As 4822 2008 external field joint coatings for steel pipelines

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  • 1. AS 4822—2008AS 4822—2008 Australian Standard® External field joint coatings for steel pipelines
  • 2. This Australian Standard® was prepared by Committee ME-038, Petroleum Pipelines. It wasapproved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 30 April 2008.This Standard was published on 26 August 2008.The following are represented on Committee ME-038: • API Research and Standards Committee • Australasian Corrosion Association • Australian Chamber of commerce and Industry • Australian Institute of Petroleum • Australian Pipeline Industry Association • Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia • Department of Consumer and Employment Protection (WA) • Department of Mines and Energy (Qld) • Department of Primary Industry, Fisheries and Mines (NT) • Department of Water and Energy (NSW) • Energy Networks Association • Energy Safe Victoria • Gas Association of New Zealand • Primary Industries and Resources SA • Welding Technology Institute of AustraliaThis Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 07367.Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals thatcontributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on theCommittee and through the public comment period.Keeping Standards up-to-dateAustralian Standards® are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology andsystems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editionsare published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they areusing a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have beenpublished since the Standard was published.Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects canbe found by visiting www.standards.org.auStandards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers tonotify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email atmail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001. ]ô[¢hQÆ w.bakent QM•9N}
  • 3. AS 4822—2008Australian Standard®External field joint coatings for steelpipelinesFirst published as AS 4822—2008.COPYRIGHT© Standards AustraliaAll rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or byany means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the writtenpermission of the publisher.Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, AustraliaISBN 0 7337 8870 X
  • 4. AS 4822—2008 2 PREFACE This Standard was prepared by Standards Australia Committee, ME-038, Petroleum Pipelines. The objective of this Standard is to provide manufacturers, suppliers, specifier and users of oil and gas pipelines the application of and testing requirements for external field joint coatings (FJCs) of seamless or welded steel pipelines for onshore steel pipelines. The performance of field joint coatings is a critical part of the corrosion protection of steel pipelines. This Standard makes no appraisal of the relative performance of the coating systems that are covered herein. There should be careful selection of the field joint coating chosen for each application, taking into account its importance in providing satisfactory corrosion protection for the service life under the construction and operating conditions of the pipeline. The terms ‘normative’ and ‘informative’ have been used in this Standard to define the application of the appendix to which they apply. A ‘normative’ appendix is an integral part of a Standard, whereas an ‘informative’ appendix is only for information and guidance. Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to figures and tables are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. All other notes are for information and guidance only. ][¢hQ˘ www.babake.net QM9N}
  • 5. 3 AS 4822—2008 CONTENTS PageSECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 5 1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 5 1.3 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................... 6 1.4 SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATED TERMS............................................................... 7 1.5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................... 7SECTION 2 SELECTION OF FJCs 2.1 GENERAL .................................................................................................................. 9 2.2 TYPES OF FJCs.......................................................................................................... 9SECTION 3 APPLICATOR’S OBLIGATIONS 3.1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (APS)......................................... 10 3.2 COATING MATERIALS .......................................................................................... 10 3.3 PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION TRIAL (PQT) ..................................................... 11 3.4 QUALIFICATION OF COATING AND INSPECTION PERSONNEL.................... 12 3.5 PRE-PRODUCTION TRIAL (PPT) .......................................................................... 12 3.6 PRODUCTION TESTING AND INSPECTION ....................................................... 12 3.7 CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE FOR FJC AND TRACEABILITY ................. 13SECTION 4 SURFACE PREPARATION, APPLICATION, INSPECTION,TESTING,REPAIR AND SAFETY 4.1 SURFACE PREPARATION ..................................................................................... 14 4.2 PRIOR TO THE APPLICATION OF THE COATING ............................................. 15 4.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF THE APPLIED COATING........................................... 15 4.4 TESTING OF THE FJC AND REPAIRS .................................................................. 15 4.5 PRELIMINARY QUALITY INSPECTION .............................................................. 16 4.6 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................. 16SECTION 5 PETROLATUM OR POLYMERIC TAPE COATINGS 5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 17 5.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 17 5.3 SURFACE PREPARATION ..................................................................................... 17 5.4 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 17 5.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS ............................. 19SECTION 6 COATINGS FROM HEAT-SHRINKABLE MATERIALS 6.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 26 6.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 26 6.3 SURFACE PREPARATION ..................................................................................... 26 6.4 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 27 6.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS ............................. 28SECTION 7 FUSION-BONDED EPOXY POWDER (FBE) COATINGS 7.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 32 7.2 STORAGE CONDITIONS ........................................................................................ 32 7.3 CONTAINERS .......................................................................................................... 32 7.4 TRANSPORT OF POWDER..................................................................................... 32 7.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 32
  • 6. AS 4822—2008 4 Page 7.6 SURFACE PREPARATION ..................................................................................... 32 7.7 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 33 7.8 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS ............................. 34 SECTION 8 LIQUID APPLIED COATINGS 8.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 37 8.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 37 8.3 SURFACE PREPARATION ..................................................................................... 37 8.4 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS ...................................................................... 38 8.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS ............................. 38 APPENDICES A PURCHASING GUIDELINES.................................................................................. 42 B MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD ..... 44 C PEEL STRENGTH TEST.......................................................................................... 46 D IMPACT TEST.......................................................................................................... 51 E INDENTATION TEST.............................................................................................. 53 F RESISTANCE OF COATING TO IMMERSION IN HOT WATER......................... 55 G DRIP RESISTANCE OF PETROLATUM TAPES ................................................... 56 H LAP SHEAR STRENGTH ........................................................................................ 57 I PEEL STRENGTH BETWEEN LAYERS ................................................................ 59 J THERMAL AGEING RESISTANCE ....................................................................... 62 K GUIDE TO COMPATABILITY OF COATINGS ..................................................... 65 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................... 67 ][¢hQ˘ www.babake.net QM9N}
  • 7. 5 AS 4822—2008 STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Australian Standard External field joint coatings for steel pipelines SECT ION 1 SCOPE AND GENERA L 1.1 SCOPE This Standard sets minimum requirements for the field joint coating (FJC) of seamless or welded steel onshore pipelines. It specifies the application and testing of the corrosion protection coatings applied to steel surfaces left bare after the pipes and fittings (components) are joined by welding. Field joints and other specific points are coated on- site. NOTES: 1 Information to be supplied at the time of order is given in Appendix A. 2 Means for demonstrating compliance with this Standard are given in Appendix B. 1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. NOTE: Documents referenced for informative purposes are listed in the Bibliography. AS 1145 Determination of tensile properties of plastics materials 1145.3 Part 3: Test conditions for films and sheets 1391 Metallic materials—Tensile testing at ambient temperature 1627 Metal finishing—Preparation and pretreatment of surfaces 1627.2 Part 2: Power tool cleaning 1627.4 Part 4: Abrasive blast cleaning of steel 1627.9 Part 9: Pictorial surface preparation standards for painting steel surfaces 2706 Numerical values—Rounding and interpretation of limiting values 3894 Site testing of protective coatings 3894.1 Part 1: Non-conductive coatings—Continuity testing—High voltage (‘brush’) method 3894.3 Part 3: Determination of dry film thickness 3894.4 Part 4: Assessment of degree of cure 3894.5 Part 5: Determination of surface profile 3894.6 Part 6: Determination of residual contaminants 3894.9 Part 9: Determination of adhesion 4352 Testing for coating resistance to cathodic disbonding AS/NZS 3862 External fusion-bonded epoxy coating for steel pipes ASTM D2240 Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Durometer Hardness ISO 868 Plastics and ebonite—Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore hardness)www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 8. AS 4822—2008 6 SSPC Steel Structures Paint Council SP1 Surface preparation specification no. 1 1.3 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Standard, the terms and definitions below apply. 1.3.1 Application procedure specification (APS) Procedure describing coating materials and all the steps for surface preparation, coating application, inspection and testing, stripping and repair (if allowed) for the application of a FJC. 1.3.2 Applicator Person who undertakes the coating application. 1.3.3 Applicator company Company that undertakes the coating application. 1.3.4 Batch Discrete and continuous manufacturing run using product of the same source. 1.3.5 Batch certificate Certificate issued by the manufacturer. 1.3.6 Bonding agent Material applied as a film to the primed metal surface in order to ensure adhesion of the subsequent protective layer. 1.3.7 Coating defect Any deleterious imperfection in the coating, including disbonded areas, areas of low film thickness and holidays. 1.3.8 Cutback Length of pipe left uncoated at each end for joining purposes (e.g., welding). 1.3.9 Defect See ‘coating defect’. 1.3.10 End user The company operating the pipeline system. 1.3.11 Holiday A discontinuity of protective coating that exposes the steel to the outside environment. 1.3.12 Inspector The person who carries out inspection of materials or phases of coating application. 1.3.13 Manufacturer Company responsible for the manufacture of a coating material. 1.3.14 Maximum operating temperature (T max op) Maximum temperature for which the pipeline system has been designed when handling the specified fluid.© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au ][¢hQ˘ www.babake.net QM9N}
