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B&W 1 History of Photography Class project


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Collective Powerpoint on history of photography by Lori King's B&W photography students.

Collective Powerpoint on history of photography by Lori King's B&W photography students.

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  • Chelsea Sanders 1
  • Chelsea Sanders 2
  • Chelsea Sanders 3Sources:
  • Searra Clausen
  • Searra Clausen
  • http://www.edward-weston.comhttp://www.edward-weston.comAnsel Adams Photo
  • Transcript

    • 2. The word photography comes from two ancient Greek words: photo, for "light," and graph, for "drawing." "Drawing with light" is a way of describing photography. When a photograph is made, light or some other form of radiant energy, such as X rays, is used to record a picture of an object or scene on a light-sensitive surface. Early photographs were called sun pictures, because sunlight itself was used to create the image. Mankind has been a maker of images at least since the cave paintings of some 20,000 years ago. With the invention of photography, a realistic image that would have taken a skilled artist hours or even days to draw could be recorded in exact detail within a fraction of a second. Megan Torres1
    • 3. 1400‟s  Camera Obscura- inserting a lens in a hole makes for a clearer, crisper image  Used by artists to sketch objects more quickly and ease the difficulties of death perception  Pinhole Cameras 1816  Joseph Nicephore Niepce  Making negative but cannot stop from darkening 1819  Sir John Herschel published details of his chemicals and photography experiences  20 years later his findings would prove the fundamental importance in the development of photography 1822  Niepce- creates permanent photograph TIMELINE OF PHOTOGRAPHY Chelsea Sanders2
    • 4. 1830‟s  Collotype Process  Invented by William Henry Fox Talbot 1839  Light Sensitive Chemicals  Daguerreotype 1839-1842  Herschel published more papers on his findings 1851  Wet plates  spreading a mixture of collodion and chemicals on sheets of glass 1878  Dry Plates  Manufactured commercially Chelsea Sanders2
    • 5. 1878-1884  Eadweard Muybridge  Inventor/ filmmaker 1830-1904  Laid the ground work for motion picture and finally perfected the method 1880  George Eastman  First Kodak camera 1906  Edward Weston  Chicago Parks- famously know for natural forms, close-ups, nudes and landscapes Chelsea Sanders2
    • 6. - Very simple camera and has no lens - One small hole in which light passes through to projecting an inverted image on a photographic film or image sensor on the opposite side of the box - Can have incredibly long exposures! Ranging from ½ second to several hours! - The produce softer, not so sharp images with no focal length and a depth of field that is nearly infinite PINHOLE CAMERA Cami Niemi3
    • 7. • First known person to record the formation of an inverted image was Chinese philosopher Mo Ti • Aristotle and Da Vinci both commented their use of pinhole cameras in their work • Scottish scientist Sir David Brewster was the first to make pinhole photographs in the 1850‟s and coined the term “pin- hole” in his book “The Stereoscope” Cami Niemi3
    • 8. - Were used by astronomers to study solar eclipses - Pinhole cameras can be used to photograph high energy X-rays and gamma rays and were deployed in space crafts in the late 50‟s and early 60‟s to do so, the first being created in April 1960 - Pinholes are still being used but have multiple pinhole optics - They‟re used by nuclear physicists to photograph high energy in laser plasma - Also used for surveillance and spy cameras - CN Cami Niemi3
    • 9. CAMERA OBSCURA Mercedes berger4
    • 10. WHAT IS CAMERA OBSCURA? • Camera= room obscura= dark • Light travels in a straight line. When some of the rays reflect from a bright subject, it is passed through a small hole in thin material. The light does not scatter, but instead crosses and reforms as an upside down image on a flat surface held parallel to the hole. Mercedes berger4
    • 11. WHO WAS INVOLVED IN CREATING CAMERA OBSCURA? • Earliest mention was by the chinese philosopher Mo-Ti (5th century B.C.) • Aristotle understood the optical of the camera obscura (384-322 B.C.) • The Islamic scholar/ scientist Alhazen gave a full account of the principle (C. 965-1039) • In 1940, Leonardo Da Vinci gave 2 clear discriptions of the camera obscura in his notebooks. • The mage quality was improved with the addition of a convex lens into the aperture in the 16th century. Later, an addition of a mirror to reflect the image down onto a viewing surface. Giovanni Battista Della Porta recommended the use of this device as an aid for drawing in his 1558 book “Magiae Naturalis”. • The term “camera obscura” was first used by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century. • Mercedes Berger4
    • 12. WHAT WAS IT USED FOR? • Sun viewing • Painting • Drawing • Photography • Tourism Mercedes Berger4
