• How Nutrition Affects Quality of Life

By Diane G Fager, LRD
admin@grovemenus.com
208-528-0690
What Are the Right Ingredients
In a Great Menu?
Aging is Experienced by Everyone
Factors in Aging
In your Control:
•Weight
•What you eat
•Exercise
•Smoking

Not in your C...
Adult Disease Statistics
How are these diseases affected by diet?
How do these disease affect functional status?
1.
2.
3.
...
Functional Status
Ability to do activities of daily living. Basic activities include:
Personal hygiene
and grooming

Bowel...
Functional Status and Quality of Life
Caloric and Nutrient Intake
As we age, does our need for
calories increase or decrease?

As we age, does our nutrient
need...
Lipids
• Three kinds of fats are part of the lipid group
– Saturated Fats
• Trans Fats

– Monounsaturated Fats
– Polyunsat...
Saturated Fats
• Fats that have no double bonds
• Are solid at room temperature
• Contribute significantly to heart diseas...
Monounsaturated Fats
• Fats that contain one double bond.
• Sources are:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

olive oil
canola oil
peanut oil
pe...
Polyunsaturated Fats
• Fats that contain two or more double bonds
• Sources are:
– vegetable oils
•
•
•
•

corn
safflower
...
Cholesterol
• Another kind of lipid found in the body
• Is closely linked with heart disease because it
collects on the wa...
Lean Proteins
Fatty Proteins
Carbohydrates

Foe?

Friend?
or
There’s Been A Misunderstanding…

…all carbohydrates are not bad for you
Foe
Friend
Functional Foods
• Foods that provide health benefits
beyond basic nutrition. They have
identified benefit in disease
prev...
Functional Foods
So What Are “Carbs”?
• Organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen
• The bodies most important source o...
Complex Carbohydrates
Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides
Refined Carbohydrates
Whole plants stripped of the germ and/or bran from the
grain leaving highly digestible and easily pr...
Glycemic Index (GI)
Is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates (CHO) on blood sugar levels

• CHO that break down
quickl...
How do you figure GI?
The glycemic index of a food is defined as the
area under the two-hour blood glucose
response curve ...
GI Classifications

2.5 g fiber, which is considered a good source, will lower glycemic index

5 g fiber is an excellent s...
Limitations of GI
• GI doesn’t account for what is eaten with other foods –
protein offsets quick elevations
• GI is signi...
Fiber
Soluble Fibers
• Regulate colonic transit
time
• Increase:
– Satiety
– Fecal bulk
– Frequency of BM

• Decreases
– G...
Soluble Fibers
Food Sources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Green beans
Carrots
Bananas
Oranges
Apples
Citrus Fruits
Berries
Oatmeal
...
Insoluble Fibers
Food Sources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Wheat bran
Whole wheat and rye
Apple peeling
Pear
Cabbage family
Fr...
Health Benefits of Whole Grain
• Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
• Protection from Insulin Insensitivity/Resistance...
Major Types of Whole Grain
• Corn – Ground; dried cornmeal
• Barley- Whole Grain Form – Hulled. Refined
Form - Pearled
• O...
What About Pasta?
• Pasta is not a naturally occurring grain but can
be made from whole grains. However, most
pasta on gro...
Whole Grains and Cereals

At least half of all grains should be whole grains
Fruits and Vegetables
Antioxidants

Phytochemicals
Properly Packaged
• 200 epidemiological studies demonstrate a 50% lower cancer risk.
• Antioxidants & Phytochemicals are c...
Fruits and Vegetables
• Phytochemicals
• Antioxidants
• Serve 5 fruits/vegetables daily
Antioxidants
• Title: A.C.E. Selenium

• Job Description:
The Body’s Bouncer
Antioxidants
• Free radicals are unstable
molecules which are short one
electron and it needs one more
electron to become ...
Oxidative Stress
• Is the imbalance between free radicals and
antioxidants .
– Stimulation of immune system due to infecti...
Phytochemicals Are Unique

• Phytochemicals are not necessary for growth,
development, maintenance or repair – they
protec...
Phytochemical Categories
Phytochemicals are organized according to their protective
physical, and chemical properties. Som...
Rainbow of Colors
Phytochemicals are widely found in the rainbow of colors:
•Red
•Orange and Yellow
•Green
•Blue and Purpl...
The More the Merrier
• Sneak vegetables into:
– Recipes
– Entrees
– Snacks
– Ask for two times the
serving when eating out...
Colorful Beans
• Just like with fruits and vegetables, you want a
variety of colors.
• Beans contain the most fiber of all...
Legumes
• Just like with fruits and vegetables, you want a
variety of colors.
• Beans contain the most fiber of all.
• ½ c...
The Right Balance
20-30% Fat
For A 2000 Calorie Diet
900 – 1300 calories
Carbohydrates

300 – 500 calories Protein
400 – 600 calories Fat
Application
Go Functional For All the Right
Ingredients
All the right ingredients
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All the right ingredients

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This presentation gives the ins and outs of what comprises a healthy menu for seniors and how this impacts the quality of life.