  • 9. 7 AS 4822—2008 1.3.15 Pre-production trial (PPT) Series of tests carried out before start of coating operations, aimed at verifying the conformity of a FJC system, including materials used, surface preparation, application process and equipment, qualification of application and inspection personnel. 1.3.16 Primer Material applied as a film on substrate (metal and/or plant coating) to ensure adhesion of the subsequent protective coating. 1.3.17 Procedure qualification trial (PQT) Coating application and testing activity carried out for the qualification of the FJC system, including materials used, surface preparation, application process, equipment and inspection/testing procedures. NOTE: The PQT qualifies the coating system and application process. The PPT is carried out prior to start of coating operations and includes qualification of application and inspection personnel who would carry out field application process. 1.3.18 Purchaser Company responsible for providing the FJC order requirements. 1.3.19 Quality plan Document specifying which procedures and associated resources are applied by whom and when to a specific project, product, process or contract. 1.4 SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATED TERMS APS application procedure specification DFT dry film thickness DSC differential scanning calorimetry EP liquid applied epoxy FBE fusion-bonded epoxy powder coating FJC field joint coating HSS heat-shrinkable sleeve MSDS material safety data sheet PE polyethylene PPT pre-production trial PQT procedure qualification trial PU liquid applied polyurethane 2LPE two-layer polyethylene coating 3LPE three-layer polyethylene coating ΔT g change in the glass transition temperature between two or more successive thermal analysis scans 1.5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.5.1 Field joint coatings (FJCs) General industry practice is that external pipeline coatings be plant-applied except for field joints and other specific items, which are coated on site.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 10. AS 4822—2008 8 Field joints shall be protected with a coating system that is compatible with the factory- applied pipe coating. The FJC shall provide similar performance to the factory-applied pipe coating and allow satisfactory application under the predicted field conditions. The performance of field joint coatings is a critical part of the corrosion protection of steel pipelines. The field joint coating shall be carefully selected for each application, taking into account its importance in providing satisfactory corrosion protection for the service life under the construction and operating conditions of the pipeline. The FJCs described herein have different performance characteristics. The end user should decide on FJC taking into consideration the factory-applied coating, the desired application and performance characteristics, including resistance to impact, creep, indentation, cathodic disbondment, loss of adhesion, elevated temperature and aging. Rounding of numerical values shall be in accordance with AS 2706. 1.5.2 Specialist applicators Depending upon the type and complexity of FJC, and size of project, the end user should consider the use of specialist FJC applicator companies to ensure consistent quality and production rates. Specialist applicators should be selected based on a verifiable successful record of the same FJC in a similar project environment.© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au ][¢hQ˘ www.babake.net QM9N}
  • 11. 9 AS 4822—2008 S E C T I O N 2 SE L E CT I O N O F FJ Cs 2.1 GENERAL The FJC shall be selected to be— (a) compatible with the factory-applied pipe coating; (b) suitable for service under the operating conditions of the pipeline; (c) suitable for service in the environment in which the pipeline is laid; (d) fit to perform for the anticipated life of the factory-applied coating or the design life of the pipeline, as applicable; and (e) suitable for the intended construction handling and installation technique. Selection of the FJC should be made by, or approved by, the designer or owner of the pipeline. NOTE: Further guidance of selection FJCs is given in Appendix K. 2.2 TYPES OF FJCs The major types of FJC are classified in Table 2.1. TABLE 2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF FJC TYPES Code Section Type of FJC 1A 5 Petrolatum tapes 1B 5 Cold-applied polymeric tapes 2A 6 Heat shrinkable materials, polyethylene based 2B 6 Heat shrinkable materials, polyethylene based, applied over a liquid applied epoxy layer 3A 7 Fusion bonded epoxy powder (monolayer) 3B 7 Two layer fusion bonded epoxy powder 4A 8 Liquid applied epoxy 4B 8 Liquid applied polyurethane 4C 8 Fibre reinforced epoxywww.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 12. AS 4822—2008 10 SECT ION 3 APP L I CAT OR’S OB L I G AT I ONS 3.1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (APS) The applicator company shall submit the method of application, data sheets and MSDS of all coating materials (FJC and coating repair) to be used. Prior to start of application and any agreed PQT and/or PPT (see Clauses 3.3 and 3.5), the applicator shall prepare an APS (that is a compilation of documents related to the project specific control of FJC), including the following: (a) A list of all PPE and detailed safe working procedures. (b) A list of tools, testing and inspection equipment, and coating supplies to be used. (c) Preparation of the steel surface and plant-applied coating, including inspection prior to application (see Clause 4.1). (d) Coating and abrasive blasting material properties (see Clauses 3.2 and 4.1.2.2). (e) Receipt, handling and storage of coating and abrasive blasting materials (see Clauses 3.2 and 4.1.2.2). (f) Coating application procedure. (g) Inspection and testing of applied FJC (see Clause 3.6). (h) Repair and testing of defective FJC. (i) Marking, traceability and documentation. The APS shall cover all items associated with quality control as defined in this Standard and any agreed options for the specific FJC system. The purchaser may specify that the APS be approved prior to the start of production and prior to any agreed PQT and/or PPT. Once approved, the APS shall not be changed by the applicator without prior written authorization of the purchaser and all coating work, testing and inspection shall be carried out according to the APS. The time necessary for the various operations related to surface preparation, heating, coating application and testing shall be defined by the applicator and approved by the purchaser (e.g., during PQT and/or PPT) in order not to delay the pipeline construction operations. 3.2 COATING MATERIALS 3.2.1 Information to be supplied by the manufacturer The applicator company shall obtain the following information from the manufacturer(s): (a) In the case of coatings proposed by the coating applicator company, information that provides evidence of suitability of the proposed coating for the required application. (b) Production test certificates (batch certificates), as specified in this Standard, for the actual coating material, and any agreed optional requirements. (c) Conditions for application of the coating materials (field joint and repair of FJC). (d) Packaging, storage and safety requirements of coating materials. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 13. 11 AS 4822—2008 3.2.2 Marking on shipment of coating materials Marking on each shipment of coating materials shall include, as a minimum, the following information: (a) Manufacturer’s name. (b) Name and complete identification of material, including origin. (c) Reference to applicable coating material standards, if any. (d) Reference to material safety data sheet (MSDS). (e) Production batch number. (f) Weight/size. (g) Date of production. (h) Shelf life. 3.3 PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION TRIAL (PQT) If a PQT is specified by the purchaser it shall be carried out at the applicator’s premises or at any other agreed location, in the presence of the purchaser, if requested. Test methods, frequencies and acceptance criteria shall comply with the sections of this Standard relating to the FJC system, and any agreed optional requirements. The PQT shall be performed in a timely manner so that the PPT can be fully implemented prior to the commencement of construction. NOTE: End user or purchaser and applicator company may also agree to carry out a PQT independent of any specific project. By agreement, this may include use of data from previous or independent testing. The applicator company should request the manufacturer/supplier to assist during the PQT to ensure the correct use of the coating material(s) and to train the applicator’s personnel. The following applies to PQT: (a) The APS to be used shall be submitted to the end user and/or purchaser for approval allowing sufficient time for review prior to conducting the PQT. (b) Qualification tests, for pipe requiring heating as part of the application process, shall be carried out on pipes having the same diameter and the same thickness as that of the actual pipes. Qualification tests for other FJCs shall be carried out on pipes having a similar diameter to that of the actual pipes. (c) Tests shall be carried out on actual joints or test zones distributed along an actual pipe coated with the actual factory-applied coating. The length of the test zones shall be equivalent to the FJC length. (d) A girth cap weld shall be added at the centre of each of the test zones in order to simulate the field weld. (e) All tools and equipment (e.g. for induction heating, abrasive blasting, coating application and inspection) to be used for the PQT of a specific FJC system shall be of the same type as those to be used for the actual FJC. (f) Unless otherwise requested by the purchaser and/or end user, at least three tests shall be conducted. (g) Coating repairs shall be included in the PQT (except if they are not allowed). (h) The method of stripping of defective FJC shall be included in the PQT.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 14. AS 4822—2008 12 (i) The actual coating application time during the PQT shall not significantly exceed the estimated FJC time in the field. (j) The applicator shall submit a complete report of the qualification test results to the purchaser for approval. 3.4 QUALIFICATION OF COATING AND INSPECTION PERSONNEL All coating applicators shall be qualified to undertake the coating application procedure and repair work. The applicator shall be trained, qualified and certified as being competent in the application and repair of the FJC by the manufacturer/supplier. In addition all coating applicators shall have successfully passed the PPT qualification test. Inspectors carrying out the coating inspection shall be similarly trained and qualified. 3.5 PRE-PRODUCTION TRIAL (PPT) The purpose of the PPT is to verify that the following are in compliance with the requirements of this Standard, any project specification and the result of any relevant PQT: (a) The coating system. (b) Materials. (c) Application procedure. (d) Equipment to be used for surface preparation. (e) Application and repair of the coating system. (f) Qualification of the coating applicator and inspectors. Tests and acceptance criteria are specified for the different FJC systems. Recommendations for the PPT for each FJC type are given in the inspection and test plan tables of this Standard. The PPT shall be carried out in presence of the end user and/or purchaser (or their representative) at the start of the operations when equipment and personnel are mobilized on site for the FJC project. All personnel involved in the PQT-PPT shall be those who will undertake the actual FJC. In the event of change of personnel, the PPT shall be carried out again. The PPT shall be performed on the first joints to be coated (or if agreed on a separate pipe) sufficiently in advance so as to not cause problems with the planning of the project. If required by the end user and/or purchaser, a PPT shall be performed at the actual site of FJC application. 3.6 PRODUCTION TESTING AND INSPECTION Inspection and testing during production shall be organized by the applicator in order to verify the requirements of surface preparation, coating application, and the specified properties of the applied FJC. The inspection and testing shall be documented in a quality plan (or ‘inspection and testing plan’) to be approved by the purchaser (and/or end user if required) prior to the start of the coating work and, if applicable, prior to the start of any PQT/PPT. The applicator shall carry out inspection and testing according to an accepted quality plan. Test methods and acceptance criteria shall comply with the FJC system and agreed options as specified in this Standard. Recommendations for production testing are given in the tables for each FJC type in this Standard. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 15. 13 AS 4822—2008 3.7 CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE FOR FJC AND TRACEABILITY The results of PQT, PPT and production testing shall be fully recorded and documented and provided to the purchaser in accordance with Clauses 3.3 and 3.4. If required, the type of any Certificate of Compliance shall be defined in the purchase order. The Certificates of Compliance, signed by the applicator (and the inspector, if applicable), shall be transmitted to the purchaser as defined in the purchase order. Cumulative production records shall be maintained daily. The purchaser and the end user shall have the right to inspect the applicator’s records at any time during the period of the contract. NOTE: FJC reports (‘daily reports’) may identify each FJC by a unique number to be used for identification purposes. Material traceability may be achieved by recording each batch number against each field joint number. Inspection tests and results may identify the field joint number or repair on which they were performed. Records may be maintained on a shift and daily basis.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 16. AS 4822—2008 14 SEC T I O N 4 S U RFA CE PRE PA RA T IO N , APP L I CAT I O N, I NSPECT I ON,TEST I NG , R E P A I R A N D SA FE T Y 4.1 SURFACE PREPARATION 4.1.1 General Surface preparation shall be carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer, and as specified in this Section. All the welds to be coated shall have the height and profile suitable for compatibility with the FJC to be applied. 4.1.2 Preparation of the steel substrate 4.1.2.1 General At the time of application of the coating the surface to be coated shall be dry and free of any contamination detrimental to surface preparation (such as detritus, dust, non-adhering particles, grease, oil, soluble salts, etc.) or to adhesion of the coating on the steel. If necessary, extra cleaning shall be carried out to remove the following: (a) Greasy and waxy substances (using a totally volatile solvent, as required), or other contamination, as per SSPC SP1. (b) Weld spatter, slag, and burrs that can pierce the coating (using approved grinding or filing techniques). (c) Areas of rust or scaling by spot abrasive blast cleaning or wire brushing as specified in the appropriate application procedure. 