    • 13. LIGHT SENSITIVE CHEMICALS Crystals of Silver Nitrate Silver Chloride Crystals NITRIC ACID LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 14. 1727: Professor J. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. Accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound. 1800: Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images deteriorated rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than from candles. 1725: The first chemically photographic process can be considered a photogram. This was an accidental discovery. Johann Heinrich Schultze found that silver nitrate impregnated on gypsum in a jar, when left exposed to sunlight, turned dark on the side facing the window. After exposure, if the bottle was shaken, fresh silver nitrate replaced the exposed material near the glass surface. This was an accidental discovery, LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 15. 1826: Niepce creates permanent image French inventor Joseph phore pce uses a camera obscura to burn a permanent image of the countryside at his Le Gras, France, estate onto a chemical-coated pewter plate. He names his technique "heliography," meaning "sun drawing." The black-and-white exposure takes eight hours and fades significantly, but an image is still visible on the plate today. 1816: Nicéphore Niépce combines the camera obscura with photosensitive paper LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 16. 1827: French inventor Joseph Niepce made the first fixed photographic images. He used a primitive camera and a bitumen-coated pewter plate to capture this image of a Set Table, which is one of his earliest photographs LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 17. 1834: Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative) images using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution. Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto another sheet of paper. First Negative Image LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 18. Taking advantage of a relatively new technology, the daguerreotype, French physicists Louis Fizeau and Leon Foucault made the first successful photographs of the sun on April 2, 1845. 1837: Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and "developed" with warmed mercury; Daguerre is awarded a state pension by the French government in exchange for publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to use the Daguerreotype process. LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 19. 1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US. A thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image. The ambrotype photograph was made by coating a piece of glass with a silver solution and exposing this to the image. The image is sometimes on the back of a glass plate and is sandwiched with another glass behind it. Ambrotype of Elegant Young Woman LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 20. 1921: Man Ray begins making photograms ("rayographs") by placing objects on photographic paper and exposing the shadow cast by a distant light bulb; Eugegrave;ne Atget, aged 64, assigned to photograph the brothels of Paris 1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, the "dry plate" process. LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 21. LIGHT SENSITIVE CHEMICALS FOR FILM & PAPER The light-sensitive substances used in photographic film to record an image are silver salts and are called silver halides. The silver halides react to ultraviolet radiation, violet, and blue light only; however, they can be made sensitive to other colors of light and infrared radiation by the addition of dyes. Depending on the amount of light and the type of silver halide, the light produces a visible or invisible change in the halides of a film or printing paper. An invisible change is made visible by development. Photographic films and papers are composed of two basic parts: the emulsion and the base, or support. The emulsion is the light-sensitive portion of a film or paper that records the image. The emulsion contains the silver halides and any special sensitizing dyes suspended in a binder of gelatin. The gelatin holds the silver halides evenly dispersed and prevents action by a developer until the silver halides have been made developable either by exposure to light or chemical action. Also, the gelatin acts as a sensitizer for the silver salts. LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 22. Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components The main chemicals, compounds and components come in when actually developing the film. The film has four layers: The first layer is a protective coating which protects the emulsion layer that has the gelatin and the silver halide crystals in it. Higher speeds of film have multiple layers of emulsion. The third layer is the film base. The film base is a polymer that is chemically stable and flexible. The fourth layer is the anti-halation backing which prevents reflections off the back of the film. LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 23. Chemicals used to develop the film: Developer: This substance is what causes the silver iodide on the roll of film to darken as if it has been exposed to the light. Developer is made out of two solutions. *Solution A: 50 ml of water, 1 gram of sodium sulfite, 0.16 grams of hydroquinone, 4.6 grams of sodium carbonate, and 1.1 gram of phenidone. *Solution B: 50 ml of water and 8 grams of sodium sulfite Stop bath: This substance completely stops the development process *Stop bath is made out of acetic acid but many people just use water in lieu of stop bath to reduce the cost. Fixer: This substance removes all of undeveloped silver iodide from the emulsion *Modern fixers are usually made out of sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate. LYNETTE KELLAR5
