to say, intentionally isolated, from the political process that determines the zoning, funding and the complex social and legal regulations that control the building of our shared environment. This subject needs to be confronted, debated and discussed in detail. Yet, we need to do more. Well-known Austrian architect Hans Hollein, when recently asked, “Do you ever wish you had been only a fine artist?” responded, “I would have a much more comfortable life just sitting in a studio in the country. But I wanted to be involved in building in the city; I wanted to contribute to daily life with all its idiosyncrasies and difficulties.” During the recent conference, we concluded by assisting in the design of a blueprint that will frame the future influence of our profession beyond the limitations of bricks and mortar. Such a plan suggests that our fellow architects take up leadership roles in order to balance the tectonic, economic and political aspects of city/state planning more consciously. Thomas Jefferson also wrote in 1785: “I am proud to be an architect and don’t propose we go out and tear down any buildings. I do propose, however, we tear down some of the myths and misperceptions that architects have about public policy and vice versa.” Activity Analysis and linkages for efficiency in shelter Please see the following link for the resources: 1. 2. 3. 4. BUILDING LINKAGES FOR COMPETITIVE AND RESPONSIBLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ponsible_Entrepreneurship.pdf GREEN ARCHITECTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: ARCHITECTURAL THEORIES OF DESIGN : ARCHITURE IN THE PHILIPPINES – FILIPINO BUILDING A CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT: Environmental concepts of Architectural Design
  16. 16. Please see this site: Architecture of the well-tempered Environment [6205 Environmental Technologies ] in Buildings, Roger Benham, Architecture of the weel-tempered environment (1984) Book on the historical development that lead to the separation of the ‘building structure’ from the ‘plant’ and the resulting relationship between the architect and t consultant engineer. Environmental Building Concept What is the use of a house if you don’t have a tolerable planet to put it on? {Henry David Thoreau} All design aspects that influence a building’s indoor environmental conditions, i.e. how the building maintains adequate thermal, visual, and acoustic conditions for the building occupants, as well as its resulting environmental footprint. Figure 9: An extreme closeup view of the desktop, upon which a plan view of the contextual environment for the design task has been laid out. 7. Scaling and Simultaneous Multiple Scales While creating and experiencing a design at full scale is anexpected goal for an immersive design system, it is not usually the best sole environment for architectural design because it is often necessary to understand and develop thedesign at multiple scales. Our virtual design environmentsupports simultaneous multiscale viewing so that conceptualmodels can be designed and observed at any scale, typicallyranging from the scale of an architectural model - a foot ortwo across - up to actual size. Simultaneous multiple scales are supported so that aproject can be designed, for example, at a relatively smallscale while simultaneously being inhabited or observed atfull scale, or vice versa, with modifications made to themodel at one scale appearing simultaneously at the other. Forexample, one may want to model an entry way at full scalewhile simultaneously being able to view the design at a scalethat allows understanding the relationship of the entry wayto the whole house and the surrounding site. In future research we intend to explore the effects of body sense whiledesigning at different scales and the perceptual advantagesof working at multiple scales simultaneously.
  17. 17. Figure 10: A series of images demonstrating of the use of multiple scales in the context of designing a display system for the interior courtyard of the Architecture building. Interactive design can take place either at the desk or out in space. Figure 11: In this image, the model has been scaled to fit in place on the building plan laid out on the desk. 8. Future Work We have several developments presently underway that weexpect to incorporate into our system in the near future: 1) We are working on implementing a browser 3 within the space in order to allow access to standard html documents, either locally or over the web. We would like to enable images/videos/documents/library objects/environments to be drag/dropped directly from the browser into the model. A browser could also permit access to a variety of JAVA applications, such as simple paint programs and analysis tools, that could be useful in supporting a rich design environment. 2) We presently have a standalone "Virtual Graffiti" sketching tool for drawing on surfaces within a virtual environment using tracker output. We intend to make that drawing tool available within the virtual design environment together with the ability to export the resulting images. 3) Images and videos brought into the environment are presently not supported in stereo. Future development will allow for stereo pair images and videos to be placed within the environment. This will include stereo images of the"snapshots" created within the environment and images used to create the overall environment. We anticipate the possibility of creating "virtual holograms", constructed from multiple superimposed images selectively viewed in a position dependent manner. 4) Presently all images and videos come into the virtual environment through the spinning drum provided with the kiosk. We will be adding a "DesignStation" folder for images and videos to be placed directly into the DesignStation,where they can be further arranged by the designer.