4.1.2.2 Abrasive blast cleaning The method of preparation of the substrate shall be abrasive blast cleaning unless otherwise agreed. Recycling of abrasive may be acceptable, provided suitable abrasive material is used. The minimum cleanliness of the surface after abrasive blast cleaning shall be in accordance with AS 1627.4 and be a minimum finish quality of Class Sa 2½. Abrasive materials shall be silica free non-metallic or metallic, and shall comply with AS 1627.4. They shall be free from contamination and contain less than 100 g/kg chlorides and less than 0.3% copper. All surface defects that are detrimental to the performance of the FJC shall be removed. The residual thickness of the pipe wall shall be not less than the specified minimum thickness for the pipe. The profile/roughness shall be checked in accordance with the requirements of AS 3894.5 or other method approved by the purchaser. The profile shall be of an angular and dense nature over the entire joint surface to be coated. Compressed air for blast cleaning shall be free of oil, condensed moisture, and any other contaminants. Blasting equipment that includes devices to recycle abrasives shall have equipment that ensures removal of dust, fines, corrosion materials, and other contaminants. The applicator shall demonstrate that the blasting procedure will provide the specified surface cleanliness and anchor profile at the beginning of the surface preparation procedure. Dust and detritus shall be removed from the substrate following the surface preparation procedure. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 17. 15 AS 4822—2008 The level of chloride ions shall be measured in accordance with the requirements of AS 3894.6 and shall be equal to or less than 25 mg/m2 , unless otherwise agreed. 4.1.2.3 Wire brush cleaning Dust and detritus shall be removed from the field joint following the preparation of the substrate and the surrounding plant-applied coating. Where specified, wire brush cleaning shall be undertaken in accordance with AS 1627.2. 4.1.2.4 Reconditioning If, after joint surface preparation, the substrate is contaminated or corrodes, the joint shall undergo further partial or total surface preparation to ensure the coating is applied to a surface that has been cleaned and prepared in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations and Clauses 4.1.2.1 to 4.1.2.3. 4.1.2.5 Preparation of the adjoining factory-applied coating The factory coated area on either side of the exposed substrate, shall be prepared to facilitate the adhesion of the FJC. The factory-applied coating shall be chamfered to an angle no greater than 30° to the pipe surface. The method of preparation shall not cause damage outside the FJC area. Additional requirements are described in the relevant Clause for each of the FJC materials. (See Clauses 5.3, 6.3, 7.6 and 8.3.) 4.2 PRIOR TO THE APPLICATION OF THE COATING The following requirements apply to applying the coating: (a) The temperature of the joint substrate shall be at least 3°C above the dewpoint, and the joint shall be dry. (b) Chemical treatment of the steel may be used to supplement the surface preparation, but only by agreement of the manufacturer and the purchaser with the applicator. (c) The coating shall be applied by qualified personnel in accordance with the specified procedure, which shall have been qualified by the purchaser. (d) The joint shall not be exposed for a length of time that could result in oxidation of its surface, detrimental to the quality and adhesion of the coating. (e) At the time of application of the coating, the temperature of the substrate shall be within the temperature range specified by the manufacturer. (f) FJCs that require heating, as part of the application process, shall employ heating methods that raise the temperature sufficiently, and sufficiently uniformly, to ensure correct application over the entire FJC. NOTE: During bad weather (rain, wind, airborne dust, etc.) cleaning and coating operations may only continue if effective protective enclosures are installed. 4.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF THE APPLIED COATING When inspected visually, the applied coating shall be homogenous across the entire field joint. In particular, no surface defects detrimental to the quality of the coating (embedded grit, foreign particles, pitting, blisters, etc.) shall be allowed. 4.4 TESTING OF THE FJC AND REPAIRS Regular inspection and testing procedures during production shall be carried out in accordance with the Quality Plan. Tests procedures and acceptance criteria are given in Clauses 5.5, 6.5, 7.8 and 8.5, and Appendices C to J. Recommendations for frequencies are given in the relevant section for each of the FJC materials.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 18. AS 4822—2008 16 4.5 PRELIMINARY QUALITY INSPECTION The applicator shall ensure that the materials used for surface preparation and the FJC comply with the material specification and that the manufacturer’s storage instructions are followed. 4.6 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Potential hazards include exposure to vapours, dust, fumes, gases, and noise (from ballasting or a spray gun). To minimize hazards, proper safety precautions shall be followed. Applicators shall comply with the procedures in the safety regulations, the manufacturer’s technical manuals, and the FJC MSDS. When needed, the steel substrate shall be electrically grounded to eliminate static charges associated with surface preparation and coating operations. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 19. 17 AS 4822—2008 SE C T I O N 5 P E T R O L A T U M O R PO L Y M E R IC TAPE COAT I NGS 5.1 GENERAL Identification of coatings made from tapes shall be in accordance with Table 5.1 and shall meet the requirements of Tables 5.2, or 5.3(A) or 5.3(B) (depending on the tape type) as a minimum, and as applicable to the type of tape. Information concerning the coating materials shall be given as data sheets by the manufacturer to the applicator in accordance with Table 5.4 for primer and Table 5.5 for tapes, as a minimum. Application instructions shall be given by the manufacturer in accordance with the requirements of Table 5.6 (as minimum). 5.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS 5.2.1 Petrolatum tapes (Type 1A) Petrolatum tape coatings can consist of a single layer or multiple layers of fabric fully impregnated with a neutral petroleum wax compound. Maximum operating temperature is 30°C. 5.2.2 Polymeric tapes (Type 1B) Cold-applied polymeric tape coatings can consist of a bonding primer and multiple layers of one or several polymeric tapes. Maximum operating temperature is 50°C to 80°C depending on the material. Specific polymeric tapes allowing higher maximum operating temperature may be used. Where such tapes are used, requirements shall be agreed after qualification. 5.3 SURFACE PREPARATION Surface preparation shall be carried out in accordance with Section 4 and the recommendations of the manufacturer. As minimum requirement, for petrolatum coatings, the area to be coated shall be cleaned with a powered steel wire brush. The degree of cleanliness shall comply with AS 1627.2 and shall be such that, when viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering rust, paint coating and foreign matter. The surface shall have a metallic sheen arising from the metallic substrate. For polymeric tapes, as minimum requirement, the substrate to be coated shall be abrasive blast cleaned in accordance with AS 1627.4 Class Sa 2½. The edges of the plant coating shall be bevelled and the plant coating shall be suitably roughened for the minimum length according to the overlap on plant coating (see Clause 5.4.4). 5.4 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS 5.4.1 General Application of the coating shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 4.2 and the application instructions of the manufacturer. 5.4.2 Application of the primer Where applicable, application of the primer shall be carried out in accordance with the application instructions of the manufacturer, as specified in Table 5.6.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 20. AS 4822—2008 18 Some primers require that the tape be applied when the primer is still tacky, whilst others require that the primer be dry. The manufacturer’s instructions shall be complied with in terms of the prime condition at the time of wrapping. 5.4.3 Application of petrolatum The manufacturer’s instructions shall be used for proper application of petrolatum or wax tapes (see Table 5.6). As a minimum, the following application procedure shall be followed: (a) If visible moisture is present, wipe the surface to be free from moisture. (b) Prepare the surface as recommended by the manufacturer. (c) Apply a thin coat of compatible primer (if any) by brush or by hand; allow the primer to dry. (d) Wrap the area to be coated spirally with tapes of recommended width, employing the correct overlap. Use sufficient means to ensure complete conformability of the coating to the pipe surface. (e) Apply any outer wrap (if recommended by the manufacturer or specified by the purchaser). 5.4.4 Application of polymeric tapes The manufacturer’s instructions shall be used for proper application of polymeric tapes (Table 5.6). As a minimum, the following application procedures shall be followed: (a) Prepare the surface according to Clause 5.3. (b) Apply a thin coat of compatible primer (if any) in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction. (c) Wrap the area to be coated spirally with tapes of an adequate width, employing the right overlap and using sufficient tension to ensure a complete conformability of the coating. The tape shall be applied with an overlap of not less than 55% and not less than 25 mm, whichever is the greater. In two tape system the over-wrap shall be applied with an overlap of not less than 25 mm. The tape wrap shall start and finish at the horizontal axis of the pipe, pointing in the downward direction. The overlap of tapes on to plant-applied coating shall be at least 75 mm. The over- wrap shall overlap the tape by at least 25 mm. The width of the tape used depends on the diameter of the pipes. For all types of application an appropriate width should be chosen to avoid wrinkling, which can occur if the material is too wide. NOTES: 1 Hand-wrapping machines may be of assistance in ensuring correct application of the tape. 2 The height of weld beads at field joints should be low enough so that the tape remains in intimate contact with the steel substrate on either side of the weld bead. Alternatively, bituminous/butyl filler mastic may be used to provide a smooth contour to prevent voids beneath the tape. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 21. 19 AS 4822—2008 5.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS 5.5.1 General If required in the purchase order, the tests in Clauses 5.5.3 to 5.5.12 shall be carried out either for qualification or for production quality control. 5.5.2 General inspection After application, the tape coating shall be smooth, have uniform overlap, be free of wrinkles, air bubbles, lack of adhesion, laminations and any other defects. The tape wrap shall start and finish at the horizontal axis of the pipe, pointing in the downward direction. 5.5.3 Thickness The nominal thickness is the calculated sum of the thickness of all the layers of the coating before application. The minimum thickness of the coating on the body of the joint shall be not less than 90% of the nominal value, or as otherwise agreed to by the purchaser. Unless otherwise agreed with the purchaser, the minimum thickness on the weld cap shall be not less than 80% of nominal value or otherwise agreed with the purchaser. NOTES: 1 The coating thickness on the weld cap is normally less than on the body because some of the polymeric adhesive will flow from the weld cap to the body, both during and after the application. This is necessary to prevent voids in the coating and is not detrimental to the corrosion protection. 2 The coating thickness should be measured using the method given in AS 3894.3. 5.5.4 Holiday detection The entire surface of the coated joint shall be checked for holidays or other discontinuities according to the method and test voltages specified in AS 3894.1. Holidays shall be repaired applying a new tape wrap unless otherwise agreed. 5.5.5 Impact resistance The impact resistance shall be measured using the method given in Appendix D. The impact resistance shall meet the values given in Tables 5.3(A) and 5.3(B). 5.5.6 Indentation resistance The indentation resistance shall be measured using the method given in Appendix E. The indentation resistance shall meet the values given in Table 5.3(A). 5.5.7 Drip resistance The drip resistance of petrolatum tapes shall be measured using the method given in Appendix G. The drip resistance shall meet the values given in Table 5.2. 5.5.8 Cathodic disbondment The cathodic disbondment shall be measured using the method given in AS 4352. For polymeric tapes, duration of 48 h instead of 28 days may be used for PPT or production test if temperature is increased to 65°C. Duration of 28 days is mandatory for PQT. The cathodic disbondment at 23°C (28 days) shall meet the values given in Tables 5.3(A) and 5.3(B). The maximum cathodic disbondment at 65°C (48 h) and maximum operating temperature (28 days) shall be approved by agreement between the purchaser and the applicator.