    • 24. • an early photograph that is produced on a silver or a silver-covered copper plate • the process of producing such photographs DAGUERROTYPE Lauren Cook6
    • 25. L.J.M. DAGUERRO AND NICEPHORE NIEPCE WERE THE FIRST TO MAKE THIS TYPE OF PHOTOGRAPH. • First image was produced in 1837 when they found that if a copper plate with silver iodide is exposed to light in a camera and later fumed with mercury vapor and fixed by a common salt solution it formed a permanent image. • By the time the first image was produced, Niepce had died so they went on to name the process after Daguerro • Most of the daguerreotypes were made in the mid- 19th century. • Later, this method was replaced by the wet collodion process in 1851. Lauren Cook6
    • 26. THE CALOTYPE PROCESS • William Henry Fox Talbot discovered the Calotype process in September 1840. He announced his discovery on 8 February 1841, though at that stage he gave no details of the process then patented the process later in 1841. • The attraction of the calotype process was that it enabled a latent image on the paper to be transformed into an actual image after the paper had been removed from the camera. • The calotype process allowed much shorter exposures than for photogenic drawing, and so made portraits possible. Exposures of around 1 to 3 minutes might be required for a calotype. Talbot's earlier photogenic drawing process might have required an exposure of an hour. • So calotype portraits became possible, as demonstrated by Talbot in October 1840 and by Hill & Adamson in Edinburgh from 1843 to 1847. • The calotype negative process was sometimes called the Talbotype, after its inventor. It was not Talbot's first photographic process (introduced in 1839), but it is the one for which he became most known. Mike Budyka7
    • 27. THE CALOTYPE PROCESS The photographic technique employed by Hill and Adamson was very similar to that still in use today. A negative was exposed in the camera, developed in a dark room and then printed on sensitive paper. Their cameras, while wooden and large, are easy to relate to modern cameras. However, their sensitive materials were quite different from ours in one important aspect. Modern photographic film and paper are highly refined highly technological products made under strict controls in a factory setting. In addition to the other problems they faced, Hill and Adamson had to make each and every sheet of negative or print material by hand. There are no significant records of their particular working practices. However, we know they were in close touch with the art's inventor, William Henry Fox Talbot (especially through their mutual friend, Sir David Brewster) and it can be assumed that their practice built on Talbot's approach. The calotype negative process was sometimes called the Talbotype, after its inventor. It was not Talbot's first photographic process (introduced in 1839), but it is the one for which he became most known. Mike 7
    • 28. SHOWN HERE IS A CALOTYPE NEGATIVE (HA0767). Mike Budyka7
    • 30. The first reflex camera was developed in 1826, the first patent was not until 1861. Production in the U.S. started in 1884 Alice McColl8
    • 31. • Finally in the 1960s the production made it the preferred camera of professionals and armatures. • While the progress of the SLR was very simple it was complex to manufacture. Alice McColl8
    • 32. REFLEX CAMERA • The Reflex mirror camera has 3 main parts. • A hinged mirror • A Matt focusing screen • A five sided glass prism called Pentaprisim Alice McColl8
    • 33. Alice McColl8
    • 35. THE WET-PLATE COLLODION PROCESS Wet-Plate Photography benefits: • Reproducibility from a glass negative. • Provided Sharp precise images. • Produced Positives on Paper, Ambrotype, or metal plates/tintype. • Painters didn‟t have to be hired for the family portrait. Wet-Plate Photography disadvantages: • Professionals had to transport their camera & dark room equipment, and they had to make their own WET negatives on glass. • The exposure & development process time window is only about 10 minutes for the negative. • Up to 20 second exposure times often created blurred images. • The positive had to be exposed for long periods in the sun. Developed by Fredrick Scott Archer in 1851 Sam A. Cooley, U.S. Photographer, Department of the South Fredrick Scott Archer President Theodore Roosevelt
    • 36. HOW TO RECOGNIZE A WET PLATE PHOTO They were less expensive than Daquerreotypes and their protective cases were made of compressed paper and card rather than leather and silk.They have much greater detail in landscapes than Calotype photos. They are recognized by the shallow depth of field in close-ups shots and wavy pour marks near their deteriorating edges. President Abraham Lincoln Yosemite Falls
    • 38. In 1878, CHARLES BENNET made emulsion more stable and far more sensitive to light. DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY PROCESS Developed in 1871 by Dr. RICHARD MADDOX & Sir JOSEPH WILSON SWAN. From 1879-1881, GEORGE EASTMAN perfected & mass produced dry plates.
