Basic Planning Process Goals and Data Gathering Data Analysis Objectives Setting PLAN PREPARATION Detailing and Evaluation and Refinement of Selection of Generation of Preferred Preferred Alternatives Strategies Alternatives PLAN Plan AdoptionADOPTION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION Plan Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation
Tourism Planning Process PLAN PREPARATION Determination of Surveys and Study Preparation Development Evaluations Objectives PLAN Policy and Plan Analysis and Recommendations Formulation Synthesis ADOPTION PLAN ImplementationIMPLEMENTATION and Management
Study Preparation• Pre-feasibility study (evaluation of local resources)• Evaluation is positive decision is made to proceed with tourism planning• Terms of reference• Project Team – multi-disciplinary – Physical Planning Experts (architects, environmental planners) – Marketing, Economic and Financial Analysts – Environmental Scientists – Sociologists – Engineers
Determination of Development Objectives• The objectives state what is expected to be achieved through tourism development• Typically combine and balance economic, environmental and socio-cultural factors and always include concepts of sustainability• Determined in a preliminary manner and later refined based on feedback during the process• Should be determined in close coordination with community residents and their leaders, as well as the government authorities.
Surveys and Evaluations• Characteristics of the area’s environmental, economic, socio-cultural, land use and land use patterns. – Land tenure which affects the availability of land to be developed should be highlighted• Tourism resources of existing and potential tourist attractions and activities – Accessibility to attraction sites and environmental quality• Existing tourism development including accommodation and other tourist facilities and services. – Quality• Existing and potential tourist markets and travel patterns – Tourist arrivals: determine characteristics and attitudes towards existing attractions, facilities and services
Surveys and Evaluations• Existing and already planned transportation access to and within the area including air, road and rail and water transportation.• Other types of existing and planned infrastructure including water supply, electric power, waste management and telecommunications• Present development policies and plans for the area (including over-all development plans and adopted for tourism)• Institutional elements of tourism – Available workforce – Existing tourism education and training programs – Public and private structures for tourism – Tourism-related laws and regulations
Surveys and Evaluations• Primary attractions – features that may induce tourists to visit the area• Secondary attractions – features that complement the primary and may induce the tourists to stay longer in the area• Political stability, public health and safety and effect of competing destinations – must also be evaluated
Analysis and Synthesis• Careful analysis of tourist markets in relation to the types of attractions and activities that can be available for tourists and other components of the tourism system is important.• Data gathered in Step 3 are those analyzed in Step 4• Used to establish market targets• Market targets provide the basis for calculating the tourist accommodation needed, as well as needs for other types of tourist facilities and services and infrastructure.
Projecting Accommodation Needs• Demand for beds # of tourists per time period x ave length of stay in nights# of nights per time period x accommodation occupancy factor• Demand for rooms # of beds demand Average room occupancy (persons per room)
Analysis and Synthesis• Carrying Capacity analysis – useful guideline to determine the optimum level of development and use of attraction features, facilities and services – Relative and not an absolute indicator – Depends on the markets they are aimed for and on the level and type of tourist facilities and infrastructure already existing – Involves consideration of physical, economic, sociocultural and infrastructure factors as related impact on the community and impact on the tourists
Analysis and Synthesis• At this stage, it is useful to summarize major opportunities and constraints for developing tourism.• Provides basis for focusing recommendations on taking advantage of development opportunities and resolving or mitigating the development constraints• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats – Expressed in a series of short statements which can then be easily compared to make a summary analysis of the area’s potential for developing tourism – Provide basis for formulating the priority recommendations for development
Policy and Plan Formulation• Based on the objectives, surveys, analysis and synthesis• Tourism policy: states the extent and type of tourism development and special considerations such as economic, environmental and socio-cultural aspects.• Physical Plan: area-wide structure plan that identifies the components of the tourism system.• Alternative plans are prepared and evaluated as basis for selecting the final plan that optimises benefits and minimizes problems• Parts of different alternatives plans are combined to determine the optimum final plan
Recommendations• Made on improvements needed to tourist attractions, existing tourist facilities and services, institutional and other elements of the plan.• Environmental and socio-cultural impacts are analysed and protection measures are recommended• The economic impact of tourism is analysed and recommends ways to enhance economic benefits.