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 22. AS 4822—2008 20 5.5.9 Peel strength between tape layers of polymeric tapes The peel strength between tape layers shall be measured using the method given in Appendix I. The peel strength between layers of polymeric tapes shall meet the values given in Table 5.3(A). 5.5.10 Peel strength to pipe surface and plant coating 5.5.10.1 General The minimal waiting period between application of the coating and the peel strength test shall be as given in Table 5.7 unless specified otherwise by the coating manufacturer. 5.5.10.2 Petrolatum tapes (Type 1A) Petrolatum tapes shall leave a film of compound on the substrate when peeled off. 5.5.10.3 Polymeric tapes (Type 1B) The peel strength shall be measured using the method given in Appendix C. The peel strength of polymeric tapes (Type 1B) shall meet the values given in Tables 5.3(A) and 5.3(B) respectively. 5.5.10.4 Peel strength after immersion in water Peel strength shall be measured after immersion in water for 24 h, the test temperature being 50°C (or 80°C) for Type 1B, and 30°C for Type 1A. Petrolatum tapes shall leave a film of compound on the substrate when peeled off after immersion in water. For polymeric tapes, the peel strength after immersion in water shall be measured using the method given in Appendix C. The peel strength after immersion in water shall meet the values given in Tables 5.3(A) and 5.3(B). 5.5.11 Lap shear strength of bituminous and polymeric tapes The lap shear strength resistance of bituminous and polymeric tapes shall be measured using the method given in Appendix H. The lap shear strength of bituminous and polymeric tapes shall meet the values given in Tables 5.3(A) and 5.3(B). 5.5.12 Thermal ageing resistance of polymeric tapes The thermal ageing resistance shall be measured using the method given in Appendix J. The thermal ageing resistance shall meet the values given in Table 5.3(A). TABLE 5.1 COATING IDENTIFICATION Coating trade name Basic type of coating material Table 2.1 Primer trade name Number of layers (Note 1) Trade names of all layers Nominal thickness of coating system Compatible plant coatings (Note 2) NOTES: 1 Excluding primer. 2 State all types of plant coating that have been tested successfully with the coating. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 23. 21 AS 4822—2008 TABLE 5.2 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR TYPE 1A (PETROLATUM TAPES, MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE 30°C) Number of Number of Production Property Test method Requirement PQT joints PPT joints frequency Surface cleanliness AS 1627.4 3 3 Every joint Clause 5.3 Thickness AS 3894.3 3 3 Nil Clause 5.5.3 Peel strength Manually peel 3 3 Nil Leave film of compound on strip 25 × 100 m the substrate Drip resistance Appendix H 3 Nil Nil No dripping of compoundwww.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 24. AS 4822—2008 22 TABLE 5.3(A) MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR TYPE 1B (POLYMERIC TAPES, MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE UP TO 50°C OR 80°C) Test Requirement Requirement Test Property Unit temperature (up to 50°C) (up to 80°C) method Thickness mm ≥0.9 × nominal value AS 3894.3 250√T Holiday detection kV AS 3894.1 T = thickness (μm) Impact resistance 23°C J/mm ≥4 Appendix D Impact resistance, pressure —holiday detection 23°C and N/mm 2 10.0 1.0 Appendix E —residual thickness T max op mm ≥0.6 ≥0.6 Cathodic disbondment resistance 23°C mm ≤15 ≤15 (typical) AS 4352 T max op mm ≤20 ≤20 Peel strength between tape layers —inner/inner, inner/outer 23°C N/mm ≥1.50 ≥1.50 (typical) —inner/inner, inner/outer T max op N/mm ≥1.0 ≥1.0 Appendix I —outer/outer 23°C N/mm ≥1.0 ≥1.0 (typical) —outer/outer T max op N/mm ≥1.0 ≥1.0 Peel strength —to steel surface 23°C N/mm ≥1.00 ≥1.00 (typical) —to steel surface T max op N/mm ≥1.00 ≥1.00 —to plant coating 23°C N/mm ≥1.00 ≥1.00 (typical) Appendix C —to plant coating T max op N/mm ≥1.00 ≥1.00 —to plant coating after 28 days immersion 23°C N/mm ≥1.00 ≥1.00 in water at 50°C (typical) —to steel surface after 28 days immersion 23°C N/mm ≥1.00 ≥1.00 in water at 50°C or 80°C (typical) Lap sheer strength 23°C N/mm 2 ≥0.1 ≥0.1 (typical) Appendix H T max op N/mm 2 ≥0.1 ≥0.1 Thermal ageing resistance Ratio of 1.25 ≥E100/E0 ≥0.75 —elongation at break — E 100/E 70 ≥0.8 —peel strength between tape layers — P 100/P 0 ≥0.75 Appendix J P 100/P 70 ≥0.8 —peel strength between tape layers — A 100/A 0 ≥0.75 A 100/A 70 ≥0.8 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 25. www.standards.org.au TABLE 5.3(B) INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN—POLYMERIC TAPES COATING Number of Number of Operating temp. Operating temp. Properties Test method Production frequency PQT joints PPT joints up to 50°C up to 80°C As per test Daily before coating commences equipment 1/PQT or 1/PPT or and when change of weather Coating conditions — — manufacturer’s 1/day* 1/day* condition may cause non- instruction compliance 1/day or Surface cleanliness AS 1627.4 3 3 Class Sa 2½ Class Sa 2½ 1/30 joints* 1/day or As specified by As specified by Surface profile—Steel surfaces AS 3894.5 3 3 1/30 joints* manufacturer manufacturer 1/day or As specified by As specified by Surface profile—Plant-applied coating AS 3894.5 3 3 1/30 joints* manufacturer manufacturer 1/day or Surface dust AS 3894.6 3 3 ≤4 ≤4 1/30 joints* As specified in As specified in 23 23 23 23 23 General inspection of the coating Clause 5.5.2 3 3 Every joint Clause 5.5.2 Clause 5.5.2 1/day or As specified in As specified in Thickness AS 3894.3 3 3 1/30 joints* Clause 5.5.3 Clause 5.5.3 Holiday detection AS 3894.1 3 3 Every joint No defects No defects Impact resistance Appendix D 3 Nil Nil ≥4 J/mm ≥4 J/mm Cathodic disbondment at 23°C 28 days AS 4352 3 Nil Nil ≤15 mm ≤15 mm Cathodic disbondment at pipeline maximum operating 3 Nil Nil ≤20 mm ≤20 mm temperature, 28 days Peel strength 3 3 1/day or To pipe surface at 23°C 3 3 ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm once/100 joints*† Appendix C ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm© Standards Australia To pipe surface at pipeline maximum operating temperature 3 3 1/day or To plant coating at 23°C 3 3 ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm once/100 joints*† AS 4822—2008 To plan coating at pipeline maximum operating temperature 3 3 Nil ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm * Whichever is least frequent † When permitted by the purchaser, the manufacturer’s data may be used to calculate the peel strength relative to the requirements at 23°C
  • 26. AS 4822—2008 24 TABLE 5.4 DATA SHEETS—PRIMER—TAPES Property Value Test method Primer trade name Generic type Solid content Type of solvent Flashpoint Density Spreading rate (coverage); or dry film thickness Storage conditions —temperature minimum — —temperature maximum — Shelf life at storage temperature — TABLE 5.5 DATA SHEETS—TAPES Property Values Test method Tradename — — Description of coating material — — Colour — — Minimum total thickness; or mass per unit area Polymeric film/reinforcement —generic type of polymeric film — — —generic type of reinforcement material — — —nominal thickness; or mass per unit area — — Adhesive —generic type — — —nominal thickness; or mass per unit area —softening point ring and ball (see Note 2) Mechanical properties —tape strength —modulus at 10% elongation (see Note 2) —elongation at break (see Note 2) Storage conditions —temperature minimum — —temperature maximum — Shelf life at storage temperature — NOTES: 1 Data according to this data sheet shall be supplied for each coating component. 2 If applicable. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 27. 25 AS 4822—2008 TABLE 5.6 APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS Property Unit Ambient conditions —minimum temperature °C —maximum temperature °C —relative humidity % Surface preparation—Metal surface —cleanliness — —profile — Surface preparation—Plant coating — Application of primer —method — —minimum surface temperature °C —maximum surface temperature °C —minimum overcoating time h or min —maximum overcoating time d or h Application of tape —method — —minimum material temperature °C —minimum overlap of tape % General —minimum overlap on plant coating (see Note 2) mm —specific application instructions — —holiday detection voltage kV —repair procedure — NOTES: 1 Minimum application shall be in accordance with this Standard. 2 To be given for each compatible plant coating. TABLE 5.7 WAITING PERIOD BEFORE PEEL STRENGTH TEST Material Waiting period Coating from petrolatum and wax tapes 1h Coating from bituminous tapes ≤24 h Coating from polymeric tapes ≤120 hwww.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 28. AS 4822—2008 26 SECT ION 6 COAT I NGS FROM HEAT - SHR INK AB L E MATER I A L S 6.1 GENERAL All coatings made from heat-shrinkable materials shall be identified in accordance with Clause 6.2 and shall meet the requirements of Table 6.1. Information concerning the coating materials shall be given as data sheets by the manufacturer to the applicator in accordance with Table 6.2 for the primer and Table 6.3 for shrinkable materials. Application instructions shall be given by the manufacturer, as specified in Table 6.4. 6.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS 6.2.1 General Coatings from polyethylene heat-shrinkable materials include a polyethylene backing with an adhesive coating on one side. The heat-shrinkable materials are available in one of the following forms: (a) Tubular sleeve. (b) Wraparound sleeve. 6.2.2 Type 2A Type 2A coatings are cross-linked heat-shrinkable materials based on polyethylene applied without primer, further subdivided into the following: (a) 2A-1 mastic adhesive based, typically with low operating temperature, up to 50°C. (b) 2A-2 high shear strength mastic adhesive, bitumen or butyl based, with an operating temperature up to 80°C. (c) 2A-3 high shear strength hybrid or hot-melt adhesive, with an operating temperature up to 100°C. 6.2.3 Type 2B Type 2B coatings are subdivided into the following: (a) Coatings applied with a liquid applied epoxy primer; and (b) Cross-linked heat-shrinkable material based on polyethylene, with an operating temperature up to 80°C. 6.3 SURFACE PREPARATION All surface preparation shall be undertaken by abrasive blast cleaning in accordance with the general requirements given in Clause 4.1.2.2. The temperature of the joining substrate shall be at least 3°C above the dewpoint and the joint shall be dry. The external surface of pipe, including the area of the factory-applied pipe coating to be overlapped by the joint coating, shall be free of oil and grease and any deleterious matter prior to abrasive blast cleaning and application of the joint coating. After cleaning, the pipe shall be suitably protected from, and maintained free of, all contaminants. The plant-applied coating shall be roughened by abrasive blast cleaning for a width extending at least 75 mm beyond the edge of the sleeve that is to be applied. Care shall be taken to ensure that the plant-applied coating is not removed. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 29. 27 AS 4822—2008 The external pipe surface to be coated shall be abrasive blast cleaned in accordance with the requirements of AS 1627.4 to a minimum finish quality of Class Sa 2½. The profile on the pipe steel and coating overlap area shall be angular, between 50 µm and 100 µm, as specified by the manufacturer. 6.4 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS 6.4.1 General Application of the coating shall be carried out according to the instructions of the manufacturer and as specified in Table 7.1 and the following: (a) The temperature of the joint substrate shall be at least 3°C above the dewpoint, and the joint shall be dry. (b) The coating shall be applied by personnel trained and experienced in the application of the sleeves to be applied. Applications shall be in accordance with the specified procedure approved by the purchaser. (c) The cleaned joint shall not be exposed for a length of time, which could result in degradation of its surface. At the time of coating application, surface cleanliness shall be minimum finish quality of Class Sa 2½. (d) At the time of application of the coating, the temperature of the substrate shall be within the temperature range specified by the manufacturer. (e) The temperature of the joint shall be monitored to make sure that the application requirements are met. NOTES: 1 Difficulty can be encountered in obtaining the high preheat temperatures required for sleeves designed for high operating temperatures. 2 During bad weather (rain, wind, airborne dust, etc.) cleaning and coating operations may only continue if effective protective enclosures are installed. 6.4.2 Preheating the joint Using an induction heating coil or gas torch, the field joint area shall be uniformly preheated to a temperature such that when the sleeve is applied the steel substrate temperature and the plant-applied coating temperature are within the range specified by the manufacturer. After completion of the manufacturing and testing processes, materials and components that are heated, or hot-worked at temperatures above 280°C, shall not be used without approval. In order for such approval to be obtained it shall be demonstrated that the materials and components satisfy the minimum strength and fracture toughness requirements for the pipeline design after the heat treatment or hot work is performed. Care shall be taken to ensure a uniform heat pattern. The uniformity of the heat pattern shall be demonstrated by the applicator in the PQT. In addition, at daily start-up, and at any significant change in weather conditions that may reduce temperature (e.g., increase in wind speed or drop in ambient temperature), uniformity of heating shall be tested at three sets of four locations equally spaced around the pipe; one at the centre and the other two near the edges of the joint. All temperatures shall be higher than the specified minimum application temperature. The pipe temperature shall also be measured immediately prior to actual application of the sleeve to ensure that the temperature has not fallen below the specified level.