    • 39. THE SILVER GELATIN DRY PLATE PROCESS Advantages over Wet-Plate Process: • A photographer could make negative plates, then expose & develop at a convenient location. • By 1880, Eastman Dry Plates could be purchased and technicians could do the developing. • Shorter exposure times, even fractions of a second, made hand held cameras possible. The Silver Gelatin Emulsions paved the way for film photography and movies.
    • 40. • Joseph was born in France on March 7th of 1765 • He had three siblings two brothers and a sister • Joseph was born into a wealthy family due to his dad being an attorney. • Their family was forced to flee the area due to the French revolution. • He was born with the name Joseph but when studying at the Oratorian college of Angers he decided to change his name to Nicephore in honor of Saint Nicephorus the ninth-century Patriarch of Constantinople. • Nicephore later became a science professor. Searra Clausen10 JOSEPH NICEAPHORE NIEPCE
    • 41. • After being a professor he went into the French Army under Napoleon, while in the Army they spent most of their time in Italy and on an Island known as Sardinia, he later resigned due to an illness. • Which he then married Agnes Romero. • Nicepce is believed to take the worlds first photograph etching in 1822. • He did this picture using a camera obscure, which is a box with one hole in the side which utilizes light from an external scene, he took an an engraving of Pope Pius VII. • He later destroyed it while trying to duplicate it, two of his attempts did survive, one of a man on a horse and the other of a women sitting at a spinning wheel. Searra Clausen10 JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE
    • 42. JOSEPH MICEPHORE NIEPCE • Niepce made the first true attempt at photography in 1816. • He used paper sensitized with silver chloride to capture a view from the camera obscura. The image only lasted a short period of time before it disappeared. • A little later he improved his picture by adding a cardboarddiaphragm in front of the lens of the camera. • Between 1817 and 1825 he experimented with producing negative and positive images etched on metal and glass with light-sensitive acids. • In 1826 Joseph first used a professionally made camera. The camera he used was made by Charles and Vincent Chevalier. • Niepce‟s brother who was mentally ill had spent all of his family‟s wealth on inventions which did not exist. • Joseph died on July 5, 1833 of a stroke. hotmailSearra Clausen10
    • 43. SIR JOHN HERSCHEL • b. 1792 Slough, Great Britain, d. 1871 Collingwood, Great Britain 
draftsman; photographer; scientist 
Inventor of Cyanotype Photography William Heinemann11
    • 44. Sir John Herschel was a scientist and astronomer like his father, Sir William Herschel. In 1809 he entered the University of Cambridge; in 1812 he submitted his first mathematical paper to the Royal Society, of which he was elected a fellow the following year. An accomplished chemist, Herschel discovered the action of hyposulfite of soda on otherwise insoluble silver salts in 1819, which led to the use of "hypo" as a fixing agent in photography. In 1839, independently of William Henry Fox Talbot, Herschel also invented a photographic process using sensitized paper. It was Herschel who coined the use of the terms photography , positive , and negative to refer to photographic images. 