Implementation and Management• Plans have little value unless they are capable of being implemented, and are actually implemented.• Techniques of implementation should be considered throughout the planning process and specific implementation techniques are identified. – Development programing – Zoning regulations• Community participation – essential in the planning process, implementation and management – Knowledge of the community about their area is incorporated – Aspirations of the community for their future development is considered
Implementation and Management• Project Steering Committee – Offers guidance on the planning team’s activities and especially discusses the conclusions and recommendations of the team – Reviews the draft planning reports – Representatives of involved government agencies – Tourism private sector – Community leaders – NGO – Traditional or reilgious organizations• Area-wide and other larger-scale plans should include logical staging of development
PROCESS Project Organisation ManagementIdentification Project Funding ScreeningPlanning and Feasibility Implementation Analysis
Project management: gantt chart• Gantt Charts (Gant Charts) are useful tools for analyzing and planning more complex projects. They:• Help you to plan out the tasks that need to be completed• Give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out• Allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the project, and• Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date.• When a project is under way, Gantt Charts help you monitor whether the project is on schedule. If it is not, it allows you to pinpoint the remedial action necessary to put it back on schedule.
Sequential and parallel activities• An essential concept behind project planning (and Critical Path Analysis) is that some activities are dependent on other activities being completed first.• These dependent activities need to be completed in a sequence, with each stage being more-or-less completed before the next activity can begin. We can call dependent activities sequential or linear.• Other activities are not dependent on completion of any other tasks. These may be done at any time before or after a particular stage is reached. These are nondependent or parallel tasks.
How to make a gantt chartTask Earliest Length Type Dependent start on... A. High level analysis Week 0 1 week Sequential• Step 1. List all activities B. Selection of hardware platform Week 1 1 day Sequential A in the plan C. Installation and Week commissioning of hardware 1.2 2 weeks Parallel B D. Detailed analysis of core Week 1 2 Sequential A• For each task, show the modules E. Detailed analysis of Week 3 2 weeks Sequential D supporting modules weeks earliest start F. Programming of core modules Week 3 2 weeks Sequential D date, estimated length G. Programming of supporting modules Week 5 3 weeks Sequential E of time it will take, and H. Quality assurance of core Week 5 1 week Sequential modules F whether it is parallel or I. Quality assurance of supporting modules Week 8 1 week Sequential G J. Core module training Week 6 1 day Parallel C,H sequential. If tasks are K. Development and QA of Week 5 1 week Parallel E accounting reporting sequential, show which L. Development and QA of Week 5 1 week Parallel E management reporting stages they depend on. M. Development of Management Information Week 6 1 week Sequential L System N. Detailed training Week 9 1 week Sequential I, J, K, M
How to make a gantt chartActivities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9AB • Step 2. Set-up the GanttC ChartD • In a paper, makeE gridlines and put theF days / weeks needed toGH finish all the tasksIJKLMN
HOW TO MAKE A GANTT CHART• Step 3. Plot the tasks onto Activities 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 the graph paper• Next draw up a rough draft A of the Gantt Chart. Plot each B task on the graph paper, showing it starting on the C earliest possible date. D• Schedule them in such a way that sequential actions E are carried out in the required sequence. F• Ensure that dependent G activities do not start until the activities they depend H on have been completed. I J K L M N
Key points• Gantt charts are useful tools for planning and scheduling projects. They allow you to assess how long a project should take, determine the resources needed, and lay out the order in which tasks need to be carried out.• They are useful in managing the dependencies between tasks.• When a project is under way, Gantt charts are useful for monitoring its progress. You can immediately see what should have been achieved at a point in time, and can therefore take remedial action to bring the project back on course. This can be essential for the successful and profitable implementation of the project.
