Transcript of "B&W 1 History of Photography Class project"
BLACK AND WHITE
The word photography comes from two ancient Greek words: photo, for "light," and
graph, for "drawing." "Drawing with light" is a way of describing photography.
When a photograph is made, light or some other form of radiant energy, such as X
rays, is used to record a picture of an object or scene on a light-sensitive surface.
Early photographs were called sun pictures, because sunlight itself was used to
create the image. Mankind has been a maker of images at least since the cave
paintings of some 20,000 years ago. With the invention of photography, a realistic
image that would have taken a skilled artist hours or even days to draw could be
recorded in exact detail within a fraction of a second.
Camera Obscura- inserting a lens in a hole makes for a clearer, crisper image
Used by artists to sketch objects more quickly and ease the difficulties of
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
Making negative but cannot stop from darkening
Sir John Herschel published details of his chemicals and photography
20 years later his findings would prove the fundamental importance in the
development of photography
Niepce- creates permanent photograph
TIMELINE OF PHOTOGRAPHY
Invented by William Henry Fox Talbot
Light Sensitive Chemicals
Herschel published more papers on his findings
spreading a mixture of collodion and chemicals on sheets of
Inventor/ filmmaker 1830-1904
Laid the ground work for motion picture and finally perfected the
First Kodak camera
Chicago Parks- famously know for natural forms, close-ups, nudes
- Very simple camera and has no lens
- One small hole in which light passes through to
projecting an inverted image on a photographic film or
image sensor on the opposite side of the box
- Can have incredibly long exposures! Ranging from
½ second to several hours!
- The produce softer, not so sharp images with no
focal length and a depth of field that is nearly infinite
• First known person to record the formation of an inverted image
was Chinese philosopher Mo Ti
• Aristotle and Da Vinci both commented their use of pinhole
cameras in their work
• Scottish scientist Sir David Brewster was the first to make
pinhole photographs in the 1850‟s and coined the term “pin-
hole” in his book “The Stereoscope”
- Were used by astronomers to study solar eclipses
- Pinhole cameras can be used to photograph high energy X-rays
and gamma rays and were deployed in space crafts in the late
50‟s and early 60‟s to do so, the first being created in April 1960
- Pinholes are still being used but have multiple pinhole optics
- They‟re used by nuclear physicists to photograph high energy in
- Also used for surveillance and spy cameras
WHAT IS CAMERA OBSCURA?
• Camera= room obscura= dark
• Light travels in a straight line. When some of the rays reflect from a bright subject, it is
passed through a small hole in thin material. The light does not scatter, but instead
crosses and reforms as an upside down image on a flat surface held parallel to the hole.
WHO WAS INVOLVED IN CREATING CAMERA
• Earliest mention was by the chinese philosopher Mo-Ti (5th century B.C.)
• Aristotle understood the optical of the camera obscura (384-322 B.C.)
• The Islamic scholar/ scientist Alhazen gave a full account of the principle (C. 965-1039)
• In 1940, Leonardo Da Vinci gave 2 clear discriptions of the camera obscura in his
• The mage quality was improved with the addition of a convex lens into the aperture in the
16th century. Later, an addition of a mirror to reflect the image down onto a viewing
surface. Giovanni Battista Della Porta recommended the use of this device as an aid for
drawing in his 1558 book “Magiae Naturalis”.
• The term “camera obscura” was first used by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in
the early 17th century.
• Mercedes Berger4
WHAT WAS IT USED FOR?
• Sun viewing
1727: Professor J. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side
of flask exposed to sunlight. Accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound.
1800: Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects on leather treated with
silver nitrate; resulting images deteriorated rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than
1725: The first chemically photographic process can be considered a photogram. This was an
accidental discovery. Johann Heinrich Schultze found that silver nitrate impregnated on gypsum
in a jar, when left exposed to sunlight, turned dark on the side facing the window. After exposure,
if the bottle was shaken, fresh silver nitrate replaced the exposed material near the glass surface.
This was an accidental discovery,
1826: Niepce creates permanent image
French inventor Joseph phore pce uses a camera obscura to burn a permanent image of the countryside
at his Le Gras, France, estate onto a chemical-coated pewter plate. He names his technique "heliography,"
meaning "sun drawing." The black-and-white exposure takes eight hours and fades significantly, but an image is
still visible on the plate today.
