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South america ppt ch 9 10
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South america ppt ch 9 10


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  • 1. Caribbean and Atlantic South America
    South America
  • 2. Caribbean South America
    Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana make up the region
  • 3. Caribbean South America
    The Orinoco River is the main river in the region
  • 4. Physical features include the Orinoco River, Guiana Highlands, Andes Mountains, and the Llanos- area of grassy plains between the Andes and the Guiana Highlands
    Caribbean South America
  • 5. The first people to live in Colombia were the Chibcha
    The Chibchalived in Colombia over 1500 years ago
    They were very rich in gold. The Chibcha would cover their rulers in gold dust
    The were conquered by the Spanish around the year 1500
    Caribbean South America-Colombia
  • 6. The Spanish controlled this area from the year 1500 to the late 1700s
    They established the colonial city of Cartagena-was a major naval base and port
    In the late 1700s, Independence from Spain was achieved
    Caribbean South America- Colombia
  • 7. After independence, the republic of Gran Colombia was created. Gran Colombia was made up of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.
    In 1830, the republic dissolved, and New Granada, Which included Colombia and Panama was created
    Caribbean South America-Colombia
  • 8. Caribbean South America
    Bogota is the national capital of Colombia.
    The city is located in the Eastern Andes
  • 9. Most Colombians live in fertile valleys and river basins among the mountain ranges, where the climate is moderate and good for farming.
    The main religion is Roman Catholic
    The Official Language is Spanish
    58% of Colombians are Mestizo. Other ethnic groups include Spanish, African, and Indian descent
    Caribbean South America- Colombia
  • 10. Colombia is known for exporting its world famous coffee
    Other major export crops include bananas, sugarcane, flowers, and cotton
    Recently, oil has become Colombia’s major export
    Caribbean South America- Colombia
  • 11. Civil War has been a problem in Colombia over the past 40 years.
    One of these groups is an army of guerrillas- members of an irregular military force
    Guerrillas have forced farmers off their plantations in order to grow the illegal coca plant- used to make the illegal drug- cocaine
    Colombia has passed laws and receives foreign aid from the U.S. in order to make it harder for these groups to operate freely
    Caribbean South America-Colombia
  • 12. Venezuela
  • 13. Venezuela was originally home to many small tribes of Indians but they were later conquered and enslaved by the Spanish
    The Spanish originally searched for gold but couldn’t find any so they later resorted to agriculture and grew indigo- a plant used to make blue dye
    They first used captured Indians to farm the land and later used enslaved Africans
    Caribbean South America-Venezuela
  • 14. Simon Bolivar led the fight against Spain for independence. He is known as a hero in many South American countries. (Bolivia is named after him)
    Venezuela won its independence from Spain in 1821 but not officially until 1830. Many dictatorships and civil wars followed.
    Oil was discovered in Venezuela in the 1900s but some leaders kept all the oil money for themselves
    Caribbean South America-Venezuela
  • 15. The people of Venezuela are decedents of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. Most are Mestizo
    Most Venezuelans are Spanish speaking and Roman Catholic, but the country’s Indians speak 25 different languages and follow ancient regions
    Venezuelan culture include dancing and sports. Joropo – is a famous Venezuelan foot stomping dance
    Caribbean South America-Venezuela
  • 16. Most Venezuelans earn a living by farming and ranching
    Llaneros are Venezuelan Cowboys
    Most wealthy Venezuelans earn a living in the Oil business
    Venezuela is a member of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Country)
    Caracas is Venezuela’s capital and economic/cultural center
    Caribbean South America-Venezuela
  • 17. After years of suffering under military dictatorship, the people of Venezuela elected its first president in 1959.
    In 2002, President Hugo Chavez evenly distributed the country’s oil wealth. (Before this, only a select few had benefited from the countries oil wealth)
    Caribbean South America-Venezuela
  • 18. The countries of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are together known as the Guianas. Dense rainforest covers most of the region
    Guyana-means land of water. 1/3 of people in the capital city of Georgetown. About ½ the people are descendents of people who came from India
    Suriname-Capital is Paramaribo-home to nearly half the population
    French Guiana-territory of France. Have representation in the French Gov. 2/3 of people are of African Descent
    Caribbean South America-The Guianas
  • 19. Atlantic South America-Brazil
    The region of Atlantic South America is made up of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay
  • 20. Brazil is the largest country in South America. Its population is more than 188 million-larger than all other South American countries combined
  • 21. The first group of people to inhabit Brazil were the Indians
  • 22. Atlantic South America: Brazil
    • In 1500, Portuguese explorers arrived. Soon settlers from Portugal arrived and established a large sugar growing colony. The colonists brought African slaves to work the plantations
  • Brazil gained independence from Portugal without a fight in the year 1822
    Despite once being ruled by dictatorships and elected officials at other times, Brazil has a democracy today.