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 30. AS 4822—2008 28 The heating time and the temperature shall not— (a) result in oxidation of the surface of the steel and of the coating, detrimental to the quality of the coating of the joint; or (b) damage the plant-applied coating. 6.4.3 Application of the primer Application of the primer, if any, shall be carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer and as specified in Table 6.4. 6.4.4 Application of heat-shrinkable materials Application of the heat-shrinkable material shall be carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer, as specified in Table 6.4 and in accordance with the following procedure. (a) The heat shrink sleeve shall be located on the joint so that after shrinking there will be an overlap of at least 75 mm onto the plant-applied coating. The closure, if any, shall be closed and the sleeve down in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer (see application instructions, as specified in Table 6.4). (b) The sleeve shall be thoroughly heated to assist full wetting of the mastic/adhesive to the substrate. (c) The sleeve shall be shrunk commencing from the centre (circumferential weld) and working towards each end so as to prevent air entrapment. Use of rollers shall be minimized. (d) The heat shrink sleeve shall be allowed to cool for a period of at least 2 h before applying stress to the sleeve such as laying the pipe in the trench or supporting the pipe on a bearer. 6.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS 6.5.1 General Tests in Clauses 6.5.2 to 6.5.6 shall be carried out either for product qualification, procedure qualification, or for production quality control. Inspection and test plan of coatings from heat-shrinkable materials shall meet the requirements of Table 6.5. 6.5.2 General inspection After application, the heat shrink sleeve shall be free of cold spots, burnt areas, air bubbles, lack of adhesion, laminations and any other defects. 6.5.3 Thickness The purchaser shall specify the minimum required nominal thickness of the coating. The thickness of the shrink sleeve, measured at any point on the pipe body, shall be not less than 85% of the specified minimum thickness. The minimum thickness of mastic/adhesive measured at any point on top of the weld cap shall be not less than 200 µm. The thickness shall be checked in accordance with AS 3894.3. 6.5.4 Holiday detection The entire surface of the coated joint shall be checked for holidays or other discontinuities in accordance with AS 3894.1. Holidays shall be repaired by removing the defective sleeve and applying a replacement heat shrink sleeve. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 31. 29 AS 4822—2008 6.5.5 Peel strength The minimum waiting period between application of the heat shrink sleeve and carrying out the adhesion test is 24 h, unless specified otherwise by the coating manufacturer. The test shall be carried out according to the method defined in Appendix C. The peel strength on the joint shall meet requirements of Table 6.5. 6.5.6 Cathodic disbondment The test shall be carried out according to the method defined in AS 4352. The cathodic disbondment radius on the steel of the coated joint shall be less than the values given in Table 6.1 and Table 6.5. TABLE 6.1 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS—COATINGS FROM HEAT-SHRINKABLE MATERIALS Test Type 2A-1 Type 2A-2 Type 2A-3 Type 2B Test Property Unit temperature up to 50°C up to 80°C up to 100°C up to 80°C method Thickness 23°C mm ≥0.85 × nominal value AS 3894.3 Holiday detection 23°C kV As per AS 3894.1 AS 3894.1 Impact resistance, (holiday ≥5 ≥5 ≥5 ≥5 detection as per AS 3894.1 23°C J/mm Appendix D No holiday No holiday No holiday No holiday after recovery) Indentation resistance 23°C —applied pressure (typical) 1 10 10 10 —holiday detection 2 No holiday No holiday No holiday No holiday N/mm Appendix E —applied pressure 1 10 10 10 T max op —holiday detection No holiday No holiday No holiday No holiday —residual thickness mm ≥0.6 ≥0.6 ≥0.6 ≥0.6 Cathodic disbondment at 23°C ≤10 ≤10 ≤15 ≤8 28 days (typical) mm AS 4352 T max op ≥15 ≥15 ≥20 ≥10 Peel strength at 10 mm/min —to pipe surface 23°C ≥1.0 ≥1.0 ≥2.5 ≥2.5 (typical) N/mm Appendix C T max op ≥0.4 ≥0.5 ≥1.0 ≥1.0 —to plant coating 23°C ≥1.0 ≥1.0 ≥2.5 ≥2.5 N/mm T max op ≥0.4 ≥0.5 ≥1.0 ≥1.0 Lap shear strength at 23°C ≥0.1 ≥0.1 ≥0.1 ≥1.0 10 mm/min (typical) N/mm 2 Appendix H T max op ≥0.1 ≥0.1 ≥0.1 ≥1.0 Thermal ageing resistance (aged at T max + 20°C) —elongation at break E 100/E 0 ≥0.75 ≥0.75 ≥0.75 ≥0.75 23°C E 100/E 70 ≥0.8 ≥0.8 ≥0.8 ≥0.75 Appendix J —peel strength to pipe A 100/A 0 ≥0.75 ≥0.75 ≥0.75 ≥0.75 surface 23°C A 100/A 70 ≥0.8 ≥0.8 ≥0.8 ≥0.75www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 32. AS 4822—2008 30 TABLE 6.2 PRIMER DATA SHEET TEMPLATE Property Value Test method Trade name Generic type Solid content 100% Density Mix ratio Storage temperature Shelf life at storage temperature TABLE 6.3 SHRINKABLE MATERIALS DATA SHEET TEMPLATE Property Test method Trade name Description of coating material Colour Shrinkable material type Nominal thickness (as supplied) Adhesive type Storage temperature min/max Shelf life at storage temperature TABLE 6.4 APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS Property Value Preheat temperature range Application of primer Mixing ratio Pot life Cure temperature profile (temperature vs. time) time Application of heat-shrinkable material Surface preheat temperature Method of preheat Shrink procedure Overlap on plant coating (minimum) © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 33. www.standards.org.au TABLE 6.5 INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN—HEAT SHRINK SLEEVES Number of Number of Production Properties Test method Type 2A-1 Type 2A-2 Type 2A-3 Type 2B PQT joints PPT joints frequency 1/day or Surface cleanliness AS 1627.4 3 3 Class Sa 2½ Class Sa 2½ Class Sa 2½ Class Sa 2½ 1/30 joints* 1/day or No production Surface profile—Steel surfaces AS 3894.5 3 3 50–100μm 50–100μm 50–100μm 1/30 joints* test required 1/day or No production No production Surface profile—Plant-applied coating AS 3894.5 3 3 50–100μm 50–100μm 1/30 joints* test required test required Surface contact As specified by As specified by As specified by As specified by Preheat temperature 3 3 Every joint pyrometer manufacturer manufacturer manufacturer manufacturer As specified in As specified in As specified in As specified in General inspection of the coating Clause 6.5.2 3 3 Every joint Clause 6.5.2 Clause 6.5.2 Clause 6.5.2 Clause 6.5.2 As specified in As specified in As specified in As specified in Dry film thickness AS 3894.3 3 3 Nil 31 Clause 6.5.3 Clause 6.5.3 Clause 6.5.3 Clause 6.5.3 Holiday detection AS 3894.1 3 3 Every joint No defects No defects No defects No defects Impact resistance Appendix D 3 Nil Nil ≥5 J/mm ≥5 J/mm ≥5 J/mm ≥5 J/mm Cathodic disbondment at 23°C for 28 days 3 Nil Nil ≤10 mm ≤10 mm ≤15 mm ≤8 mm Cathodic disbondment at sleeve maximum operating AS 4352 3 Nil Nil ≤15 mm ≤15 mm ≤20 mm ≤10 mm temperature, 28 days Peel strength at 100 mm/min —to pipe surface at 23°C ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm ≥2.50 N/mm ≥2.50 N/mm 1/week or —at pipeline maximum operating temperature Appendix C 3 3 ≥0.40 N/mm ≥0.50 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm once/100 joints* —to plant coating at 23°C ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm ≥2.50 N/mm ≥2.50 N/mm ≥0.4 N/mm ≥0.5 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm ≥1.0 N/mm© Standards Australia —at pipeline maximum operating temperature * Whichever is least frequent AS 4822—2008
  • 34. AS 4822—2008 32 SECT ION 7 FUS I ON -B ONDED EPO XY POWDER (FB E) COAT I NG S 7.1 GENERAL The fusion-bonded epoxy powder (FBE) to be used for FJCs shall meet the qualification requirements specified in AS/NZS 3862, and shall be compatible with the factory-applied coating. 7.2 STORAGE CONDITIONS The manufacturer’s recommendation for storage conditions of the powder shall be followed. Powders that have been stored beyond the manufacturer’s expiry date are considered suitable for use, provided that the characteristics remain in accordance with AS/NZS 3862, and the powder is recertified by the manufacturer. 7.3 CONTAINERS Prior to use the powder shall be stored in the manufacturer’s original container, which shall be marked with the manufacturer’s name, batch number, type of powder, storage condition and expiry date. 7.4 TRANSPORT OF POWDER 7.4.1 Containers Powder shall be transported and stored in sealed containers that will prevent ingress of water. Where necessary, refrigeration shall be provided to maintain the temperature in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements. Temperature shall be controlled to meet the manufacturer’s requirements. Conformance with the manufacturer’s recommended storage temperature requirements shall be demonstrated by temperature indication tags or other logging devices. Where a PQT has previously been undertaken by the applicator, all coating application shall be undertaken in accordance with the set-up used in the PQT. 7.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS The coating shall consist of either mono layer FBE (Type 3A), or two layer FBE (Type 3B). 7.6 SURFACE PREPARATION All surface preparation shall be undertaken by abrasive blast cleaning in accordance with the general requirements given in Clause 4.1.2.2. The temperature of the joint substrate shall be at least 3°C above the dewpoint and the joint shall be dry. The external surfaces of the pipe, including the area of factory-applied pipe coating to be overlapped by the joint coating, shall be free of oil and grease and any deleterious matter prior to abrasive blast cleaning and application of the joint coating. After cleaning, the pipe shall be suitably protected from, and maintained free of, all contaminants. NOTE: AS 3894.6 provides methods for testing for surface contamination. At least 50 mm of the adjoining plant-applied coating, on each side of the field joint, shall be roughened by abrasive blast cleaning. Care shall be taken to ensure that the factory- applied coating is not removed. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 35. 33 AS 4822—2008 The external pipe surface to be coated shall be abrasive blast cleaned in accordance with the requirements of AS 1627.4 to a minimum cleanliness of Class Sa 2½. The profile on the pipe steel and coating overlap area shall be angular, between 50 μm and 100 μm and in accordance with AS 3894.5 and the powder manufacturer’s recommendations. After cleaning, each joint shall be visually inspected for surface defects and surface imperfections that might cause holidays in the coating. Such surface imperfections shall be removed by an approved method of grinding or filing. The remaining wall thickness shall be within the specified limits. NOTE: AS 2885.1 provides requirements for remaining wall thickness for high-pressure pipelines. All prepared surfaces shall be heated and coated within 2 h of abrasive blast cleaning and prior to the formation of any corrosion products or dust contamination. 7.7 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS 7.7.1 General The method of application of the coating shall be in accordance with Clause 4.2 and the recommendations of the FBE manufacturer, and as used in the PQT. Where required, prior to heating of the joint for powder application, heat should be applied (by torch, induction coil or other suitable means) to remove absorbed moisture from the factory-applied coating. Alternatively a slow rate of heating may be used to control the rate of moisture release from the factory-applied coating. This is to eliminate the possibility of blistering in both the FJC and the factory-applied coating in the heated area if moisture is released too quickly. 7.7.2 Heating Using an induction-heating coil, the field joint area shall be uniformly preheated to a temperature as recommended by the powder manufacturer, and as used in the PQT. Materials and components that are heated, or hot-worked at temperatures above 280°C, after completion of the manufacturing and testing processes, shall not be used without approval. In order for such approval to be obtained it shall be demonstrated that the materials and components satisfy the minimum strength and fracture toughness requirements for the pipeline design after the heat treatment or hot-work is performed. Care shall be taken to ensure a uniform heat pattern. The uniformity of the heat pattern shall be demonstrated by the applicator in the PQT. Uniformity of heating shall be tested and recorded in accordance with AS/NZS 3862. In addition, at start-up, uniformity of heating shall be tested at three sets of four locations equally spaced around the pipe; one at the centre and the other two near the edges of the joint. The heating time and the temperature shall not— (a) result in oxidation of the surface of the steel and of the coating, detrimental to the quality of the coating of the joint; or (b) damage the factory-applied coating. The temperature of the bare steel shall be monitored using temperature-indicating crayons or hand-held, direct-reading thermocouples. The amount of crayon used shall be the minimum amount required for accurate measurement. Any residue shall be removed by wire brushing.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 36. AS 4822—2008 34 If a delay results in surface cooling to below the temperature range specified by the powder manufacturer, the pipe shall be reheated and, if required the abrasive blasting shall be repeated to meet specification requirements. Heat decay period shall be tested and recorded in accordance with AS/NZS 3862. 