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Pyp gutz keita

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  • 1. Cells in parts. By Keita
  • 2. Introduction to Cells - There are 2 types of cells in the world: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. - I studied about eukaryotic cells, human cells in particular. - There roughly are 3 trillion cells in the average adult.
  • 3. The Central Ideas - My Central Idea: Cells have many parts with structures that interact with processes to sustain life in organisms. - My Central Idea: Cells have many parts with structures that interact with processes to sustain life in organisms.
  • 4. Introduction to Cells - There are 2 types of cells in the world: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. - I studied about eukaryotic cells, human cells in particular. - There roughly are 3 trillion cells in the average adult.
  • 5. Table of contents part 1 Part 1- The parts of any cell: 1.The Nucleus and DNA 2.Cellular Membrane 3.The Ribosomes 4.Translation, Transcription, and Replication 5.The Endoplasmic Reticulum 6.The Golgi Apparatus
  • 6. Table of contents part 2 7.Proteins 8.Mitochondria Part 2 specific cells: 1.Nerve cells a. The Axon b.The Dendrites
  • 7. Table of Contents part 3 c. The Terminal d. Schwann cells/ Myelin sheath e. The Synapses f. The nodes of Ranvier
  • 8. Picture of General Cell
  • 9. The Nucleus and The DNA -The nucleus holds the DNA. -The nucleus is protected by a double bi lipid layer. -The DNA in the nucleus of your cell is made of phospholipid groups, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.
  • 10. Pictures of Deoxyribonucleic acid and Ribonucleic acid (DNA and RNA)
  • 11. Picture of Cellular Membrane
  • 12. The Cellular Membrane - The cellular membranes in your cells are composed of a phospholipid bilayer each. - The membrane is semipermeable. - The membranes of the nucleus have tunnels of protein that the mRNA goes to the ribosome through.
  • 13. The Cellular Membrane #2 - The Cellular membranes have particular proteins embedded into it.
  • 14. Picture of Ribosome
  • 15. The Ribosomes - The ribosomes take mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) and tRNA (translator RNA) and pair them up. -The tRNA has amino acids attached to it that stick together to make proteins. -There are 20 amino acids.
  • 16. Translation, Transcription, and Replication - Translation is when mRNA combines with tRNA and creates proteins. - Transcription is when mRNA is made from DNA. - Replication is when DNA is created from DNA.
  • 17. Video of Translation, Transcription, and Replication
  • 18. Picture of the Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • 19. The Endoplasmic Reticulum - The endoplasmic reticulum has two parts: the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. - The rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to it that release the proteins inside the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • 20. The Endoplasmic Reticulum #2 - The smooth endoplasmic reticulum supposedly has lots of purposes that I don’t know of but I do know that it encloses the proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum in some of its own membrane turning the protein into a vesicle.
  • 21. Picture of Golgi Body
  • 22. The Golgi Apparatus or Golgi Body - The golgi apparatus adds the glycerol sugars that guide the vesicles to where they have to go to. - The golgi apparatus adds extra carbohydrates and also adds phosphates. - It does this with enzymes.
  • 23. Picture of Proteins
  • 24. The Proteins - There are lots of kinds of proteins that the ribosomes create. - There are tunnel proteins, proteins that are embedded into the membrane, there are proteins on the surface of the membrane, so you get the point right.
  • 25. Picture of Mitochondria
  • 26. Mitochondria - Mitochondria creates the energy that the cells use. - Mitochondria transforms the already energy containing sugars in the cell into ATP a more used form of energy.
  • 27. Mitochondria Part 2 - There can be thousands of mitochondrias inside of one cell. - Mitochondria takes the nutrients from the small intestine and turns it the nutrients into energy.
  • 28. Nerve Cells Here is a picture of a nerve cell.
  • 29. Picture of Axon
  • 30. The Axon - The axon is the long thing on the picture of the cell - The axon is where the signals from the cell are transmitted. - The axon has voltage gated sodium channels that keep the signal strong with sodium ions.
  • 31. The Dendrites - The dendrites are the root looking things on the picture - On the average nerve cell there are five dendrites. - These dendrites receive the signals from different axons and “feel” as in the sense.
  • 32. The Terminal - The terminal is where the axon splits on the picture - The terminal is where the certain signal goes to place where it commands something through the synapses.
  • 33. Myelin Sheath/ Schwann Cells
  • 34. The Myelin Sheath/ Schwann cells - The schwann cells are parts of the axon that isolate the axon. - The myelin sheath is made of multiple schwann cells. - The schwann cells are made of layers upon layers of bi lipid layers.
  • 35. Picture of Synapse
  • 36. The Synapses - The synapse is the space between the axon and axon, dendrite, or soma and the two sending and receiving neurons. - There are these vesicles (membrane bound proteins) with proteins called neurotransmitters
  • 37. The synapses - Then, the snare proteins (the proteins that connect the vesicles to the axon) pry open the axon membrane. - The neurotransmitters are let out and they bond with the proteins on another cell which opens a Na+ channel to make another action potential
  • 38. Picture of a Node of Ranvier
  • 39. The Nodes of Ranvier - In the Nodes of Ranvier the part of the axon is depolarised this means that the cell is polar in the first place. - The cells are polar because there
  • 40. The End For now but the real end is near
  • 41. The Real End Is here
  • 42. Anyway, Any questions?

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