2. • Refers to the number of individuals who can be supported in a given area within natural resource limits, and without degrading the natural social, cultural and economic environment for present and future generations.
3. • The maximum number of people that may visit a tourist destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable• decrease in the quality of visitors satisfaction”. - WTO
4. “The use an area cantolerate withoutunacceptablechange” -(Hendee, et al. 1990)
5. • The maximum number of people that may visit a tourist destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable• decrease in the quality of visitors satisfaction”. - WTO
6. • Carrying capacity for any given area is not fixed. – It can be altered by improved technology, but mostly it is changed for the worse by pressures which accompany a population increase.
7. • As the environment is degraded, carrying capacity actually shrinks, leaving the environment no longer able to support even the number of people who could formerly have lived in the area on a sustainable basis.
9. Physical Carrying Capacity• The maximum number of tourists that an area is actually able to support.• The maximum number that can fit on the site at any given time and still allow people to be able to move.• PCC per a day = area (in meters squared) x visitors per metre x daily duration
10. Economic Carrying Capacity• This relates to a level of acceptable change within the local economy of a tourist destination, it is the extent to which a tourist destination is able to accommodate tourist functions without the loss of local activities.• Describe the point at which the increased revenue brought by tourism development is overtaken by the inflation caused by tourism.
11. Social Carrying Capacity• The negative socio-cultural related to tourism development.• Reduced visitor enjoyment and increased crime are also indicators of when the social carrying capacity has been exceeded.
12. Biophysical Carrying Capacity• The extent to which the natural environment is able to tolerate interference from tourists.• Deals with ecology which is able to regenerate to some extent so in this case the carrying capacity is when the damage exceeds the habitats ability to regenerate.
13. 1. Define the carrying capacity that needs to be established for the study area Options:· tourism carrying capacity· recreation carrying capacity· others Consider the above from one or more of the following perspectives: physical carrying capacity, ecological carrying capacity, social carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity Consider factors that affect the overall capacity of an area: Options:· access capacity· commercial capacity· construction capacity· service capacity· transport capacity· others
14. 2. Consider the type of tourism existing or being planned from the following contexts: physical social cultural infrastructure economic benefits tourism image indigenous environment others
15. 3. List the objectives of the areaOptions: conservation of natural resources; preservation of areas of unique scientific, historical and cultural value; preservation of heritage; tourism and recreation; employment opportunities; othersEcological and social consequences of use should be consistent with area management objectives. If an area has more than one objective, then state the objective of highest priority
16. 4. Establish criteria that affect capacity- Physical area size, accessible space, visual impact, climate, aesthetics, accommodation quality , availability of facilities, transportation, number of people that can be accommodated, others- Ecological the need for conservation, fragility of the environment, wildlife resources, topography, vegetative cover, behavioral sensitivity of species, diversity, uniqueness of species, concealment, resilience of ecosystem/species, impact of use on the area, others. For coral reefs, the following must also be taken into account:· size and shape of reef, composition of coral communities, type of underwater activity, level of experience of divers/snorkellers, other.- Economic investment, volume of tourists, cost of the holiday, level of economic benefits provided, level of enjoyment suited to the residents, others
17. 4. Establish criteria that affect capacity (cont’d)- Cultural volume of tourism with no detrimental effects, cultural attractions, quality of crafts and food, involvement of local communities/residents, others- Social visitors choice, visitors opinions, visitors attitude and behavior, expectations and preferences, perceptual and behavioral response, response to rising use levels, visitors activities, visitor satisfaction, acceptable level of crowding, involvement of local communities/residents, others- Availability of resources and infrastructure cash incentives, public utilities, transport facilities, essential facilities e.g. hospitals, availability of water supply, proper disposal of solid and liquid wastes, others
18. 4. Establish criteria that affect capacity (cont’d)- Administrative and political factors level at which management is implemented, legal restraints, policy incentives, othersVariations in criteria should also be considered• Seasonality• Developing tourism areas : optimize benefits ; ensure negative impacts of saturation do not occur• Developed tourism areas : emphasize management rather than planning• others
19. 5. Establish thresholds or tolerable levels of use that can act as management guidelinesOptions: physical; economic; ecological; perceptual; social/cultural; political/administrative; othersBear in mind that thresholds may be eventually reached, or may change with time.
20. 6. Assess the carrying capacity of the area a. Physical carrying capacity i) Consider in terms of time and space variables, and tourist function rates Time : peak capacity, daily capacity, weekly capacity, yearly capacity, seasonal and diurnal, others Space : space coefficients, unit measures, density zones, equipment ratios, others Tourist function rates : ratios, others Threshold capacities : economic viability, water resources, othersNon-measurable criteria (use comparative analyses): ecological impacts, cultural impacts, psychological effects, others
21. 6. Assess the carrying capacity of the area (cont’d) a. Physical carrying capacity (cont’d) ii) Apply Boullons (1985) formula. b. Social carrying capacity i) Establish conditions requiring judgmental inputs - relationship between use levels/management parameters and experience parameters - agreement about the type of recreational experience to be provided - agreement about the appropriate levels of experience parameters
22. 6. Assess the carrying capacity of the area (cont’d) b. Social carrying capacity (cont’d) ii) Document visitor particulars and activities, as well as their expectations and preferences. Then a theoretical evaluation based on experience and accumulated knowledge can be used for comparative analyses. Options : Frequency of site visits, group size, length of stay, activity patterns, expectations and preferences, others
23. 6. Assess the carrying capacity of the area (cont’d) d. Recreation carrying capacity (requires an assessment of both environmental and social capacities) i) Establish the acceptable numbers of visitors suited to each zone: visitor surveys, density guidelines, others (ii) Describe observable characteristics and carry out evaluation which involves judgments on acceptability of impacts: Description: management parameters; impact parameters Evaluation: measurable; non-measurable; absolute; empirical terms; others
24. • Survey perceived tolerances Visual surveys Questionnaires• Based on history• Demand• Perceived and actual impact• Estimate (annual; monthly; daily; seasonal)
25. • Daily: “A” programs x # participants/groupOr, #of estimated users /day (based on LAC) Estimate this on how many hours/day; How many hours/program or event; How many staff can support the programs; How many participants and events can facilities and equipment handle
26. • Monthly: “B” Programs x estimated # participants/program• Annually or Seasonally: “C” programs/month x 12 (or how many months are functional)• Finally: Can the land, facilities, and staff handle this number? Cost effectiveness = feasibility.