Sociology and Culture• Sociology is the study of society and is concerned with people in groups, their interaction, their attitudes and their behavior• Culture is about how people interact as observed through social interaction, social relations, and material artifacts• Culture consists of behavioral patterns, knowledge and values which have been acquired and transmitted through generations• Culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Cultural attractions• Handicrafts • Types of work• Language engaged in by• Traditions residents• Gastronomy • Architecture• Art and music • Religion (including visible manifestations)• History of the area/including visual • Education systems reminders • Dress • Leisure activities
Socio-cultural Impacts (Positive)• Creation of employment • Renewal of local• Revitalization of poor or architectural traditions non-industrialized regions • Promotion of the need to• Rebirth of local arts and conserve areas of crafts and traditional outstanding beauty which cultural activities have aesthetic and• Revival of social and cultural value cultural life of the local population
Socio-cultural Impacts (Negative)• Overcrowding • Residents may find it• Stress for both difficult to co-exist tourists and residents with tourists who have• Traditional activities different values and (e.g. Farming) may who are involved in decline leisure activities, while the residents• Regions can become are involved in over-dependent on working. tourism
Demonstration Effect• Theorizes that by simply observing tourists will lead to behavioral changes in the resident population• Local people will note the superior material possession of the visitors and aspire for them.
Demonstration Effect• Positive: may encourage residents to adopt more productive patterns of behavior• Negative: locals may become resentful because they are unable to obtain the goods and lifestyle demonstrated by the visitors
Demonstration Effect• Young people are more susceptible.• Most likely occur where the contacts between residents and visitors are relatively superficial and short-lived.
Acculturation Theory• Occurs when contact is for a longer period and is deeper• States that when two cultures come into contact for any length of time, an exchange of ideas and products will take place, that through time, produce varying levels of convergence between the cultures: that is they become similar
Acculturation Theory• No balance- since one culture is stronger than the other (e.g. US influence is known as ‘MacDonaldization’ or ‘Coca- colaization’
Pseudo-events• Caused by commoditization• They are planned rather than spontaneous• They are designed to be performed to order, at times that are convenient for tourists• They hold at best an ambiguous relationship to real elements on which they are based• They eventually become the authentic events and replace the original events or practice
Doxey’s Irritation IndexEuphoria (exploration & Visitors are welcome and there isinvolvement) little planningApathy (Development) Visitors are taken for granted and contact becomes more formalAnnoyance/ Irritation (Consolidation) Saturation is approached and the local people have misgivings. Planners who attempt to control through increasing infrastructure rather than limiting growthAntagonism (stagnation etc.) Open expression of irritation and planning is remedial yet promotion is increased to offset the deteriorating reputation of the resort
Doxey’s Irritation Index• AKA: Irridex• The resident population or hosts in a tourist area would modify their attitudes to visitors over time
Doxey’s Irritation Index• When tourists first visit they will be greeted with euphoria• Stages progress to apathy, annoyance and then to outright aggression towards visitors
Getz Study• The attitudes of residents do not appear to change greatly over time• Attitudes to tourism by the host population were closely linked to economic fluctuations
Impacts of TourismIMPACTS OF TOURISM ONTHE ENVIRONMENT
Environmental Impacts• Environment is made up of both natural and human features• Tourism-environment relationship is symbiotic• Ecology is the study of the relationships between animals and plants• Ecosystems are individual components and links between plants and animals
Five (5) Aspects of the environment (Swarbrooke)• Natural environment• Wildlife• Farmed environment• Built environment• Natural resources
Factors important to environmental impacts• The ‘where’ factor. Some environments are more susceptible to tourism impacts than others• The type of tourism activitiy• The nature of any tourist infrastructure• When the activity occurs, particulalry any seasonal variation
Positive Impacts• Tourism may stimulate measures to protect the environment and/or landscape and/or wildlife• Tourism can help to promote the establishment of National Parks and/or Wildlife Reserves• Tourism can promote the preservation of buildings/monuments (e.g. UNESCO World Heritage Sites)• Tourism may provide the money (e.g. via entrace charges) to maintain historic buildings, heritage sites and wildlife habitats
Negative Impacts• Tourists are likely to drop litter• Tourism can contribute to congestion in terms of overcrowding of people as well as traffic congestion• Tourism can contribute to the pollution of water courses and beaches• Tourism may result in footpath erosion• Tourism can lead to the creation of unsightly human structures such as buildings (e.g. hotels) that do not fit in with vernacular architecture• Tourism may lead to damage and/or disturbance to wildlife habitats
Carrying capacity• A threshold measure, beyond which damage and possible irreversible change may occur• e.g. Plant or animal species threated by the damage cause by visitors, and any increase will lead to more damage• Can be viewed scientifically and perceptionally
Three (3) forms of carrying capacity• Environmental (physical ) carrying capacity – usually refers to physical space and the number of people (or the number of cars) in a particular place• Ecological carrying capacity – is a threshold measure, which if exceeded will lead to actual damage of plants/animals habitat• Perceptual carrying capacity is the level of crowding that a tourist is willing to tolerate before he/she decides a particular location is too full and then goes elsewhere
Other analytical tools• Limits of acceptable change (LAC) technique – involves establishing an agreed set of criteria before the development and the prescription of desired conditions and levels of change after development• Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
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