1816: Nicéphore Niépce combines the camera obscura with photosensitive paper
1827: French inventor Joseph Niepce made the first fixed photographic
images. He used a primitive camera and a bitumen-coated pewter plate
to capture this image of a Set Table, which is one of his earliest
1834: Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative) images using paper soaked in silver
chloride and fixed with a salt solution. Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto
another sheet of paper.
First Negative Image
Taking advantage of a relatively new technology, the daguerreotype, French physicists Louis Fizeau and
Leon Foucault made the first successful photographs of the sun on April 2, 1845.
1837: Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and
"developed" with warmed mercury; Daguerre is awarded a state pension by the French
government in exchange for publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to
use the Daguerreotype process.
1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or
ferrotypes) popular in the US. A thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for
light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image.
The ambrotype photograph was made by coating a piece of glass with a silver
solution and exposing this to the image. The image is sometimes on the back of a
glass plate and is sandwiched with another glass behind it.
Ambrotype of Elegant Young Woman
1921: Man Ray begins making photograms ("rayographs") by placing objects on photographic
paper and exposing the shadow cast by a distant light bulb; Eugegrave;ne Atget, aged 64,
assigned to photograph the brothels of Paris
1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of an emulsion of
gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, the "dry plate" process.
LIGHT SENSITIVE CHEMICALS FOR FILM & PAPER
The light-sensitive substances used in photographic film to record an image are silver salts
and are called silver halides. The silver halides react to ultraviolet radiation, violet, and blue light
only; however, they can be made sensitive to other colors of light and infrared radiation by the addition
of dyes. Depending on the amount of light and the type of silver halide, the light produces a visible or
invisible change in the halides of a film or printing paper. An invisible change is made visible by
Photographic films and papers are composed of two basic parts: the emulsion and the
base, or support. The emulsion is the light-sensitive portion of a film or paper that records the image.
The emulsion contains the silver halides and any special sensitizing dyes suspended in a binder of
gelatin. The gelatin holds the silver halides evenly dispersed and prevents action by a developer until
the silver halides have been made developable either by exposure to light or chemical action. Also, the
gelatin acts as a sensitizer for the silver salts.
Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components
The main chemicals, compounds and components come in when actually developing the
film. The film has four layers: The first layer is a protective coating which protects the
emulsion layer that has the gelatin and the silver halide crystals in it. Higher speeds of film
have multiple layers of emulsion. The third layer is the film base. The film base is a
polymer that is chemically stable and flexible. The fourth layer is the anti-halation backing
which prevents reflections off the back of the film.
Chemicals used to develop the film:
Developer: This substance is what causes the silver iodide on the roll of film to darken as
if it has been exposed to the light.
Developer is made out of two solutions.
*Solution A: 50 ml of water, 1 gram of sodium sulfite, 0.16 grams of
hydroquinone, 4.6 grams of sodium carbonate, and 1.1 gram of
*Solution B: 50 ml of water and 8 grams of sodium sulfite
Stop bath: This substance completely stops the development process
*Stop bath is made out of acetic acid but many people just use water in lieu of
stop bath to reduce the cost.
Fixer: This substance removes all of undeveloped silver iodide from the emulsion
*Modern fixers are usually made out of sodium thiosulfate or ammonium
• an early photograph that is produced on a silver or a silver-covered
• the process of producing such photographs
L.J.M. DAGUERRO AND NICEPHORE NIEPCE
WERE THE FIRST TO MAKE THIS TYPE OF
• First image was produced in 1837 when they found that if a copper plate with silver iodide
is exposed to light in a camera and later fumed with mercury vapor and fixed by a
common salt solution it formed a permanent image.
• By the time the first image was produced, Niepce had died so they went on to name the
process after Daguerro
• Most of the daguerreotypes were made in the mid- 19th century.
• Later, this method was replaced by the wet collodion process in 1851.
THE CALOTYPE PROCESS
• William Henry Fox Talbot discovered the Calotype process in September 1840. He
announced his discovery on 8 February 1841, though at that stage he gave no details of
the process then patented the process later in 1841.
• The attraction of the calotype process was that it enabled a latent image on the paper to
be transformed into an actual image after the paper had been removed from the camera.
• The calotype process allowed much shorter exposures than for photogenic drawing, and
so made portraits possible. Exposures of around 1 to 3 minutes might be required for a
calotype. Talbot's earlier photogenic drawing process might have required an exposure
of an hour.
• So calotype portraits became possible, as demonstrated by Talbot in October 1840 and
by Hill & Adamson in Edinburgh from 1843 to 1847.
• The calotype negative process was sometimes called the Talbotype, after its inventor. It
was not Talbot's first photographic process (introduced in 1839), but it is the one for which
he became most known.
