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  • 1. THE CHEMISTRY OF ALLERGY BY BRANDON
  • 2. What is an allergy? An allergy is your immune system’s reactions to certain plants, animals, foods or other things. The immune system protects people from disease by fighting germs. But when people have allergies, their immune system overreacts to an allergen. This causes an allergic reaction or symptoms.
  • 3. What causes allergies? Indoor – dust mites, mold, mildew Outdoor – grass, flower and tree pollen Food(biochemical protein) – milk, wheat, soy, eggs, nuts Chemicals – cosmetics, cleaners, fragrance in soap, shampoo Latex
  • 4. The chemistry of AllergyAn allergen is some type chemicals in food , pollen,dust and many other things that cause allergicreactions and symptoms.When an allergen enters the body, the white bloodcells responds and produces chemicals calledIgE(immunoglobulin E) antibodies. While theantibodies circulates in the blood, they meetanother type of white blood cell called the mastcells. The antibodies sticks on the mast cell. Whenallergen comes into the body next time, theallergen interacts with the IgE antibodies. Thisinteraction makes the mast cell release histamineand other chemicals. These chemicals circulate inthe blood and cause allergic symptoms.
  • 5. Allergy symptoms•Itchy watery eyes•Skin rash•Running or stuffy nose•Swelling of lips or tongue•Diarrhea, abdomen cramps•Vomiting•Sneezing•Difficult breathing
  • 6. Why do some people haveallergies and some peopledon’t? People who do not have allergy reactions respond weakly or not at all to allergens. At the chemical level in the body, their immune system produce mainly antibodies called immunoglobulin G (lgG) in response to these allergens. Otherwise people who have allergies produce large amounts of immunoglobulin E (lgE) respond to allergens.
  • 7. Why do some people haveallergies and some peopledon’t? - Continued If one parent has an allergy, Allergy by genes children have a 30% of chance of developing allergies , if two parents have, a 70% of chance to One develop allergies. parent But it remains mysterious about Two just what causes allergies to parents develop.
  • 8. How are allergies treated andwhat is the chemistry? Nothing can cure allergies. Treatments for allergies can only relieve the symptoms of allergies. But allergic symptoms don’t always need treatment unless it is severe or chronic.
  • 9. Treatments continuedAntihistaminesWhen your body is in contact with an allergen, your body produces a chemicalcalled histamine which causes symptoms.Antihistamines reduces or blocks the histamine from coming out from the mastcells to stop the symptom.DecongestantsWhen the blood vessels and tissues get swollen by an allergen, it clogs your nose soa decongestant shrinks the swollen blood vessels and tissue.SingulairSingulair is a drug that is used for relieving allergy symptoms and prevents asthma.It works by stopping a chemical called leukotriene which causes nasal passages toswell and make a lot of mucus.
  • 10. Treatments continuedMast cell inhibitorsThis drug prevents the release of histamine and other chemicals that cause allergicsymptoms from mast cells when an individual comes into contact with an allergen likepollen.Allergy ShotsAllergy shots help your body to get used to allergic reactions. A small amount of allergenwill be injected into the body. This will help the body become less sensitive by regularlyexposing it to the substances that cause the allergic reaction. But not for people allergic tofoods.DehumidifierUse a dehumidifier if you have allergies or asthma and you will live in a humid climate orhave signs of moisture in your home.
  • 11. Prevention1. Stay indoors when the pollens count is at it’s highest.2. Read and check food labels before eating.3. Keep windows and doors closed during a heavy pollination season.4. Don’t allow dander- producing animals in the house.5. Change feather pillows, woolen blankets and clothing to cotton.6. Remove carpets.7. Use air filters.8. Use a dehumidifier.
  • 12. How do I know if I have allergies?People often mistake cold symptoms for allergysymptoms, as they can be quite similar-stuffy nose,itchy eyes, sneezing and scratchy throat.Many allergy symptoms can appear suddenly afterexposure to an allergen. While it takes a few days tofeel the symptoms of a cold.And symptoms of an allergy are not accompanied byfever or body pains.
  • 13. Questions?