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  • Menus that improve the residents quality of lifeMenus that control costsMenus that meet state regulations
  • lean beef and pork cuts, chicken without skin, seafood, nonfat milk and yogurt, low fat cheese (mozzarella)
  • ideas: pictures of fatty beef and pork cuts, sausage, bacon, salami, hot dog, pepperoni, cheese, breaded chicken, seafood, any things fried, breaded, Vit D milk
  • 2. Friend or Foe
  • 4. FoePictures of cake, soda pop, ooey gooey sweet items, and refine bread, rice, and so forth
  • 3. Friend not only your friend, but absolutely essential too your health and well beingScatter pictures of functions foods, use individual pictures of things like oatmeal, whole grain bread, brown rice, specific fruits, specific vegetables – you can use pictures you already have
  • 7. Fruits and Vegetables slide – pictures of fruits and vegetables a. add to that picture - bullet points antioxidants and phytochemicals
  • 9. Packaged just rights amounts 200 epidemiological studies demonstrate a 50% lower cancer riskAntioxidant, PhytochemicalsTheir modes of action are complementary and synergistic in stimulating the immune system, antibacterial and antiviral activity, detoxification enzymes, decreasing plately aggregation, reducing blood pressure, altering cholesterol metabolism -  to name a few
  • 15. Antioxidants – Vitamins A, C, E, and Mineral Selenium – a picture of ACE Selenium again, your body’s bouncer
  • 12. Antioxidants – picture of antioxidant neutralizing a free radical - Free radicals are unstable moleculeswhich are short one electron and it needs one more electron to become stable. The body tries to borrow one from a stable molecule, so the previously stable molecule is now a free radical this chain reaction continues untilbroken by an antioxidant. Take out other bullet point on this slide, I’m going to restate it differently.
  • 14. Antioxidants – oxidative stress Oxidative stress - imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants   *increased need1. Stimulation of immune system due to infection or disease2. Exposure to Exogenous ROS* inadequate supply1. Low or inadequate dietary intake for an extended period of time
  • 20. Phytochemicals – are unique because they are not necessary for growth, development, maintenance or repair – they protect against disease; F&V are excellent sources of phytochemicals and antioxidants and appear to have a synergistic effect
  • 21. Phytochemical Categories
  • 35. Sneak in vegetables into recipes, entrees, snacks, personally when eating out, ask for 2 times the vegetables. Melanie – any ideas you have here woul be good
  • 34. Legumes - just like F&V you want a variety of colorsMore fiber in beans than anything else, it decreases chol, blood pressure (K, MG), and stabilizes blood sugars, lose weight (satiety), ½ c beans daily will decress chol 5 to 10 % in 6 weeks have Zn Mn, Cu , K Mg, B VitaminesGround bean powderTry different kinds of beans like lentils, black bean, lima, butter beans, navy beans, bean dip
  • 35. Can you find pictures of good meals that use ¾ the plate with colorful vegetables, fruits, and starches and then 1/4th the plate lean meat (pork, fish, chicken, lean beef) or soups, fun breakfasts, whole grain sandwiches with veggies and fruit. Look for color and pictures that apply the principles.
  • 36. Go functional! Carbs can be good for you and are essential to good health.
  • All the right ingredients