7.7.3 Application of epoxy powder The FBE shall be applied immediately after the substrate has attained the correct temperature, as recommended by the powder manufacturer. The FBE overlap onto the factory-applied coating shall be a minimum of 50 mm. The FBE powder shall be uniformly applied to provide the specified minimum DFT. The coating shall be cured strictly in accordance with the powder manufacturer’s recommendations. Overcoating of cured FBE is not allowed. 7.7.4 Field joint coating repairs For holidays and damaged areas the FBE shall be repaired using two-part epoxy qualified in accordance with AS/NZS 3862. Repairs shall be carried out in accordance with AS/NZS 3862. All repairs shall have a minimum DFT, at least equal to the minimum specified coating thickness for the FJC. A minimum overlap of 25 mm shall be observed. All repairs shall be holiday tested in accordance with AS 3894.1. 7.8 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS 7.8.1 General Testing shall be carried out in accordance with Clauses 7.8.2 to 7.8.9 shall be carried out after the FBE has cured and the joint has cooled down. Inspection and test plan of FBE coatings shall meet the requirements of Table 7.1. 7.8.2 Visual aspect The FJC shall be smooth and free of blisters, sags or any other visible defects. 7.8.3 Thickness The minimum thickness of the FJC shall be 400 μm and not less than the specified minimum thickness of the factory-applied coating. For dual layer FBE (Type 3B), a higher maximum thickness shall be specified. The thickness shall be checked at three sets of four locations equally spaced at 90° around the pipe, one at the centre and the other two near the edges of the joint coating, in accordance with the method defined in AS 3894.3. 7.8.4 Holiday detection The entire surface shall be tested at the same voltage as the prime coating. This shall be in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZS 3862. All holidays that are detected shall be repaired. 7.8.5 Adhesion Adhesion shall meet the requirements of AS/NZS 3862. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 37. 35 AS 4822—2008 7.8.6 Degree of cure The degree of cure of the epoxy powder shall meet the requirements of AS/NZS 3862. 7.8.7 Impact resistance The minimum impact energy, determined in accordance with the method defined in Appendix D, shall exceed 1.5 J. 7.8.8 Cathodic disbondment A cathodic disbondment test shall be carried out in accordance with the method defined in AS 4352. The average radius of disbondment shall be less than 7 mm tested at 22.5 ±2.5°C for 28 days. NOTE: Other testing regimes may be used when agreed between the end user and the applicator. 7.8.9 Hot water soak test A hot water soak test shall be undertaken in accordance with the requirements of Appendix G. The result shall be a rating ≤2.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 38. AS 4822—2008 36 TABLE 7.1 INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN—FBE FIELD-APPLIED COATING Requirements or Number of Number of Production Property Test method reference clause PQT joints PPT joints frequency Surface condition of the area to be Clauses 4.1.2.1 Visual 3 3 Each joint coated before preparation and 8.6 Visual inspection of the cleaned surface Class Sa 2½ AS 1627.4 3 3 Each joint 1/day or Chloride contamination <25 mg/m 2 AS 3894.6 3 3 1/30 joints* Roughness of plant-applied coating to 3 times/day or 50–100 μm AS 3894.5 3 3 be overcoated 1/10 joints* Clauses 4.2 Temperature of the surface to be coated 3 3 Each joint and 7.7.2 DSC analysis ΔTg ≤4°C ≥95% AS/NZS 3862 3 3 — No coating residue 3 times/day or MEK rub AS 3894.4 3 3 to be removed 1/10 joints* Clauses 4.3 Visual inspection of the coating 3 3 Each joint and 7.8.2 Thickness Clause 7.8.3 AS 3894.3 3 3 Each joint Holiday detection test AS/NZS 3862 AS 3894.1 3 3 Each joint Impact resistance test 1.5J Appendix D 3 — — AS 3894.9 1/day or Adhesion test Rating ≤2 3 3 Method A 1/30 joints* AS 3894.9 1/day or Adherence to plant coating Rating ≤2 3 3 Method A 1/30 joints* Resistance of coating to immersion in Rating ≤2 at Appendix F 3 — — hot water 98°C after 24 h (22.5 ±2.5)°C, Resistance to cathodic disbondment at 28 day test, ≤7 mm AS 4352 3 — — ambient temperature average radial disbondment 1/day or Foaming cross-sectional Rating ≤3 AS/NZS 3862 3 3 1/30 joints* Application time Once/day at Heat decay period ≤ heat decay AS/NZS 3862 3 3 start up† period * Whichever is least frequent † When weather conditions have changed such that heat decay period may have decreased © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 39. 37 AS 4822—2008 SECT ION 8 L I Q U I D A PPL I ED COA T I NGS 8.1 GENERAL The liquid applied coatings shall be identified as per Table 8.1 and shall meet the requirements defined in Table 8.2 (as a minimum). Information concerning the coating materials shall be given as data sheets by the manufacturer to the applicator in accordance with Table 8.2 (as a minimum). Application instructions shall be given by the manufacturer as per Table 8.2 (as a minimum). Frequency of testing shall be in accordance with Table 8.3. 8.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE COATINGS 8.2.1 Liquid epoxy (4A) Liquid epoxy coating consists of the application of an epoxy resin by spray, roller, brush and trowel. 8.2.2 Liquid polyurethane (4B) Liquid polyurethane coating consists of the application of a polyurethane resin by spray, roller, brush and trowel. 8.2.3 Fibre reinforced epoxy (4C) Fibro-reinforced epoxy coating consists of the application of an epoxy resin by spray, roller, brush and trowel reinforced by glass flakes, glass fibres or glass mat. 8.3 SURFACE PREPARATION All surface preparation shall be in accordance with the general requirements given in Section 4. All edges and interfaces shall have a minimum radius of 3 mm. The pipe external surfaces, and the area of plant coating to be overlapped by the joint coating, shall be free of oil and grease and any deleterious matter prior to abrasive blast cleaning, as specified in Clause 4.1.2.2, and application of the joint coating. After cleaning, the pipe shall be suitably protected from, and maintained free of, all contaminants. The plant coating shall be chamfered prior to application of the FJC. At least 50 mm of the adjoining factory-applied coating, on each side of the field joint, shall be roughened (by abrasive blast cleaning). Care shall be taken to ensure that the factory-applied coating is not removed or contaminated by abrasive dust. In the case of polyolefin plant coatings the surface will usually require further treatments (e.g., flame treatment, chemical treatment), as specified in the field joint material manufacturer’s instructions. When treatment is necessary it shall be qualified during the PQT. The external pipe surface to be coated shall be abrasively blast cleaned in accordance with the requirements of AS 1627.4 Class Sa 2½. The profile shall be angular and not have undercuts. The profile shall be angular and dense between 60 µm and 100 µm peak to trough height, measured with profile replicating tape in accordance with Method A of AS 3894.5 or other approved method.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 40. AS 4822—2008 38 After cleaning, each joint shall be visually inspected for surface defects and surface imperfections such as slivers, scabs, laminations, burns or bristles of steel that might cause holidays in the coating. Such surface imperfections shall be removed by grinding or filing. The grinding wheel or file used shall not cause contamination of the pipe surface. The remaining wall thickness shall be within the specified limits. 8.4 APPLICATION OF THE COATINGS 8.4.1 General Application of the coating shall be carried out in accordance with Table 8.3 and Clause 4.2 and the recommendations of the manufacturer (see Table 8.2). Coating manufacturer’s specific recommendations and instructions on pot life, thinners, recommended spray guns, tips, nozzles, painter safety and any other specific provisions for application of the coating system shall be followed. During application of the coating system the correct wet film thickness should be checked using a suitable wet film thickness gauge. DFT shall be determined with a non-destructive DFT gauge as described in AS 3894.3. NOTE: AS 3894.3 (Appendix C) sets out a method of field measurement of wet film thickness using a comb gauge. Insufficient DFT, bare areas and pinholes shall be corrected within the overcoating time and in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. 8.4.2 Heating of the area to be coated Heating, using induction coil or open flame or any other method, shall be decided and implemented in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. The holding time and the temperature shall not— (a) result in oxidation of the surface of steel, which could be detrimental to the quality of the coating; or (b) damage the factory-applied coating. 8.4.3 Coating application Where required, the primer shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The liquid coatings shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The overlap with the plant-applied coating shall be not less than 50 mm unless otherwise specified. 8.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF THE APPLIED COATINGS 8.5.1 General If required in the purchase order, the tests in Clauses 8.5.2 to 8.5.9 shall be carried out either for qualification or for production quality control. 8.5.2 Thickness The minimum thickness of the coating shall be specified by the purchaser and shall be not less than the manufacturer’s recommendation. The thickness shall be checked in accordance with AS 3894.3. 8.5.3 Visual aspect The FJC shall be smooth and free of blisters, sags or any other visible defects. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 41. 39 AS 4822—2008 8.5.4 Holiday detection The entire surface shall be holiday detected in accordance with AS 3894.1 as follows: (a) All holidays that are detected shall be repaired in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. Visible coating discontinuities that are not detected electrically shall also be repaired. (b) The maximum number of holidays permitted to be repaired in the FJC shall be— (i) five for pipe whose diameter is 273 mm or larger; or (ii) three for pipe whose diameter is less than 273 mm. If the criterion described in Item (b) is exceeded, the field joint shall be stripped and recoated in accordance with the requirements of this Standard. 8.5.5 Adhesion Adhesion on the steel surface and plant coating shall be in accordance with AS 3894.9. The acceptance criteria shall be as specified in Tables 8.3. 8.5.6 Impact resistance The minimum impact energy, determined in accordance with Appendix D, shall be in accordance with Table 8.3. 8.5.7 Hardness Hardness Shore D shall be checked using a suitable hardness gauge as specified in ASTM 2240 or ISO 868. The manufacturer shall specify the acceptable value to be obtained. 8.5.8 Cathodic disbondment The test shall be carried out in accordance with the method set out in AS 4352. The average disbondment radius shall be in accordance with the acceptance values given in Tables 8.3. 8.5.9 Water soak test Immersion in water shall be carried out in accordance with Appendix F, the test temperature being the maximum operating temperature of the joint coating as specified by the manufacturer. The adhesion to pipe surface and plant coating shall be measured in accordance with AS 3894.9 and shall meet the requirements of Table 8.3 TABLE 8.1 COATING IDENTIFICATION TEMPLATE Property Reference Coating trade name Basic type of coating material Table 2.1 Minimum thickness of the applied coating Compatible plant coatings (see Note) NOTE: State all types of factory-applied coating that have been tested successfully with the coating.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 42. AS 4822—2008 40 TABLE 8.2 APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS Property Unit Ambient conditions (dewpoint) Surface preparation of steel surface Cleanliness (AS 1627.9) Profile (AS 3894.5) Surface preparation of plant coating Preheat temperature range Application of liquid coatings Mixing ratio Pot life Cure temperature profile (temperature vs. time) Overlap on factory coating (minimum) Repair procedures © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 43. www.standards.org.au TABLE 8.3 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID APPLIED COATINGS (TYPES 4A, 4B, AND 4C) Test Number of Number of Production Type 4A Type 4B Type 4C Properties method PQT joints PPT joints frequency liquid epoxy liquid PU reinforced epoxy 1/day or Surface cleanliness AS 1627.4 3 3 Class Sa 2½ Class Sa 2½ Class Sa 2½ 1/30 joints* 1/day or Chloride contamination AS 3894.6 3 3 ≤25 mg/m 2 ≤25 mg/m 2 ≤25 mg/m 2 1/30 joints* 60–100 μm unless 60–100 μm unless 60–100 μm unless 1/day or Surface profile—Steel surface AS 3894.5 3 3 specified otherwise specified otherwise specified otherwise 1/30 joints* by the manufacturer by the manufacturer by the manufacturer 60–100 μm unless 60–100 μm unless 60–100 μm unless 1/day or Surface profile—Factory-applied coating AS 3894.5 3 3 specified otherwise specified otherwise specified otherwise 1/30 joints* by the manufacturer by the manufacturer by the manufacturer In accordance with coating manufacturer’s recommendation but Minimum thickness AS 3894.3 3 3 Every joint not less than 600 μm 41 Clauses 4.3 Continuous and uniform film free of sags runs and colour Visual inspection 3 3 Every joint and 8.5.3 striations Holiday detection AS 3894.1 3 3 Every joint AS 3894.1 Impact resistance Appendix D 3 3 3 J/mm 5 J/mm 5 J/mm 2 Indentation resistance at 10 N/mm Appendix E 3 — — <30%dft <30%dft <10%dft Cathodic disbondment at 22.5 ±2.5°C, 28 days AS 4352 3 — — <7 mm <7 mm <7 mm ASTM D2240 Once every Hardness (Shore D) 3 3 As per manufacturer’s specification or ISO 868 10 joints AS 3894.9 1/day or Adhesion to pipe surface 3 3 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 Method A 1/30 joints† AS 3894.9 1/day or Adhesion to plant coating 3 3 ≤3 ≤3 ≤3 Method A 1/30 joints†© Standards Australia Appendix F Adhesion to plant coating after 28 days immersion in water at T max 3 Rating ≤4 AS 4822—2008 Hot water soak Adhesion to pipe surface after 28 days immersions in water at T max Appendix F Rating ≤3 * Whichever is less frequent † When weather conditions have changed such that heat decay period may have decreased