  18. 18. Our overall goal is to develop a virtual environment thatempowers designers. We intend to refine our system by observing how design is done in the existing virtual design environment and developing new approaches to meet perceivedneeds. To this end we will be making the system and thespace available both to a number of different architecturaldesign studios in the professional architectural graduate program at the University of Minnesota and for use in selecteddesign projects undertaken by local architecture and interiordesign firms. Design sessions will be videotaped and the design process critiqued together with the designer. Although our virtual design environment is being developed with the specific needs of architectural conceptual design in mind, we anticipate that this kind of environmentcould find wider use as well. It could be alternatively thoughtof as a working environment for the spatial manipulation andcreation of images, with the necessary supporting geometrictools. We hope that our future research will involve a widervariety of faculty and researchers who would like to "design"spatially distributed information spaces. Energy Conservation and the Design Process An Energy Conservation Architectural Design Tool for WarmClimate (LTV):The tool development and testing. [Richard Hyde and AldomarPedrini, or%20warm%20clima%20.pdf] The use of design tools in architectural design is common place. Yet, in recent years the need has arisen to provide design tools to assist with the evaluating the energy usage of buildings. A number of tools are available for this type of work. Unfortunately, many of these tools are inappropriate for integration in the architectural design process. The research described here reports development work on lighting, thermal and ventilation tool for use at the conceptual stage in the design process. The main contention is that this type of tool is crucial to effective passive low-energy design as it is difficult to integrate energy saving feature at later stages in the design process. Part of this work has necessitated a critique of the concept of the passive strategies for non-domestic buildings; this is an important element in assessing the energy contribution of the external environment to the building. INTRODUCTION Research work has been underway to develop a design tool for assessing the environmental impacts of nondomestic buildings. In this case energy -use is taken as an indicator of environmental impact. This tool is called the Lighting Thermal and Ventilation (LTV) architectural design tool (1). It models the energyconsequences of using climate responsive design strategies in the building design. Yet the question arises as tothe form this tool should take for it to be most effective for giving architects feedback of the consequences of thebuilding design on energy consumption. It is argued here that the key to this question lies in the design process.It is widely acknowledged that ‘the best opportunity for improving a building’s energy performance occurs earlyin the design process when basic decisions are made (2).’ Moreover, the penalty for not addressing climatic responsive design issues early in the process is that‘opportunity will be lost to make significant savings by relatively simple adjustments to the design. Increasinglysophisticated or costly efforts are needed to save energy (2).
