Background Provocations A national & international trend Why teach for global citizenship? Confusion of termsNational schools, international schools, & internationally-minded schools The IB and international-mindedness Beyond the formal curriculum
Confusion of terms What does internationally minded mean? By definition, international-mindedness is a ‗good thing‘. It would be a brave soul in 2013 who said that they don‘tthink we should be internationally minded or that children and students shouldn‘t experience its development in school and in their lives.
Confusion of termsIf we are going to talk about something – let alone build a curriculum around it or devote considerable amounts ofteacher and student time to it – it would help if we began to share some notion of what it means. In the case of international-mindedness, I‘m not sure we do.
Confusion of termsIt often seems to be a huge depository for everyone‘s pet themes such as peace studies, the environment, globalization, the economy and more.
Confusion of termsThe result of all this is that we are left with discussions that cross each other but risk not touching each other and practices that overlap but have no centre. Martin Skelton (2013), International-mindedness, IS, 15 (2), pp. 13-14.
National schools, international schools, & internationally-minded schools
National schools, international schools, & internationally-minded schools
National schools, international schools, & internationally-minded schoolsWe have for too long tried to define international education via international schools and found it difficult. We have assumed that international schools offer an international education. Many do, but not all. The link is irregular. It is more productive and more realistic to regard them as unrelated concepts and to treat them separately.
National schools, international schools, & internationally-minded schools A national school can offer the necessary curriculum andpedagogical approach of an international education. It is an attitude of mind. Thus any school in the world, public or private, can be international - meaning it can offer international education. Ian Hill. 2000. International Schools Journal, v20 n1 p24-37.
The IB & international-mindedness The International Baccalaureate aims to developinquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people whohelp to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect IB Mission Statement
The IB & international-mindednessAn IB education imparts the attitudes and the knowledge that facilitate caring and the skills that enable students to take action towards creating a better and more peaceful world. Educating for global engagement requires a combination of philosophy, pedagogy, content and aspiration: a transformative curriculum that leads students of all ages from learning to caring to action.
The IB & international-mindednessCurriculum elements for global awareness include
The IB & international-mindednessCurriculum elements for global awareness include • cultural and perspective awareness • additional language learning—multilingualism• explicit teaching of the concepts, skills, knowledge and attitudes of international-mindedness • critical thinking skills • research and IT skills
Beyond the formal curriculum Two ReadingsStephen Codrington (2006). The United World Colleges: A unique model of international education. Paper presented to the 10th Anniversary Conference of the China Scholarship Council Beijing, 16th June 2006. http://www.stephencodrington.com/Hub/Print_Downloads_files/CSC %20Beijing.pdf Leanne Cause (2009). International-mindedness and social control, Asian Social Science, vol. 5 no. 9, pp. 33-46. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/view/3728/332 9
6 Models + 1 Global Education Guidelines (Europe)Educating for Global Citizenship (Canada) Get Global! (UK) Oxfam Boyd Roberts Asia Society/Project Zero +1
+1How do we define global citizenship @ ISM (given our unique assets & constraints)
Distilling key ideasTeaching about v. teaching for global citizenship The self & the other Understanding our own culture Knowing v. being Personalizing definitions/features
Teaching about v. teaching for global citizenship
Teaching about v. teaching for global citizenship
Teaching about v. teaching for global citizenshipA key principle running through the book is that students are global citizens now. So, the book is equally concerned with education in global citizenship. It is also concerned with education about global issues. But it is not concerned with education about global citizenship. Within these pages we are concerned with how global citizenship is practiced, not how it is studied.
Teaching about v. teaching for global citizenshipInternational, multi-/intercultural, global and development education are examples of ―adjectival education‖. While they may tell us something about what these types of education are like, they do not tell us what they are for. Educating for global citizenship is powerful because it shifts attention aware from the activity and process, to the purpose, outcome and result.
Teaching about v. teaching for global citizenship Educating for global citizenship, with its constellation of characteristics, is not the same as teaching about global issues. We can teach about global issues using the head only. They are an assemblage of facts, opinions and ideas. We need to use the heart and hands as well as the head.
The self & the otherI have been helped hugely by one sentence from Howard Gardner, who said that the whole purpose of human development is ‗a decline in egocentricity‘.
The self & the otherThis idea is powerful to me because it involves both an increasing sense of the sharing and creating communitywith others rather than trying to build community aroundourselves and suggests a continuing process rather than a goal that can be ‗achieved‘.
The self & the otherWe need to put as much work into defining what a ‗declining sense of egocentricism‘ might look like when children are five, seven, nine and 11 years old; this is where its roots are laid down. Martin Skelton
Understanding our own cultureAll learners, adults and children, must explore their owncultures before they can understand why culture matters in the lives of others. Internationalism does not begin with considering other points of view, but rather with the realization that individuals have their own views of the world that are largely determined by their own cultural identities. Kathy Short
Understanding our own cultureA description at the IB website states that their programs are unique because ―we encourage international-mindedness in IB students. To do this, we believe that students must first develop an understanding of their own culture and national identity‖ (International Baccalaureate Organization, 2012).
Understanding our own culture Students, teachers, and leaders experiencing an IB curriculum must understand and appreciate their owncultures and personal histories while remaining open to theperspectives, values, and traditions of other individuals and communities. Carol Van Vooren& Delores B. Lindsey (2012). Journal of Transformative Leadership and Policy Studies Vol. 2 No. 1, August 2012 http://edweb.csus.edu/edd/jtlps/volume/2/1/jtlps2.1.vooren-lindsey.pdf
Understanding our own cultureThe framework for global competence articulates two core capacities at the heart of intercultural sophistication: the capacity to recognize perspectives (others‘ and one‘s own) and the capacity to communicate ideas effectively across diverse audiences.