  • 44. AS 4822—2008 42 APPENDIX A PURCHASING GUIDELINES (Informative) A1 GENERAL Australian Standards are intended to include the technical provisions necessary for the supply of products referred to in the particular Standard, but do not purport to comprise all the necessary provisions of a contract. In a number of cases the purchaser is either asked to state specific requirements or is given a range of options. These are contractual matters to be agreed upon between the purchaser and the coating applicator. This Appendix contains advice and recommendations on the information to be supplied by the purchaser at the time of inquiry and order and by the coating applicator. It aims to avoid misunderstanding and to result in the purchaser receiving satisfactory products and service. A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER Field joints to be coated in accordance with this Standard, should be designated by reference to this Standard. The purchaser should supply information, as appropriate, at the time of inquiry or order. The purchase order should include the following information: (a) Type of FJC system in accordance with Table 2.1. (b) Maximum operating temperature. (c) If to be used in permanently immersed service. (d) Nature of materials to be used to bed, pad and backfill the pipe. (e) Cutback length (or length of field joint to be coated) including tolerances. (f) Pipe material/grade. (g) Pipe outer diameter and wall thickness. (h) Joint pipe welding profile. (i) Factory-applied coating system. (j) Longitudinal pipe weld profile. (k) Number of field joints to be coated. (l) Supplier’s Certificates of Compliance. (m) Any special requirement to FJC overall thickness and/or thickness of individual layers. (n) Overlap of the factory-applied coating. (o) Requirements for traceability and marking. (p) Requirements for documentation and schedule of supply of documentation, including PQT, PPT and production test results. (q) Qualification of the applicator’s personnel who will apply and/or inspect the coating (see Clause 3.4). (r) Use of specific proprietary coating materials, if required. (s) PQT, if required. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 45. 43 AS 4822—2008 A3 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE COATING APPLICATOR The coating applicator should supply information, as appropriate, at the time of inquiry or order. A4 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE The coating applicator should, upon request, supply the purchaser with a signed Certificate of Compliance stating that the coating has been applied in accordance with the requirements of the purchaser and of this Standard. NOTE: Coating applicators making a statement of compliance with this Australian Standard on a product, or promotional material related to that product are advised to ensure that such compliance is capable of being verified.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 46. AS 4822—2008 44 APPENDIX B MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD (Informative) This Appendix sets out the following different means by which compliance with this Standard can be demonstrated by the manufacturer or supplier: (a) Evaluation by means of statistical sampling. (b) The use of a product certification scheme. (c) Assurance using the acceptability of the supplier’s quality system. (d) Other such means proposed by the manufacturer or supplier and acceptable to the customer. B1 STATISTICAL SAMPLING Statistical sampling is a procedure which enables decisions to be made about the quality of batches of items after inspecting or testing only a portion of those items. This procedure will only be valid if the sampling plan has been determined on a statistical basis and the following requirements are met: (a) The sample needs to be drawn randomly from a population of product of known history. The history needs to enable verification that the product was made from known materials at essentially the same time, by essentially the same processes and under essentially the same system of control. (b) For each different situation, a suitable sampling plan needs to be defined. A sampling plan for one manufacturer of given capability and product throughput may not be relevant to another manufacturer producing the same items. In order for statistical sampling to be meaningful to the customer, the manufacturer or supplier needs to demonstrate how the above conditions have been satisfied. Sampling and the establishment of a sampling plan should be carried out in accordance with AS 1199.1, guidance to which is given in AS 1199.0. B2 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION The purpose of product certification is to provide independent assurance of the claim by the manufacturer that products comply with the stated Standard. The certification scheme should meet the criteria described in HB 18.28 in that, as well as full type testing from independently sampled production and subsequent verification of conformance, it requires the manufacturer to maintain effective quality planning to control production. The certification scheme serves to indicate that the products consistently conform to the requirements of the Standard. B3 SUPPLIER’S QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Where the manufacturer or supplier can demonstrate an audited and registered quality management system complying with the requirements of the appropriate or stipulated Australian or international Standard for a supplier’s quality management system or systems, this may provide the necessary confidence that the specified requirements will be met. The quality assurance requirements need to be agreed between the customer and supplier and should include a quality or inspection and test plan to ensure product conformity. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 47. 45 AS 4822—2008 Information on establishing a quality management system is set out in AS/NZS ISO 9001 and AS/NZS ISO 9004. B4 OTHER MEANS OF ASSESSMENT If the above methods are considered inappropriate, determination of compliance with the requirements of this Standard may be assessed from the results of testing coupled with the manufacturer’s guarantee of product conformance. Irrespective of acceptable quality levels (AQLs) or test frequencies, the responsibility remains with the manufacturer or supplier to supply products that conform to the full requirements of the Standard.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 48. AS 4822—2008 46 APPENDIX C PEEL STRENGTH TEST (Normative) C1 LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF PEEL STRENGTH C1.1 General The method consists of measuring the force required for peeling the FJC from the metal substrate of the joint at a constant rate of pull (see Figures C1, C2 and C3). It shall be used for laboratory testing of products, and may be used for field PQT testing. C1.2 Apparatus The apparatus shall consist of the following: (a) Tensile testing machine with an accuracy of ±2% at the peeling force and which can operate at a displacement rate of 10 ±1 mm/min. (b) Cutting tool (e.g., knife). (c) Test piece holder with which it is possible to rotate the joint without friction about its axis and which can be fitted in the jaws of the tensile testing machine. C1.3 Procedure The peeling test for ambient temperature shall be performed at 22.5 ±2.5°C. The peeling test for maximum operating temperature (if >30°C) shall be performed at maximum operating temperature ±2°C. If provision has been made to perform this test outside this temperature range, the method described shall be adapted, after agreement between the applicator and purchaser if necessary. The temperature shall be measured by means of an adapted probe, on the external surface of the joint at the root of the peeled strip (evaluation on 100 mm). A suitable sample shall be cut from the coated joint. From this sample, a strip of coating, 25 mm wide perpendicular to the axis of the joint, shall be cut. When the peel force of the coating is higher than the capacity of the testing machine, the width of the coating strip may be reduced. The strip shall be separated over a circumferential length of approximately 20 mm. For testing as shown in Figure C1, the joint shall be arranged on its support and shall be secured to one of the gripping jaws of the testing machine. The separated strip of the coating shall be held in the other jaw and it shall be verified that the tensile force is applied in the plane passing through the axis of rotation of the support. For testing as shown in Figure C2, the separated strip of the coating shall be secured in the jaw of the testing machine and it shall be verified that the tensile force is applied in the plane passing through the axis of rotation of the support. The peel force shall be graphically recorded over the agreed length of 200 mm using a constant peeling rate of 10 mm/min. C1.4 Results The mean value of the peel strength shall be calculated, in newtons per metre, using at least 20 points at regular intervals. The first and last 50 mm of the peeling length shall be disregarded. If any values are less than 75% of the specified peel strength, a further three test specimens shall be tested. No further failure shall be allowed. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 49. 47 AS 4822—2008 If the coating does not peel but breaks and the maximum load obtained meets the requirement, this shall indicate a pass result. C1.5 Test report A test report shall be provided and shall including the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity). C2 MEASUREMENT OF THE PEEL STRENGTH WITH A SPRING BALANCE C2.1 General The method consists of measuring the force required for manually peeling the coating from the metal substrate of the joint with a spring balance at a constant rate of pull (see Figure C3). This method shall be used for PPT and production testing. NOTE: This method may also be used for PQT field testing. C2.2 Equipment The equipment shall consist of— (a) spring balance with an accuracy of ±4% of the test force; (b) a clamp; and (c) cutting tool (e.g., knife). C2.3 Procedure The test shall be performed at a temperature of 22.5 ±5°C. Alternative temperatures may be used if agreed to between the applicator and purchaser. In that case the requirements shall be adjusted. This may be based on manufacturer’s data, test results or other available information. The temperature shall be measured by means of surface contact pyrometer on the external surface of the joint at the root of the peeled strip (evaluation on 100 mm). From the joint, a strip of coating 25 mm wide perpendicular to the axis of the joint shall be cut for a minimum length of 150 mm. When the peel force of the coating is too high, the width of the coating strip may be reduced. The strip shall be separated over a circumferential length of approximately 20 mm. The separated part of the coating shall be secured in the clamp of the spring balance. The coating shall be peeled off with a peeling rate of 100 mm/min perpendicular to the surface of the pipe. The evaluation length of 100 mm shall be completed within 55 to 65 s. Over a distance of 10 mm every 6 s the peel force shall be recorded. C2.4 Results The peel strength, in newtons per metre, shall be calculated as the arithmetic mean taken over the 10 recorded peel forces. The peel strength, in newtons per metre, shall be documented.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 50. AS 4822—2008 48 C2.5 Test report A test report shall be provided and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity). F FIGURE C1 PEEL STRENGTH TEST ON A SMALL DIAMETER JOINT F FIGURE C2 PEEL STRENGTH TEST ON A LARGE DIAMETER JOINT © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 51. 49 AS 4822—2008 Direction of applied load Cable from clamp unit fixed to crosshead Sample Clamp unit Peel strip Substrate Hold-down clamp Slotted base plate FIGURE C3 PEEL STRENGTH TEST ON LARGE DIAMETER JOINT—METHOD 2www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 52. AS 4822—2008 50 F 1 90 0 10 80 20 70 30 60 50 40 2 3 LEGEND: 1 Handle 2 Spring balance 3 Clamp FIGURE C4 PEEL STRENGTH TEST WITH A SPRING BALANCE © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 53. 