  19. 19. A number of phases can be determined; the phase that is of most interest is the conceptual design stage wherebasic climatic responsive strategies are used. In large commercial non-domestic buildings this involves theconceptual layout and thermal zoning of the building. Thermal zoning is a key concept in assessing the thermal response of the building. It is the relation of the spatialorganization of the building to the exposure to environmental factors. Thermal zoning is the subdivision ofspaces inside the building that have varying thermal temperatures. Zones vary with orientation and with exposureto environmental conditions. A common nomenclature in cool climates is to use two main zones, the passiveand non-passive (active) zone. ‘Passive zones can be day lit and naturally ventilated and make use of solar gain forheating. Non-passive zones have to be artificially lit and ventilated (3). The importance of this description is thatpassive zones use less energy due the use of natural energy than non-passive zones, which use man-made energyie, electrical energy. Therefore a basic climate responsive planning stage at the conceptual stage is to make thispassive zone as large as possible to reduce energy consumption. The extent of the passive zone is deemed to be twice the ceiling height for cool climates and gives a depth of 6mas seen in Figure 1 (3). At present little work has been carried out to determine the nature of the passive and non-passive zone for warmclimates. It may be larger for warm climates due to higher levels of day lighting (4). This is further complicated by the need for shading which can reduce day lighting to minimize thermal gains fordirect sunlight. This paper examines these issues from a theoretically and experimentally stand point. The firstpart includes a theoretical discussion of climate responsive design strategies to determine the concepts for zoningin warm climates; the second describes experimental work to establish the dimensions of the passive zone. Figure 1 Passive active zone concept Part 1: Climate responsive design strategies A review of the passive, low energy design principles used in non-domestic buildings revealed the followingfactors important in warm climates. These are framed as design strategies that can be used by architects to reduceenergy consumption. . For the purpose of the study these strategies are used as variables that can be manipulated in a work-back process.This involves generating a number of possible design scenarios an architect may take and find the energyconsequences. Architects tend to evaluate design concepts in terms of the plan and section of the building. A hierarchy is found in the decision making process which relates to priorities designers have in the designprocess. For convenience, first order decisions are those that relate more to the planning decisions whilst secondorder are those in the section.
  20. 20. Planning Strategies Plan / Room Depth Service Spaces Zoning Function Zoning Thermal Zoning Façade Strategies Ceiling Height Orientation Window Area and Position Thermal Defense Solar Shading and Light Guiding Natural Lighting Table 1: The climate responsive design strategies Service Strategies Air conditioning Electric Lighting Natural Ventilation Second order decisions examine relationship between solar shading lighting and energy consumption wasexamined. This is called the solar design strategy. It is common practice for buildings in warm climates toapply this strategy in favour of reducing thermal loads through the façade by over shading. Yet this can meanhigher electrical lighting consumption. The loss of natural light is also a reduction of amenity to users. Earlier models have recognized the significance of the effect of natural light on reducing electrical consumption(5, 6) but there has been little work into examining this relationship for subtropical and tropical climates. Theoutcomes of this work show optimum shading and window wall ratios for these design variables (7). In the study reported here the first order involved study of the planning strategiesused to improve energyefficiencies. Previous work has established that considerable savings in energy use can be achieved by planningthe building to achieve optimum plan depths, environmental zoning of spaces, ceiling height and orientation.This is an important area for saving energy, 30% savings inenergy use can be achieved by using this strategyalone (Hyde R.A. 1997). To assist architects in assessing the energy consequences of planning decisions the concept of the passive zonehas been developed (Baker and Steemers 1996). This concept has been developed for warm climates but not relatedto tropical or subtropical climates. Work on this deficiency has led to a more complex model to acknowledge theneed for shading to buildings to accommodate high solar gain in these climates (Hyde 1999 forthcoming). In thismodel a variety of zones can be established both inside and outside the building from the line of enclosure tocontrol the external climate. These are: Figure 2: Thermal zoning in section External zones: 1. Environmental zone: micro climate of the site 2. Buffer zone: microclimate created by the building Internal zones: 1. Enclosure zone: internal climate, immediately adjacent to the line of enclosure 2. Passive zone: the area defined in plan to receive a significant contribution from the external environmentfor heating, lighting and ventilation. The convention is to use a dimension equal to twice the ceilingheight to define the extent of this zone from the façade 3. Non-passive zone: the area defined in plan and which receives an insignificant contributionfrom theexternal environment for heating, lighting and ventilation.