Understanding our own cultureIt stipulates, for example, that globally competent individuals can examine and explain their own worldviews and cultural traditions, recognizing how these influence their choices and interactions in everyday life. Mansilla& Jackson
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to be aware of the wider world and have a sense of their own role as a world citizen; respect and values diversity; have a deeper understanding of how the world works; be outraged by social injustice; participate in the community at a range of levels, from the local to the global; to be willing to act to make the world a more equitable and sustainable place; and to take responsibility for their actions?
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to ask questions and develop critical thinking skills; develop knowledge, skills and values to participate as active citizens; acknowledge the complexity of global issues; view the global as part of everyday local life, whether in a small village or a large city; understand how we relate to the environment and to each other as human beings?
Personalizing definitions/features What have I done today to ensure my lessons are cooperative rather than competitive; provide opportunities for taking further action; connect global with local; examine roots causes; examine the historical context of a situation? examine power issues; are participatory and experimental and address various learning styles; address the whole student (intellectual, social, psychological, spiritual) and connect with his or her experience; and include a futures orientation?
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to investigate the world weigh perspectives communicate ideas take action
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to investigate the world
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to investigate the world by initiating investigations by framing questions, analyzing and synthesizing relevant evidence, and drawing reasonable conclusions about globally-focused issues; identifying an issue, generating a question, and explaining the significance of locally, regionally, or globally focused researchable questions; using a variety of languages and domestic and international sources and to identify and weigh relevant evidence to address a globally significant researchable question; analyzing, integrating, and synthesizing evidence collected to construct coherent responses to globally significant researchable questions; and developing an argument based on compelling evidence that considers multiple perspectives and draws defensible conclusions?
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to weigh perspectives
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to weigh perspectives by recognizing, articulating, and applying an understanding of different perspectives (including their own); recognizing and expressing their own perspective on situations, events, issues, or phenomena and identify the influences on that perspective; examining perspectives of other people, groups, or schools of thought and identify the influences on those perspectives; explaining how cultural interactions influence situations, events, issues, or phenomena, including the development of knowledge; and articulating how differential access to knowledge, technology, and resources affects quality of life and perspectives?
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to communicate ideas
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to communicate ideas by selecting and applying appropriate tools and strategies to communicate and collaborate effectively, meeting the needs and expectations of diverse individuals and groups; recognizing and expressing how diverse audiences may perceive different meanings from the same information and how that affects communication; listening to and communicating effectively with diverse people, using appropriate verbal and nonverbal behavior, languages, and strategies; selecting and using appropriate technology and media to communicate with diverse audiences; and reflecting on how effective communication affects understanding and collaboration in an interdependent world?
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to take action
Personalizing definitions/features What can I do today to help my students to take action by translating their ideas, concerns, and findings into appropriate and responsible individual or collaborative actions to improve conditions; identifying and creating opportunities for personal or collaborative action to address situations, events, issues, or phenomena in ways that improve conditions; assessing options and planning actions based on evidence and the potential for impact, taking into account previous approaches, varied perspectives, and potential consequences; acting, personally or collaboratively, in creative and ethical ways to contribute to improvement locally, regionally, or globally and assess the impact of the actions taken; and reflecting on their capacity to advocate for and contribute to improvement locally, regionally, or globally?
Final thoughtsJacques Delors, UNESCO Ian Hill, IBO
Final thoughts Jacques Delors, UNESCO Ian Hill, IBOHoward Gardner, Harvard Project Zero
Jacques Delors, UNESCO. . . we have to confront, the better to overcome them, the main tensions that, although they are not new, will be the necessary central to the problems of the twenty-first century, namely . . (refer to handout)Jacques Delors, Chairman of the Commission; former President of the European Commission (1985–95); former French Minister of Economy and Finance. http://www.unesco.org/delors/delors_e.pdf
Ian Hill, IBO Deputy Director Consider a state school of homogeneous nationality (which does not necessarily mean of the same culture) in any country . . . (refer to handout) Dr. Ian Hill, IBO Deputy Director General and Chief Officer, Education Innovation Officehttp://mindshiftseducationalconsultants.wikispaces.com/file/view/Internationall y+minded+schools.pdf
Howard Gardner, Harvard Project ZeroWhat is needed more than ever is a laser-like focus on thekinds of human beings that we are raising and the kinds of societies—indeed, in a global era, the kind of world society— that we are fashioning.
Howard Gardner, Harvard Project ZeroMost young people want to ―do good‖—they want to do theright thing. But the models they see about them often carry out work that is ridden with compromises and practice citizenship in irresponsible ways.
Howard Gardner, Harvard Project ZeroAs educators, we must model these positive virtues ourselves; we must explain the reasons why we do what we do and why we do not endorse other, perhaps tempting, alternatives; we must be willing to confront examples of bad work and bad citizenship, whether they occur among 20-year-olds or 60-year-olds, in history, literature, and our hometown;
Howard Gardner, Harvard Project Zeroand we must help young people develop their own ethical compasses, which they can and should use in conjunction with their mentors and their peers.Howard Gardner, John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education http://asiasociety.org/files/book-globalcompetence.pdf (p. xi)