Resorts• Integrated and self-contained tourist destinations• Beach and marine, mountain, health, recreation, and resorts serving important nature, historical and archaeological sites• Trends: provision of a wide variety of recreational, shopping, cultural, health and other facilities• Many resorts now include self-catering accommodation and vacation and retirement homes• Often serve as base for tourists to tour nearby areas
Resort Planning Process General Market and Determination of environmental Product objectives, type assessment of theAssessment of Area and size of resort area Resort Concept and Resort Site Feasibility Study Selection
Resort Planning ProcessDetermination of Facility and Environmental and Carrying Regional Relationships Land Use Requirements Capacity Analysis Determination of Access to Regional Community RelationshipsInfrastructure Requirements Integration
Resort Planning Process Formulation of Specific Regional Economic & Financial Environmental & Relationships & Feasibility Analysis Social AssessmentResort Land Use Plan
Resort Planning ProcessImplementation Program First Stage Development Plan Refinement of Later Phases Implementation of Later Phases
Important Principles in Resort Planning• Proper location of the resort is important – Located at or near a tourist attraction feature – Desirable micro-climatic conditions – Attractive physical environment of the site and nearby area – Sufficient amount of available and developable land – Good existing or potential access from the tourist gateway – Adequate infrastructure – No serious air or water pollution – Availability of nearby labor supply
Important Principles in Resort Planning• Plan for a variety of recreation, nature-oriented, cultural and shopping facilities and activities within the resort• Give the resort a distinct sense of place and character• Plan the resort environmentally and for sustainable development• Establish close linkage between resort and local communities• Provide for good local and regional access to the resort• Conserve any existing important environmental, archaeological and historic sites on or near the resort
Important Principles in Resort Planning• Group resort facilities and activity areas according to their functions• Maintain view planes and corridors• Properly relate major accommodation areas to the major resort features• Provide for centrally located and conveniently accessible resort center• Provide for a resort transportation network• Plan for adequate infrastructure of hygienic water supply, electric power, waste management, and telecommunications
Important Principles in Resort Planning• Provide for adequate housing and community facilities for the resort employees• Establish and apply suitable development standards• Ensure appropriate architectural design• Plan the areas near and adjacent to the resort• Provide for safety of the tourists
Urban Tourism Planning• Urban places often serve as gateways to and staging areas for tourism regions or areas and major attractions• Have important business, government and educational centers which attract business travellers• Can bring significant economic benefits of employment and income to residents• Help support amenity features
Urban Tourism Planning• Plays a major role in the physical and economic rejuvenation of older cities or districts• Urban tourism plan should be prepared as an integral component of the comprehensive urban plan – Tourism can be well integrated in the urban fabric• Follows the basic planning process
Planning Process Determination of tourism Surveys and Study Preparation development Evaluations objectives Analysis and Policy and Plan Recommendations Synthesis FormulationImplementation and Management
Urban Tourism Principles• Develop or improve urban type of attractions and facilities – Attractions near the city must be included in the planning to provide the basis for day tours outside the city.• Take advantage of special environment features• Provide a wide variety of accommodation, restaurants, and other tourist facilities – Concentrate in certain areas related to major attractions for convenience and efficiency
Urban Tourism Principles• Provide a good public transportation network and encourage pedestrianization of tourism and shopping areas.• Provide good tourist information services and guide maps. – Tourist information booths can be set-up in places where there are concentrations of tourists.• Provide a variety of well guided bus tours of the city and develop urban walking tours
Urban Tourism Principles• Provide a high level of public health with good sanitation and hygiene standards, and adequate medical facilities and services.• Maintain a high level of public safety standards with control of crime to the extent possible• Improve the environmental quality of the urban area where needed: – controlling the pollution, traffic congestion, clean environment