 William Heinemann11
    • 45. In 1820 herschel became a founding member of the royal astronomical society. From 1833 until 1838, his astronomical investigations brought him and his family to the cape of good hope in south africa, where he met julia margaret cameron, who became a lifelong friend. In 1850 herschel was appointed master of the mint, but he resigned six years later due to poor health. His remaining years were spent working on his catalogs of double stars and of nebulae and star clusters. William Heinemann11
    • 46. • Rather than silver, the cyanotype relies on iron chemistry for its distinctive Cyan/Blue image. It is still popularly known as a „sun print‟ or „blueprint‟. Being easily developed in water after prolonged exposure to UV light, the sun print is many people‟s earliest meeting with photosensitive materials in school. Cyanotypes are usually associated with photo grams but they can be used with conventional negatives to produce full-toned images. The Victorian photographer Anna Atkins first used the process photographically in a series of cyanotype books documenting ferns and leaves. It is perhaps one of the easiest alternative processes to try but also one of the most difficult to perfect. • Anna Atkins Examples CYANOTYPE PHOTOGRAPHY William Heinemann11
    • 47. BIO OF EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE • His real name is Edward James Muggeridge • Born April 9, 1830 • Passed away May 8, 1904 • From Kingston upon Thames, United Kingdom • Started as publishers agent and bookseller • In 1877, had a murder trial of his wife‟s lover Sara Olds12
    • 48. BIO OF EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE CONT. • Known as the “father of motion picture” • Appointed director of photographic surveys for the us government in 1868 • First ever moving picture in 1882 • Joined Leland Stanford in horse movement photography • Cameras arranged parallel to the track • Shutters controlled by trip wires that were triggered by the horses hooves Sara Olds12
    • 49. In 1888, George Eastman invented dry, transparent, and flexible, photographic film (or rolled photography film) and the Kodak cameras that could use the new film. He wanted to simplify photography and make it available to everyone, not just trained photographers. Megan Torres13 He was one of the first American industrialists to employ a full-time research scientist.
    • 50. EDWARD WESTON Victor Guitron14
    • 51. • Born March 24, 1886, in Highland Park, Illinois. • Age 16 began photographing with a bull's-eye #2 camera • Weston was a door to door photographer until 1908 when he attended the Illinois College of Photography in Effingham, Illinois. • Opened his own portrait studio in Tropico, California working in soft-focus, pictorial style. • Weston traveled to Mmiddletown Ohio In 1922 to visit a steel plant. The photographs taken here marked a turning point in Weston‟s career. During this period Weston renounced his Pictorialism style with a new emphasis on abstract form and sharper resolution of detail. Victor Guitron14
    • 52. • Weston Moves to Mexico City in 1923 and opens a photographic studio Ultimately Moving back to California in 1926. • After moving back to California he began his work that he is most famous for natural forms, close-ups, nudes, and landscapes. • Weston became one of the founding members of Group f/64 in 1932 with Ansel Adams, Willard Van Dyke, Imogen Cunningham and Sonya Noskowiak. The group chose this optical term because they habitually set their lenses to that aperture to secure maximum image sharpness of both foreground and distance • In 1946 Weston began expierencing symptoms of parkinsons and could no longer take pictures after 1948. • He supervised his sons developing and taking pictures for 10 years • HE passed away January 1 1958 Victor Guitron14
    • 53. Victor Guitron14
    • 54. Victor Guitron14
    • 55. Victor Guitron14
    • 56. 1 2 3 beautiful-pinhole-photography 4 5 solar-photo-photography.html 6 rg%2Fwiki%2FDaguerreotype&h=0&w=0&tbnid=isrlALYm_zYn2M&zoom=1&tbnh= 190&tbnw=265&docid=p2LPpDxnk33G3M&tbm=isch&ei=wrVMU7qiLujQyAHB34C ADA&ved=0CAIQsCUoAA 7 _calotype.htm z/hilladamson/calotypeprocess/ 8 9 eastman-house/ war.html photo-was-taken-identify-collodion-positive-ambrotype/ photography.html dry-plate-process _chronology/1878-1929.htm BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • 57. 10 Nic-phore-Niepce.html 11 questions-and-answers-for-beginners-part-6 Http://www.Getty.Edu/art/gettyguide/artmakerdetai ls?Maker=1917 12 http://www.masters-of- 1.html d+Muybridge.html 13 ntors/ss/George_Eastman.htm 14 Ansel Adams Photo BIBLIOGRAPHY