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Treaty of VersaillesRise of Italian fascismRise of Hitler and the Nazi PartyGreat DepressionJapanese expansionismAnti-communismAppeasementMilitarismNationalismU.S. isolationismMaps
Treaty of Versailles Rise of Rise of fascism in Hitler Italy JapaneseNationalism Major Causes expansionism of World War II Economic Militarism depression Anti- Appeasement communism
Treaty of Versailles After Germany lost WWI, the winning nations drafted atreaty to address issues such as territorial adjustments,reparations, armament restrictions, war guilt and theLeague of Nations. The treaty punished Germany and left bitter feelings. Germany was forced to accept all the blame for the warand pay millions in reparations to Britain and France. Italy was disappointed that it was denied territorypromised by Britain and France. British Prime Minister George Italian Prime Minister French Prime U.S. Orlando Minister President Clemenceau Wilson1914 1919 “Big Four”
The Rise of Fascism in ItalyFascism is a totalitarian form of government which: Glorifies the state Has one leader andone party All aspects of societyare controlled by thegovernment No opposition orprotests are tolerated Benito Mussolini came to Propaganda and power in 1922 and helpedcensorship are widely found the political ideology ofpracticed fascism. He sided with the Axis powers in 1940.
In Germany, depression, unemployment and hard times led to a dramatic increase in votes for Hitler and the Nazi Party. Election date Votes in Share millionsMay 20, 1928 0.81 2.6%September 14, 1930 6.41 18.3%July 31, 1932 13.75 37.3%November 6, 1932 11.74 33.1%March 5, 1933 17.28 43.9% Voting for Hitler’s party increased as unemployment rates rose
Worldwide Economic Depression After WWI many Europeaneconomies were unstable. The boom in the U.S.throughout the 1920s helpedsustain worldwide trade. The 1929 stock market crashin the U.S. and the resulting German breadlinesGreat Depression spreadthroughout the world. U.S.restrictive tariff policiesworsened the depression. As economies plummeted andunemployment rose, manypeople turned to powerfulleaders and governments whopromised success throughmilitary buildup and the Japanese children eating radish roots during famineconquest of territory.
Japanese Expansionism In 1931 Japaninvaded Manchuria forraw materials. The same year, Japanbegan to attack China,with full-scale warbreaking out in 1937 inthe Sino-Japanese War. In 1938, war brokeout between Japan andthe Soviet Union in whatwere known as theSoviet-Japanese BorderWars.
Anti-Communism Under communism, all means of production are controlled by the government, as are property, the media, and all other aspects of society. The 1930s saw the rise of many totalitarian regimes; but most people chose fascism over communism. Hitler exploited people’s fear of a communist takeover in Germany to rise to power in 1933.A Battle for Germany: Nazianti-communist book from 1933
Appeasement Appeasement is the act ofgiving in to an enemy’sdemands in hopes ofavoiding further conflict. In 1938, Hitler demandedthat Czechoslovakia cedethe Sudetenland toGermany. He claimed thatthe German populationliving there was beingmistreated. The British and Frenchprime ministers agreed toHitler’s demands withoutconsulting Czechoslovakianleaders, in the hopes thatthis would avoid a war inEurope.
Militarism The glorification ofwar, in which a nationstrengthens its militaryand stockpiles weaponsin preparation for war. An importantaspect of militarism is Hitler Youth groupthat the glorification ofwar is incorporated intoall levels of society,including education ofthe nation’s youth. Militaristic societieshave existedthroughout humanhistory. Ancient Sparta is an example of a militaristic society
NationalismNationalism is thebelief in thesuperiority of one’sown nation over allothers.In the extreme, itcan lead to major Nazi flag, Italian fascist logo,conflicts between Japanese flagnations.Hitler, Mussolini,and Japan’s Tojo eachtouted their nation’sability to dominate allothers in the yearsleading up to WWII.
American Isolationism The failure of peaceefforts such as the KelloggBriand Treaty during the1920s disillusioned manyAmericans aboutinternational involvement. The U.S. was in a majordepression throughout the1930s and was mostlyconcerned with its ownproblems. The Nye Committee held Conflict in Europe congressional hearings in the mid-1930s, concluding that theseemed distant, and the U.S. was tricked into enteringU.S. tried to remain WWI by arms manufacturersneutral. This policy and Allied propaganda.weakened the Europeandemocracies.
Theaters of War: Where WWII Was Fought Europe Atlantic AsiaNorth OceanAfrica Pacific