THE CALOTYPE PROCESS
The photographic technique employed by Hill and Adamson was very similar to that still in
use today. A negative was exposed in the camera, developed in a dark room and then
printed on sensitive paper. Their cameras, while wooden and large, are easy to relate to
modern cameras. However, their sensitive materials were quite different from ours in one
important aspect. Modern photographic film and paper are highly refined highly technological
products made under strict controls in a factory setting. In addition to the other problems they
faced, Hill and Adamson had to make each and every sheet of negative or print material by
hand. There are no significant records of their particular working practices. However, we
know they were in close touch with the art's inventor, William Henry Fox Talbot (especially
through their mutual friend, Sir David Brewster) and it can be assumed that their practice
built on Talbot's approach.
The calotype negative process was sometimes called the Talbotype, after its inventor. It was
not Talbot's first photographic process (introduced in 1839), but it is the one for which he
became most known.
SHOWN HERE IS A CALOTYPE NEGATIVE (HA0767).
THE REV. DR. GEORGE COOK (HA0057): A SALT PRINT DEVELOPED
FROM A CALOTYPE NEGATIVE
The first reflex camera was
developed in 1826, the first patent
was not until 1861.
Production in the U.S. started in
• Finally in the 1960s the production made it
the preferred camera of professionals and
• While the progress of the SLR was very
simple it was complex to manufacture.
• The Reflex mirror camera has 3 main parts.
• A hinged mirror
• A Matt focusing screen
• A five sided glass prism called Pentaprisim
THE WET-PLATE COLLODION PROCESS
Wet-Plate Photography benefits:
• Reproducibility from a glass negative.
• Provided Sharp precise images.
• Produced Positives on Paper,
Ambrotype, or metal plates/tintype.
• Painters didn‟t have to be hired for the
Wet-Plate Photography disadvantages:
• Professionals had to transport their camera & dark room
equipment, and they had to make their own WET negatives on
• The exposure & development process time window is only
about 10 minutes for the negative.
• Up to 20 second exposure times often created blurred images.
• The positive had to be exposed for long periods in the sun.
Developed by Fredrick Scott Archer in 1851
Sam A. Cooley, U.S. Photographer, Department of the South
Fredrick Scott Archer
President Theodore Roosevelt
HOW TO RECOGNIZE A WET PLATE PHOTO
They were less
their protective cases
were made of
and card rather than
leather and silk.They have much greater detail in
landscapes than Calotype photos.
They are recognized
by the shallow depth
of field in close-ups
shots and wavy pour
marks near their
President Abraham Lincoln Yosemite Falls
THE 1990s AND IS STILL CELEBRATED TODAY
A REPRISE OF THIS ART FORM EMERGED IN
In 1878, CHARLES BENNET made emulsion
more stable and far more sensitive to light.
DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY PROCESS
Developed in 1871
by Dr. RICHARD MADDOX
& Sir JOSEPH WILSON SWAN.
From 1879-1881, GEORGE EASTMAN
perfected & mass produced dry plates.
THE SILVER GELATIN DRY PLATE PROCESS
Advantages over Wet-Plate Process:
• A photographer could make negative
plates, then expose & develop at a
• By 1880, Eastman Dry Plates could be
purchased and technicians could do the
• Shorter exposure times, even fractions of a
second, made hand held cameras possible.
The Silver Gelatin Emulsions paved the way for film photography and movies.
• Joseph was born in France on March 7th of
• He had three siblings two brothers and a sister
• Joseph was born into a wealthy family due to
his dad being an attorney.
• Their family was forced to flee the area due to
the French revolution.
• He was born with the name Joseph but when
studying at the Oratorian college of Angers he
decided to change his name to Nicephore in
honor of Saint Nicephorus the ninth-century
Patriarch of Constantinople.
• Nicephore later became a science professor.
JOSEPH NICEAPHORE NIEPCE
• After being a professor he went into the
French Army under Napoleon, while in the
Army they spent most of their time in Italy and
on an Island known as Sardinia, he later
resigned due to an illness.
• Which he then married Agnes Romero.
• Nicepce is believed to take the worlds first
photograph etching in 1822.
• He did this picture using a camera obscure,
which is a box with one hole in the side which
utilizes light from an external scene, he took
an an engraving of Pope Pius VII.
• He later destroyed it while trying to duplicate
it, two of his attempts did survive, one of a
man on a horse and the other of a women
sitting at a spinning wheel.
JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE
JOSEPH MICEPHORE NIEPCE
• Niepce made the first true attempt at photography in 1816.
• He used paper sensitized with silver chloride to capture a view from the camera obscura. The
image only lasted a short period of time before it disappeared.
• A little later he improved his picture by adding a cardboarddiaphragm in front of the lens of the
• Between 1817 and 1825 he experimented with producing negative and positive images etched
on metal and glass with light-sensitive acids.
• In 1826 Joseph first used a professionally made camera. The camera he used was made by
Charles and Vincent Chevalier.
• Niepce‟s brother who was mentally ill had spent all of his family‟s wealth on inventions which
did not exist.
• Joseph died on July 5, 1833 of a stroke.
SIR JOHN HERSCHEL
• b. 1792 Slough, Great Britain, d. 1871 Collingwood, Great Britain draftsman; photographer; scientist
Inventor of Cyanotype Photography
Sir John Herschel was a
scientist and astronomer like his
father, Sir William Herschel. In
1809 he entered the University
of Cambridge; in 1812 he
submitted his first mathematical
paper to the Royal Society, of
which he was elected a fellow
the following year. An
accomplished chemist, Herschel
discovered the action of
hyposulfite of soda on otherwise
insoluble silver salts in 1819,
which led to the use of "hypo" as
a fixing agent in photography. In
1839, independently of William
Henry Fox Talbot, Herschel also
invented a photographic process
using sensitized paper. It was
Herschel who coined the use of
the terms photography , positive
, and negative to refer to
In 1820 herschel became a founding member of the royal astronomical society. From 1833 until
1838, his astronomical investigations brought him and his family to the cape of good hope in
south africa, where he met julia margaret cameron, who became a lifelong friend. In 1850
herschel was appointed master of the mint, but he resigned six years later due to poor health.
His remaining years were spent working on his catalogs of double stars and of nebulae and star
• Rather than silver, the cyanotype relies on
iron chemistry for its distinctive Cyan/Blue
image. It is still popularly known as a „sun
print‟ or „blueprint‟. Being easily developed
in water after prolonged exposure to UV
light, the sun print is many people‟s earliest
meeting with photosensitive materials in
school. Cyanotypes are usually associated
with photo grams but they can be used with
conventional negatives to produce full-toned
images. The Victorian photographer Anna
Atkins first used the process
photographically in a series of cyanotype
books documenting ferns and leaves. It is
perhaps one of the easiest alternative
processes to try but also one of the most
difficult to perfect.
• Anna Atkins Examples
BIO OF EADWEARD
• His real name is Edward James
• Born April 9, 1830
• Passed away May 8, 1904
• From Kingston upon Thames, United
• Started as publishers agent and
• In 1877, had a murder trial of his wife‟s
BIO OF EADWEARD
• Known as the “father of motion
• Appointed director of photographic
surveys for the us government in
• First ever moving picture in 1882
• Joined Leland Stanford in horse
• Cameras arranged parallel to the
• Shutters controlled by trip wires that
were triggered by the horses hooves
In 1888, George Eastman invented dry,
transparent, and flexible, photographic
film (or rolled photography film) and the
Kodak cameras that could use the new
He wanted to simplify
photography and make
it available to everyone,
not just trained
He was one of the first American
industrialists to employ a full-time
• Born March 24, 1886, in Highland Park, Illinois.
• Age 16 began photographing with a bull's-eye #2 camera
• Weston was a door to door photographer until 1908 when he attended the Illinois College
of Photography in Effingham, Illinois.
• Opened his own portrait studio in Tropico, California working in soft-focus, pictorial style.
• Weston traveled to Mmiddletown Ohio In 1922 to visit a steel plant. The photographs
taken here marked a turning point in Weston‟s career. During this period Weston
renounced his Pictorialism style with a new emphasis on abstract form and sharper
resolution of detail.
• Weston Moves to Mexico City in 1923 and opens a photographic studio Ultimately Moving
back to California in 1926.
• After moving back to California he began his work that he is most famous for natural
forms, close-ups, nudes, and landscapes.
• Weston became one of the founding members of Group f/64 in 1932 with Ansel Adams,
Willard Van Dyke, Imogen Cunningham and Sonya Noskowiak. The group chose this
optical term because they habitually set their lenses to that aperture to secure maximum
image sharpness of both foreground and distance
• In 1946 Weston began expierencing symptoms of parkinsons and could no longer take
pictures after 1948.
• He supervised his sons developing and taking pictures for 10 years
• HE passed away January 1 1958