    1. 1. • How Nutrition Affects Quality of Life By Diane G Fager, LRD admin@grovemenus.com 208-528-0690
    2. 2. What Are the Right Ingredients In a Great Menu?
    3. 3. Aging is Experienced by Everyone Factors in Aging In your Control: •Weight •What you eat •Exercise •Smoking Not in your Control: •Disease •Food Supply •Disasters •Environment
    4. 4. Adult Disease Statistics How are these diseases affected by diet? How do these disease affect functional status? 1. 2. 3. 4. 598,607 died from Diseases of the Heart. 568,668 died from Malignant Neoplasms (cancer) 128,603 died from Cerebrovascular Diseases (stroke) – Diabetes Mellitus – 68,504. 1 in 13 people has diabetes (1 in 4 pre-diabetes) Every 10 seconds a person dies from diabetes-related causes 5. 34 % Americans have high blood pressure, 36% prehypertension **1&2 account for 48% of all deaths** Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2009 by Kenneth D. Kochanek, M.A.; Jiaquan Xu, M.D.; Sherry L. Murphy, B.S.; Arialdi M. Miniño M.P.H.; and Hsiang-Ching Kung, Ph.D., Division of Vital Statistics March 16, 2011
    5. 5. Functional Status Ability to do activities of daily living. Basic activities include: Personal hygiene and grooming Bowel and bladder management Self feeding Functional transfers: getting from bed to wheel chair, getting onto or off of toilet, etc. Dressing and undressing Ambulation: walking without use of an assistive device (walker, cane, or crutches) or using a wheelchair
    6. 6. Functional Status and Quality of Life
    7. 7. Caloric and Nutrient Intake As we age, does our need for calories increase or decrease? As we age, does our nutrient need increase or decrease? • An average sized elderly male needs 600 calories less than in his prime. • An average sized elderly woman needs 300 calories less than in her prime. • Nutrient need stays the same. • Because our calorie need decreases as we age, but our nutrient needs to not, nutrient dense food becomes essential to maintain functional status.
    8. 8. Lipids • Three kinds of fats are part of the lipid group – Saturated Fats • Trans Fats – Monounsaturated Fats – Polyunsaturated Fats
    9. 9. Saturated Fats • Fats that have no double bonds • Are solid at room temperature • Contribute significantly to heart disease and other health problems • Sources are: – Coconut and Palm Oil – Animal products • Meats • Poultry • Dairy Products Trans Fats – are manufactured or hydrogenated fats. These are fats changed from liquid to solid by adding hydrogen atoms
    10. 10. Monounsaturated Fats • Fats that contain one double bond. • Sources are: – – – – – – – olive oil canola oil peanut oil peanuts pecans almonds avocados • MUFA actually lower the amount of cholesterol in the body. However too much fat of any kind is bad for the health.
    11. 11. Polyunsaturated Fats • Fats that contain two or more double bonds • Sources are: – vegetable oils • • • • corn safflower sunflower cottonseed
    12. 12. Cholesterol • Another kind of lipid found in the body • Is closely linked with heart disease because it collects on the walls of the arteries and blocks flow of the blood to the heart Only found in animal products butterfat, egg yolks, organ meats (liver and brain)
    13. 13. Lean Proteins
    14. 14. Fatty Proteins
    15. 15. Carbohydrates Foe? Friend? or
    16. 16. There’s Been A Misunderstanding… …all carbohydrates are not bad for you
    17. 17. Foe
    18. 18. Friend
    19. 19. Functional Foods • Foods that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. They have identified benefit in disease prevention, reduced risk of disease, and possibly in treating diseases.
    20. 20. Functional Foods
    21. 21. So What Are “Carbs”? • Organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • The bodies most important source of energy Simple Carbohydrates: Glucose & Fructose
    22. 22. Complex Carbohydrates Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides
    23. 23. Refined Carbohydrates Whole plants stripped of the germ and/or bran from the grain leaving highly digestible and easily preserved starch or sugar Endosperm Endosperm Bran Germ Whole Grain “White” Grain
    24. 24. Glycemic Index (GI) Is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates (CHO) on blood sugar levels • CHO that break down quickly during digestions and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI • CHO that break down slowly with a gradual glucose release have a low GI
    25. 25. How do you figure GI? The glycemic index of a food is defined as the area under the two-hour blood glucose response curve following after eating a 50 gram portion of a “carbohydrate” food.
    26. 26. GI Classifications 2.5 g fiber, which is considered a good source, will lower glycemic index 5 g fiber is an excellent source, and will lower GI even more Higher Fiber = Lower GI
