Week 3 the study of tourism

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  • Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  • Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  • Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  • Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  • Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  • Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  • Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  • Week 3 the study of tourism

    1. 1. The study ofTourism:DisciplinaryApproaches School of Hospitality Management
    2. 2. Basic Approaches• Institutional Approach• Product Approach• Historical Approach• Managerial Approach• Economical Approach• Sociological Approach• Interdisciplinary approaches School of Hospitality Management
    3. 3. Institutional Approach• Considers the various intermediaries and institutions that perform tourism activities.• Gives emphasis to institutions.• Requires an investigation of the organization. School of Hospitality Management
    4. 4. Product Approach• Involves the study of tourism products and how they are produced, marketed and consumed.• Creation until consumption assessment• Repeated to each tourism product until one gets the entire picture. School of Hospitality Management
    5. 5. Historical Approach• Involves an analysis of tourism activities and institutions from an evolutionary angle.• Early beginnings until current state.• searches for the cause of innovation, growth or decline and shift in interest. School of Hospitality Management
    6. 6. Managerial Approach• Firm oriented. Focuses on the management activities necessary to operate a tourist enterprise.• Focuses on planning, research, pricing, advertising, control and the like. School of Hospitality Management
    7. 7. Economic Approach• Focus on supply, demand, balance of payments, foreign exchange, employment, expenditures, development multipliers, and other economic factors.• Useful in providing a framework for analyzing tourism and its contributions to a country’s economy.• Doesn’t pay too much attention to the environment, cultural, psychological, sociological and anthropological factors. School of Hospitality Management
    8. 8. Sociological Approach• Tourism IS A Social Activity.• Analyzes the tourism behavior of individuals and groups of people and its impacts to society.• Examination of social classes, customs and habits of both hosts and guests. School of Hospitality Management
    9. 9. Geographical Approach• Sheds light on the tourist areas, the movements of people created by tourism locales, the changes that tourism brings to the landscape in the form of tourism facilities, dispersion of tourism development, physical planning and economic, social and cultural problems. School of Hospitality Management
    10. 10. Interdisciplinary Studies• Tourism embraces all aspects of our society.• Because of this tourism can also be studied via: – Anthropology – Physiology – Political Science – Legal Approach – Transportation Apporach School of Hospitality Management
    11. 11. Interdisciplinary Studies• Tourism is so complex, you need different approaches to study this field. School of Hospitality Management
    12. 12. Sociology Sociology of Tourism Tourism Studies Recreation Parks and Department School of Hospitality Management or DisciplineSource: adapted from Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Study of Tourism: Tourism CourseChoices of Discipline and Approach.
    13. 13. Systems Approach• System: a set of interrelated groups coordinated to form a unified whole and organized to accomplish a set of goals• Integrate different approaches in order deal with both macro and micro issues. School of Hospitality Management
    14. 14. THE ECONOMICS OF TOURISM School of Hospitality Management
    15. 15. The Economics of Tourism• The role of tourism in economic development – Using tourism as an alternative to help economic growth. • Due to continuous demand for travel • Income in developed countries increases- demand for tourism increases in a faster rate. • Developing countries need foreign exchange to aid their economic development. School of Hospitality Management
    16. 16. The role of tourism in economicdevelopment• Using tourism as an alternative to help economic growth. – Due to continuous demand for travel – Income in developed countries increases- demand for tourism increases in a faster rate. – Developing countries need foreign exchange to aid their economic development. School of Hospitality Management
    17. 17. The role of tourism in economicdevelopment• The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development concluded that tourism opportunities for countries in the intermediate stage of economic development to grow. School of Hospitality Management
    18. 18. The role of tourism in economicdevelopment• Tourism is seen as an invisible export. – Consumer collects the product from the exporting country. – Demand for pleasure or vacation travel is largely depended on non economic factors. – Tourism is a mutli-faceted sector that directly affects several sectors in the economy. School of Hospitality Management
    19. 19. Economic Benefits of Tourism• Foreign Exchange Earnings – Travel and Tourism expenditures – Generate income to the host economy and can stimulate the investment necessary to finance growth in other economic sectors. – accelerate this growth by requiring visitors to bring in a certain amount of foreign currency for each day of their stay. School of Hospitality Management
    20. 20. Economic Benefits of Tourism• Foreign Exchange Earnings – Tourism is one of the top five export categories for as many as 83% of countries and is a main source of foreign exchange earnings for at least 38% of countries. School of Hospitality Management
    21. 21. Economic Benefits of Tourism• Contribution to Government Revenues – Direct contributions – Indirect contributions School of Hospitality Management
    22. 22. Economic Benefits of Tourism• Generation of Employment Opportunities – Direct Employment – Indirect Employment – Induced Employment School of Hospitality Management
    23. 23. Economic Benefits of Tourism• Infrastructure Investment – Tourism can induce the local government to make infrastructure improvements such as better water and sewage systems, roads, electricity, telephone and public transport network – This can improve the quality of life for residents as well as facilitate tourism. School of Hospitality Management
    24. 24. Economic Costs of Tourism• Inflation – Increase in prices of land, houses and food that can occur as a result of tourism. School of Hospitality Management
    25. 25. Economic Costs of Tourism• Inflation – Increase in prices of land, houses and food that can occur as a result of tourism. – Lies heavily on the demand. School of Hospitality Management
    26. 26. Economic Costs of Tourism• Opportunity Costs – the cost of engaging in tourism rather than another form of economic activity. School of Hospitality Management
    27. 27. Economic Costs of Tourism• Dependency – a place becomes over-dependent on tourism that other industries are abandoned. – Over-reliance on tourism carries risks to tourism-dependent economies. School of Hospitality Management
    28. 28. Economic Costs of Tourism• Seasonality – One of the major disadvantages in tourism – Its effect to jobs, investments and tourism- related enterprises School of Hospitality Management
    29. 29. Economic Costs of Tourism• Leakage – Goes out of the local economy to pay for imported items, expatriate salaries or franchise fees. School of Hospitality Management
    30. 30. Economic Costs of Tourism• Leakage – occurs through; 1. Repatriation of profits generated from foreign capital investment; 2. Vertical integration; 3. Not sourcing goods and services locally. School of Hospitality Management
    31. 31. Economic Costs of Tourism• Enclave Tourism – Remain for their entire stay at the same cruise ship or resort, which provides everything they need and where they will make all their expenditures, not much opportunity is left for local people to profit from tourism. School of Hospitality Management
    32. 32. Economic Costs of Tourism• Seasonal Character of Jobs – Job (and therefore income) insecurity – No guarantee of employment from one season to the next – Difficulties in getting training, employment- related medical benefits, and recognition of their experience – Unsatisfactory housing and working conditions. School of Hospitality Management
    33. 33. Economic Costs of Tourism• Prostitution and the Underground Economy – Sex Sector, prostitution, which many regard as a by product of tourism, has been estimated to contribute between 2%-14% of the GDP of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. – 2% - earnings of the prostitute themselves – 14% - incomes of people indirectly benefiting from prostitution School of Hospitality Management
    34. 34. Tourism Multiplier• Describes the total effects of an external source of income introduced to the economy.• Also Called the Multiplier effect.• Describes how an initial expenditure in a destination ripples down to other businesses.• Relates the way secondary and tertiary industries benefit from the primary tourism industry. School of Hospitality Management
    35. 35. Tourism Multiplier School of Hospitality Management

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