  21. 21. For quantitative assessment the crucial design variables can be related to the passive zone and therefore to this enda study using series of computer simulation exercises were carried out using DOE 2. It is acknowledged that thequalitative variables concerning lighting or other factors are not addressed in this study i.e. factors such as glare. The main aim of the study was to examine the extent of the passive zone for warm climates. A ‘rule of thumb’has been established for cool climates. The extent of the passive zone is function of room depth and the ceilingheight, where the passive zone is seen as twice the ceiling height. Thus for a ceiling height of 3meters, thepassive zone extends 6 meters to towards the interior, at 90 degrees from the façade. Part 2: Discussion The extent of the passive zone is controlled by two main sets of factors: 1. The room depth that is the depth from facade 2. The solar design strategy, the level of transparency in the facade to provide daylighting Figure 1: Daylighting control Figure 2: Shadow angle definition. Figure 3 – Analysis of the window location on facade The defaults for the test cell are shown below Characteristics Size Value Dimensions: width = 10m, ceiling height = 3m, variable depth
  22. 22. Weather Operational Schedule Lights Daylight Control Work plane height Reflectance Window Envelope properties Air conditioning Brisbane TRY Lights and air conditioning working between 8 am and 6 pm 320 Lux in work plane, with light power density equal 10 W/m electric lights are either off, one third-on, two third on or fully-on Height from floor: 0.765m Wall: 0.5; floor: 0.2; ceiling: 0.8 Window width = 10m (frame width 0.051m), single clear glazing 3mm, light transmission 0.898, U-factor (center of glass) = 6.31 W/m/°C; windowfront facade: 10 m. No shading was provided to the window Walls, floor and roof thermally insulated Packaged, EER (energy efficiency ratio) = 2.638 W (cooling)/W (consumption); cooling set-point: 22°C Table 1 - Characteristics of the test cell Results The results of this test cell are plotted in Figure 4. Energy optimum consumption is shown for varying roomdepths, also the optimum window wall ratio. Figure 4 Optimum energy consumption and window wall ratios (WWR) for different room depths The following observations can be made: 1. Without shading to the windows the optimum WWR is between 10 to 30 percent. Thus, for a northerly facade, small windows between 3 and 9m2 in area for every 10 meters of linear length are appropriate. 2. As the room depth is increased, the larger window wall ratio of 30 percent is appropriate; as the depth is reduced a smaller ratio of 10 percent is appropriate. 3. The optimum room depth is 8 meters with lowest consumption using a 10 percent WWR.
  23. 23. Figure 5 – Annual consumption per area for different room depths Figure 6 – Annual consumption per area for different room depths Part 2 Discussion From these results it is clear that the assumptions concerning the size of the passive zone found in Europeanclimates is different for subtropical climates such as Brisbane. The higher levels of solar gain and availability ofdaylighting means that the optimum plan depth can be increase to 8 meters with a lower wall to window glazingratio. In this study shading was not considered although the method for assessing this has been developed. Furtherwork has been carried out to assess optimum shading, window wall ratios and plan depth (8). Furthermore a more subtle definition of the passive zone emerges which is more dynamic, related to sectionalinformation rather than plan information. In this conception rather than try and make hard definitions of zoning,it seems appropriate to use this type of information for making strategic design decisions.
  24. 24. Figure 7 Graphical tool for assessing thermal zoning strategies Further outcome of this work is that it is possible to use this information in a number of ways. The earlierdefinitions of the passive zone are aimed at providing a method of assessing plans to give information regardingtotal energy use of the design. The contention here is this information is particularly useful for bench markingpurposes. Benchmark figures for building types can be set and optimum design variables selected to meet thebenchmark. Thus the benchmark for northern orientated facades may be 30 kWh/m2. A range of window wallratios and rooms are therefore available to meet this standard. This gives boundaries in which the designer canwork. This flexibility can begin to intellectualize the design process so that choices available to designer can beclearly indicated and the consequences of choices articulated. Additional information can also be obtained from the graphs, which enables the selection of optimum windowwall ratios for room depths or visa versa. This assists with the design of particular zones of the buildings. Somepreliminary work has been carried out with regard to this issue. It is clear that this information can be integratedinto a graphical tool, which gives visual information of the consequences of selections made by designers asshown in Figure 7. or%20warm%20clima%20.pdf
  25. 25.