    27. 27. Limitations of GI • GI doesn’t account for what is eaten with other foods – protein offsets quick elevations • GI is significantly altered by the type of food, ripeness, processing, storage length, cooking methods, and variety. Example – potatoes • Glycemic response different from one person to another, and even in the same person from day to day • Most values on the GI do not show the impact of glucose levels after two hours • Glycemic response is strongly influenced by the composition of the previous meal and when it was consumed
    28. 28. Fiber Soluble Fibers • Regulate colonic transit time • Increase: – Satiety – Fecal bulk – Frequency of BM • Decreases – Gastric emptying – Glucose absorption from small intestine – Postprandial glucose level Insoluble Fibers • Regulate colonic transit time • Binds minerals • Increase: – Fecal bulk – Frequency of BM
    29. 29. Soluble Fibers Food Sources • • • • • • • • • • Green beans Carrots Bananas Oranges Apples Citrus Fruits Berries Oatmeal Legumes/dried beans Vegetable gums Health Benefits • Promotes healthy gut environment • Decreases: – – – – Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Risk of Diabetes Risk of Obesity Cholesterol
    30. 30. Insoluble Fibers Food Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • Wheat bran Whole wheat and rye Apple peeling Pear Cabbage family Fresh tomatoes Root veggies Whole grain cereals Potatoes Strawberries Peaches Plums Health Benefits • Decreases: – – – – Constipation Diverticular disease Hemorrhoids Hiatal hernia
    31. 31. Health Benefits of Whole Grain • Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease • Protection from Insulin Insensitivity/Resistance and Diabetes • Body Weight Regulation – – increased satiety – delays how quickly the stomach empties • Reduced Cancer Risk
    32. 32. Major Types of Whole Grain • Corn – Ground; dried cornmeal • Barley- Whole Grain Form – Hulled. Refined Form - Pearled • Oats – Contain Soluble and Insoluble Fiber. • Rye • Rice • Wheat
    33. 33. What About Pasta? • Pasta is not a naturally occurring grain but can be made from whole grains. However, most pasta on grocery store shelves is made from Semolina flour, which is made from refined wheat grains. Thus it is not whole grain. ?? ??
    34. 34. Whole Grains and Cereals At least half of all grains should be whole grains
    35. 35. Fruits and Vegetables Antioxidants Phytochemicals
    36. 36. Properly Packaged • 200 epidemiological studies demonstrate a 50% lower cancer risk. • Antioxidants & Phytochemicals are complementary and synergistic in: – – – – – – – Stimulating the immune system Antibacterial and antiviral activity Detoxification Enzymes Decreasing platelet aggregation Reducing blood pressure Altering cholesterol metabolism
    37. 37. Fruits and Vegetables • Phytochemicals • Antioxidants • Serve 5 fruits/vegetables daily
    38. 38. Antioxidants • Title: A.C.E. Selenium • Job Description: The Body’s Bouncer
    39. 39. Antioxidants • Free radicals are unstable molecules which are short one electron and it needs one more electron to become stable. The body tries to borrow one from a stable molecule, so the previously stable molecule is now a free radical - this chain reaction continues until broken by an antioxidant.
    40. 40. Oxidative Stress • Is the imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants . – Stimulation of immune system due to infection or disease. – Exposure to Exogenous ROS • Inadequate Supply – Low or inadequate dietary intake for an extended period of time. Oxidative Stress
    41. 41. Phytochemicals Are Unique • Phytochemicals are not necessary for growth, development, maintenance or repair – they protect against disease. • Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of phytochemicals and antioxidants and appear to have a synergistic effect.
    42. 42. Phytochemical Categories Phytochemicals are organized according to their protective physical, and chemical properties. Sometimes that groups them by color. •Terpenoids •Organosulfurs •Polyphenols
    43. 43. Rainbow of Colors Phytochemicals are widely found in the rainbow of colors: •Red •Orange and Yellow •Green •Blue and Purple
    44. 44. The More the Merrier • Sneak vegetables into: – Recipes – Entrees – Snacks – Ask for two times the serving when eating out “You are what you eat!”
    45. 45. Colorful Beans • Just like with fruits and vegetables, you want a variety of colors. • Beans contain the most fiber of all. • ½ c beans daily will decrease cholesterol 5-10% in 6 weeks. • Beans: – – – – Decrease cholesterol Decrease blood pressure Stabilizes blood sugars Helps weight loss (satiety)
    46. 46. Legumes • Just like with fruits and vegetables, you want a variety of colors. • Beans contain the most fiber of all. • ½ c beans daily will decrease cholesterol 5-10% in 6 weeks. • Beans: – – – – Decrease cholesterol Decrease blood pressure Stabilizes blood sugars Helps weight loss (satiety)
    47. 47. The Right Balance 20-30% Fat
    48. 48. For A 2000 Calorie Diet 900 – 1300 calories Carbohydrates 300 – 500 calories Protein 400 – 600 calories Fat
    49. 49. Application
    50. 50. Go Functional For All the Right Ingredients
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