    Nearly 50% all Brazilians are of European descent. 40% of the people are of mixed African and European descent
    Brazil’s official language is Portuguese. 75% of Brazilians are Roman Catholic.
    Atlantic South America-Brazil
  • 23. Atlantic South America-Brazil
    Carnival- celebrated before the Christian season of Lent. It mixes African, European, and Brazilian traditions. During Carnival, Brazilians dance the Samba-which is a form of an African dance
  • 24. Brazil can be broken up into the following regions:
    1. The Southeast
    2. The Northeast
    3. The Interior
    4. The Amazon
    Atlantic South America
  • 25. Atlantic South America: Brazil
    Southeast Brazil- most Brazilians live in this region. It is also the richest region.
    However, large cities have huge slums called - favelas
  • 26. Sao Paulo- South America and Brazil’s largest city Home to 17 million people. Considered a megacity-giant urban area that includes surrounding cities and suburbs
    Atlantic South America-Brazil
  • 27. Rio de Janeiro – 2nd largest city in Brazil
    Major port city. Home to 11 million city. Formal capital until 1960
  • 28. Atlantic South America-Brazil
    Northeast Brazil-poorest region of Brazil because it suffers from drought and has a lack of industry.
    This region has many colonial cities and beautiful beaches which attracts tourists
  • 29. Atlantic South America-Brazil
    The Interior
    Known as Brazil’s frontier land.
    Brazilia- the country’s capital is located in this region
  • 30. Atlantic South America!
    The Amazon-covers the northern part of Brazil
    Horned Frog
  • 31. Atlantic South America-Brazil
    Manaus-is a major port and industrial center- population 1 million
    Isolated Indian villages are scattered throughout the region
  • 32. Originally home to Indians until the Spanish arrived in the 1500s looking for gold and silver. The named the region Argentina meaning “land of silver” or “Silvery One”
    In the early 1800s, Argentina fought for independence from Spain. Violence and instability followed.
    Atlantic South America- Argentina
  • 33. The Pampas
    • became an important agricultural region. Argentine cowboys, or Gauchos, herd cattle and horses on the grasslands
  • Argentine Gaucho in 1868
  • 34. Argentine Gauchos of Today
  • 35. BEEF!
    Beef exports made the country rich although it was ruled by many dictators.
  • 36. Eva Peron- AKA Evita- was a very popular leader who helped improve the living conditions of the people in Argentina. She died of cancer at the age of 33
    Atlantic South America-Argentina
  • 37. Today most Argentines are descended from the Spanish
    Most speak Spanish and are Roman Catholic
    Atlantic South America - Argentina
  • 38. Buenos Aires is the county’s biggest city and national capital
    Atlantic South America - Argentina
  • 39. Most farming is still done in the Pampas region
    Argentina joined Mercosur in the 1990s- an organization that promotes trade with southern and eastern countries of South America
    Atlantic South America-Argentina
  • 40. The capital of Uruguay is Montevideo-located on the north shore of the Rio de la Plata
    Atlantic South America- Uruguay
  • 41. Once claimed by Portuguese in the colonial period and later taken over by the Spanish in the 1770s, many people speak Portuguese and Spanish.
    Spanish is the official language and Roman Catholic is the main religion.
    Atlantic South America - Uruguay
  • 42. Paraguay is a landlocked country- means it is completely surrounded by land
    Atlantic South America-Paraguay
  • 43. Since Paraguay was won its independence in 1811, it was ruled off and on by dictators until 1989. Since then, Paraguay has had a democracy
    95% of Paraguayans are Mestizos
    Paraguay has two official languages: Spanish and Guarani
    Atlantic South America - Paraguay
  • 44. Asuncion is the country’s capital
    Most people are Roman Catholic
    Few rich families share most of the country’s wealth
    ½ of the country’s worker’s are farmers
    Atlantic South America-Paraguay