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Tenses
 

Tenses

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    Tenses Tenses Presentation Transcript

    • change in pitch or tone of voice.
      Tense [těns]
      A category of verbal inflection expressing the time at, during, or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs.
    • Past Present Future
    • Past tense expresses action, activity and state of being in the past
    • Simple Past expresses the idea that an action started and finishedat a specific time in the past.
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Henry arrived at the airport.
      Completed action in the past
    • I finishedmy lunch, went to the beach, and founda nice place to swim.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      A series of completed actions
    • Richard studiedastronautical engineering for three years.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Duration in the past
    • Eric wasshy as a child, but now he is very outgoing.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Past Facts or Generalizations
    • Dinosaurs wereonce the dominant terrestrial vertebrate animals.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Past Facts or Generalizations
    • When-Clauses
      Always happen first
    • When-Clauses
      Same at beginning or at the end of a sentence
    • When-Clauses
      She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
      When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
    • paythenanswer
      When-Clauses
      She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
      When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
    • When-Clauses
      She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
      I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.
    • paythenanswer
      When-Clauses
      She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
      I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.
      answer then pay
    • Use Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past.
    • We were driving through the desert when our car suddenly brokedown.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Interrupted action in the past
    • When I walked into the office, several people werebusily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling, and customers were waitingto be helped.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Parallel actions
    • The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
    • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Completed action before something in the past
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Duration before something in the past
      They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
    • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska.
    • If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is compulsory. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.
      She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska.
    • Use the Past Perfect Continuousto show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past.
    • James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Duration before something in the past
    • The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it.
    • Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.
      The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it.
    • Non-Continuous Verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in continuous tenses.
      Abstract Verbs
      to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist...
      Possession Verbs
      to possess, to own, to belong...
      Emotion Verbs
      to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind…
    • Mixed Verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb. Some meanings behave like "Non-Continuous Verbs," while other meanings behave like "Normal Verbs."
      Mixed Verbs
      to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh...
    • Present tense expresses action, activity and state of being in the present
    • Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual.
    • I eatbreakfast every morning at 6:30. I goto work every day.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Repeated Actions
    • The earth revolves around the sun.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Facts or Generalizations
    • Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Actions in progress now
      I amsitting down, because I am tired.
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Actions happening around now,
      and not necessarily this very moment
      Sally is studying really hard for her exams this week.
    • Near future
      Past
      Future
      Present
      I am seeing my dentist on Wednesday.
    • She is loving this chocolate ice cream.
    • It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present.
      She loves this chocolate ice cream.
    • Use Present Perfect to express action that has been completed with respect to the present.
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Unspecified time before now
      I have already seen that film. I do not want to see it again.
    • I went to Mexico last year.
    • I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
      I went to Mexico last year.
    • I have been to Mexico in the last year.
    • I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.
      I have been to Mexico in the last year.
      "Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.  
    • Use Present Perfect Continuous to refer to an event that may or may not be finished when it's effect can be seen now.
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Duration from the past until now
      Look! It has been snowing.
    • Sam has been having his car for two years.
    • It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.
      Sam has had his car for two years.
    • Future tense expresses action, activity and state of being in the future
    • Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.
    • If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      "Will" to express a promise
    • When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner.
    • No Future in Time Clauses
      Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.
      When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner.
    • TheFuture Perfectexpresses the idea thatsomething will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Completed action before something in the future
      You are going to have perfected your Chinese by the time you come back from China.
    • Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing."
    • I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happensand you need to contact me.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Interrupted action in the future
    • At midnight tonight, we will still bedriving through the desert.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Specific time as an interruption in the future
    • Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Parallel actions in the future
    • Past
      Future
      Present
      Atmosphere in the Future
      When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.
    • While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner.
    • Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.
      While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner.
    • Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." 
    • She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Duration before something in the future
    • Clarence's English will be perfect when he returns to Germany because he is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.
      Past
      Future
      Present
      Cause of something in the future
    • Future Continuous
      This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.
      He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
      He will be tired because he will have been exercisingso hard.
      Future Perfect Continuous
      This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.
    • You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim.
    • Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.
      You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim.
    • English Page
      http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbtenseintro.html
      English Grammar Reference and Exercises
      http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar
      References