51 AS 4822—2008 APPENDIX D IMPACT TEST (Normative) D1 GENERAL The test consists of verifying the strength of the FJC by the impact of a punch of defined shape falling directly onto the coating from a fixed height and at a fixed temperature followed by holiday detection testing. D2 APPARATUS The apparatus shall consist of a drop weight testing machine comprising the following: (a) A straight guide made of steel, aluminium or plastic, rigid and non-deformable, inside diameter between 40 mm to 60 mm, length at least 1.3 m and incorporating a smooth and even inside surface. NOTE: Other guides may be used by agreement. (b) A support and levelling device (e.g., two spirit levels for the horizontal plane and a plumb line for the vertical plane). (c) A graduated rod that makes it possible to determine the drop height to an accuracy of 5 mm. (d) A hard steel punch, with a hemispherical head, free from notches, porosity or other surface irregularities and with a diameter of 25 mm. A small metal rod with a diameter of 6 mm shall be fixed perpendicular to the flat face of the head and in its centre, which shall be long enough to hold the additional weights required for the tests. The punch shall be equipped with a system for raising to the required height, the accuracy of the mass of this assembly shall be 0.2 ±0.005 kg. (e) A number of weights, formed by metal discs (preferably made of stainless steel) with an outside diameter of approximately 24 mm and incorporating a central hole of diameter 6.5 mm. The mass of each disc shall have an accuracy of ±5 g. D3 PROCEDURE The test shall be carried out at a temperature of 20 ±5°C. To perform the test outside this temperature range, the method described shall be adapted after agreement between the applicator and purchaser. Before carrying out an impact test, the holiday detection test shall be undertaken (see AS 3894.1) to identify defective points and to avoid impact testing at these locations. If the number of faults found is too high, another coated test piece shall be taken. For each point of impact, the drop weight testing machine shall be placed perpendicular to the coating surface. The loaded punch shall fall freely without friction or resistance. The coated component shall be placed on a rigid and stable horizontal support and the component interior shall be supported to reduce its elastic response. The drop height shall be 1 m. Ten impacts shall be carried out with the required energy. The points of impact shall be at least 50 mm beside the weld bead and/or the pipe end and at least 50 mm between the axes of the impacts. A holiday detection test shall then be undertaken at each location (see AS 3894.1) to identify if the impact has caused a holiday.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 54. AS 4822—2008 52 The hard steel punch shall be checked every 30 impacts. If damaged, it shall be replaced. D4 RESULTS The impact energy and the actual coating thickness shall be documented. D5 TEST REPORT A test report shall be provided and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity). © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 55. 53 AS 4822—2008 APPENDIX E INDENTATION TEST (Normative) E1 GENERAL The test consists of measuring the indentation of a punch into the FJC under fixed conditions of temperature and load. E2 APPARATUS The apparatus shall consist of the following: (a) Chamber or bath thermostatically controlled to ±2°C; and (b) Penetrometer comprising the following: (i) Cylindrical punch on the top of which is mounted a weight. The assembly, punch plus weight, shall produce a pressure in accordance with Table E1. (ii) Dial gauge or any other measurement system accurate to ±0.01 mm. TABLE E1 PRESSURE, INDENTOR DIAMETER AND MASS OF ASSEMBLY Pressure Indentor diameter Mass of the assembly N/mm 2 mm kg 1.10 11.2 ±0.05 1.0 1.00 5.65 ±0.05 2.5 10.00 1.80 ±0.05 2.5 E3 PROCEDURE The test shall be performed three times on one coating sample. For heat-shrinkable polyolefin sleeves and tapes, the sample may be prepared by stripping the coating from the pipe and removing the adhesive. The test piece, held within the penetrometer assembly, shall be placed in the thermostatically controlled chamber and set to the test temperature. The test piece shall be allowed to stand for 1 h. The reading on the dial gauge placed on an uncovered part of the steel plate or pipe shall be recorded T 0. The indentor without the mass shall be positioned centrally over the specimen and the reading on the dial gauge shall be recorded T 1 . The mass giving the desired pressure in total shall be loaded to the indentor. The test shall be allowed to stand for 24 h. The reading of the dial gauge shall be recorded T 2 . If sampling of the test piece is impractical (e.g., in the case of large diameter components), the test shall be carried out directly on the coated component in air provided that the surface temperature of the coating is 20 ±5°C and the experimental assembly (component + apparatus) is not be exposed to heat or vibration during testing.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 56. AS 4822—2008 54 E4 RESULTS The difference between the second reading and the initial reading is the thickness of the coating T 3: T 3 = T1−T0 The difference between the third reading and the initial reading is the residual thickness of the coating T 4: T 4 = T2−T0 The difference between the second and the third reading is the indentation into the coating T 5: T 5 = T1−T2 The arithmetic mean of the three indentation measurements shall be calculated and reported. E5 TEST REPORT A test report shall be provided and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity). © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 57. 55 AS 4822—2008 APPENDIX F RESISTANCE OF COATING TO IMMERSION IN HOT WATER (Normative) F1 SCOPE This Appendix sets out the method for evaluating the coating adhesion after immersion in hot water. F2 APPARATUS The apparatus shall consist of the following: (a) Thermostatically controlled water bath capable of maintaining the specified temperature ±2°C. (b) Strong sharp pointed knife. F3 TEST SPECIMENS Two test specimens shall be cut from a pipe. Each shall be at least 75 mm × 75 mm. F4 PROCEDURE The procedure shall be as follows: (a) Fill the water bath with tap water and heat to the specified temperature. (b) Place two test specimens in the water and leave fully immersed for the required duration of test. (c) Remove the specimens and allow them to cool in air at 23 ±5°C for 1 h or until the sample reaches ambient temperature. (d) Test the specimens for adhesion in accordance with the procedure described in AS 3894.9, Method A ‘Knife test’, and determine the adhesion rating of each specimen. F5 REPORT Report the higher of the two adhesion ratings. F6 TEST REPORT A test report shall be provided, and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity).www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 58. AS 4822—2008 56 APPENDIX G DRIP RESISTANCE OF PETROLATUM TAPES (Normative) G1 GENERAL The test consists of determining if any components of the petrolatum tape drip at 50°C. G2 APPARATUS A thermostatically controlled oven, which can be controlled at a temperature of 50 ±2°C, shall be provided. The oven shall be of sufficient size to allow test specimens to be suspended vertically without restriction. G3 PREPARATION OF THE TEST SPECIMEN Cut three specimens of petrolatum or wax tape of 150 mm in length and 50 mm wide or use a tape in the case of narrower tapes. G4 PROCEDURE The test shall be carried out at 50 ±2°C. The procedure shall be as follows: (a) Suspend the three stripes of petrolatum tape freely in the oven for 48 h. (b) After this period observe any components that have dripped. If any material has dripped the test shall be repeated with five other specimens. No further dripping of components is allowed. G5 RESULTS ‘Pass’ or ‘Fail’ shall be reported. G6 TEST REPORT A test report shall be provided and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity). © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 59. 57 AS 4822—2008 APPENDIX H LAP SHEAR STRENGTH (Normative) H1 LAP SHEAR STRENGTH OF TAPE COATINGS H1.1 General The test method consists of measuring the lap shear strength (maximum force per unit area) obtained in shearing a single overlap joint between a plate with metallic surface or plant coating and the FJC by applying a tensile force that is parallel to the bond area and to the major axis of the specimen. H1.2 Apparatus The apparatus shall consist of the following: (a) Tensile testing machine in accordance with AS 1391 allowing the lap shear force to be recorded and capable of operating at a constant rate of separation of 10 mm/min. (b) Equipment for the tensile testing machine allowing the specimen to be maintained at the test temperature. (c) Steel plates (length 100 mm, width 50 mm or of tape width in the case of narrower tapes). H1.3 Preparation of the test specimens The metal surface of the steel plate shall be blast-cleaned in accordance with AS 1627.4 Class Sa 2½, to give a medium profile according to manufacturer’s specification as specified. The steel plates shall be kept clean and dry. Primer and/or coating shall be applied within 8 h. The plant coating shall be cleaned in accordance with instructions of the manufacturer of the tape. The cleaning procedure shall be agreed with the manufacturer of the plant coating. Apply the coating systems (all layers) to one side of the plates in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, such that the coating overhangs one end by 30 mm to 40 mm to allow clamping in the testing machine. Store the test specimens for a minimum of seven days at 23 ±2°C under a load of 0.01 N/mm 2 . Prior to testing, cut the coating transversely so that the effective shear length is 20 mm. H1.4 Procedure The lap shear strength test shall be carried out on— (a) five test specimens at 23 ±2°C; or (b) five test specimens at the maximum operating temperature (T max ) ±2°C, if this is higher than 30°C. The procedure shall be as follows: (i) Clamp the test specimen into the tensile testing machine, ensuring that the plate (metal surface) and the coating system are in the same plane. (ii) For the test temperature 50°C, precondition the test specimens at the specified test temperature for at least 0.5 h. (iii) Maintain the test specimen at the specified test temperature throughout the test. (iv) Set the tensile testing machine to a constant rate of separation of 10 mm/min. Record the maximum force.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 60. AS 4822—2008 58 (v) If the tape breaks instead of shearing, prepare new test specimens so that the effective shear length is 10 mm. (vi) Repeat for five test specimens. H1.5 Expression of result Calculate the arithmetic mean of five results of the lap shear strength, in newtons per square millimetre. If the tape breaks, express the lap shear strength as greater than the breaking force in Newton per bonded area in square millimetres. H2 LAP SHEAR STRENGTH OF SHRINKABLE MATERIAL COATINGS H2.1 General The test method consists of measuring the maximum stress obtained in shearing a single overlap joint between two plates with metallic surface or plant coating bonded with the adhesive of the shrinkable material by applying a tensile force which is parallel to the bond area and to the major axis of the test specimen. H2.2 Apparatus The apparatus specified in Paragraph H1.2 shall be used. H2.3 Preparation of the test specimens The metal surface of the steel plate shall be blast-cleaned in accordance with AS 1627.4 Class Sa 2½ to give a medium profile in accordance with manufacturer’s specification. The steel plates shall be kept clean and dry, and primer and/or adhesive shall be applied within 8 h. The plant coating shall be cleaned in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer of the shrinkable material. The cleaning procedure shall be agreed with the manufacturer of the plant coating. One side of the plates shall be coated with the adhesive of the shrinkable material to a thickness of 1 mm. A second plate shall be positioned in such a way that the overlap of the two plates is 20 mm. The test specimens shall be treated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions (pressure, temperature and time). The test specimens shall be stored for at least 24 h at 23°±2°C. Any adhesive that has exuded at the sides during preparation shall be removed. H2.4 Procedure The procedure shall be in accordance with Paragraph H1.4. H2.5 Expression of result Expression of results shall be in accordance with Paragraph H1.5. H3 TEST REPORT A test report shall be provided and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity). © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 61. 59 AS 4822—2008 APPENDIX I PEEL STRENGTH BETWEEN LAYERS (Normative) I1 GENERAL The test method consists of measuring the peel strength (peeling force per unit width) between two layers of tape. Peel strength shall be determined for— (a) inner layer to inner layer; (b) outer layer to inner layer; and (c) outer layer to outer layer. I2 APPARATUS The apparatus shall consist of the following: (a) Tensile testing machine in accordance with AS 1391 allowing the peeling force to be recorded and capable of operating at a constant rate of separation of 100 mm/min. (b) Equipment for the tensile testing machine allowing the specimen to be maintained at the test temperature. (c) Lower rigid support plate (e.g., glass plate) about 50 mm × 300 mm × 5 mm. (d) Rigid upper plate (e.g., steel plate about 50 mm × 200 mm × 5 mm) with a smooth cellular rubber on its lower side (thickness of the rubber 1 mm to 3 mm). (e) A load that produces a combined pressure of 0.01 N/mm2 together with the upper plate. (f) Pipe sections of diameter 100 mm, 100 mm long for shrinkable material only. (g) Release paper. I3 PREPARATION OF THE TEST SPECIMEN I3.1 General The samples shall be conditioned for a minimum of 24 h at 23 ±2°C. I3.2 Tapes The procedure shall be as follows (see Figure I1): (a) Discard the three outer turns from the roll. (b) Cut strips 250 mm to 280 m in length, 50 mm wide or of tape width in the case of narrower tapes. (c) Locate one strip of the first tape (6), adhesive side down, on release paper (3) on the lower plate (4). (d) Apply the second tape strip (5) with the same dimensions exactly over the first. (e) At one end insert a piece of release paper between the two tape strips for 50 mm to 80 mm. (f) Place release paper (3), the rubber coating (2) and the upper plate with the load onto the specimen (pressure 0.01 N/mm 2 ) (1) and store for 7 days at 23 ±2°C. NOTE: Additional supporting films may be applied to the outer surfaces of the specimens to prevent excessive elongation during the test.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 62. AS 4822—2008 60 I3.3 Shrinkable materials The procedure shall be as follows: (a) Wrap the pipe section of diameter 100 mm and 100 mm long circumferentially with two layers of the shrinkable material one after another in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction. (b) Store for a minimum of 24 h at 23 ±2°C. 1 2 5 3 6 4 250 50 DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES FIGURE I1 ASSEMBLY OF THE TEST SPECIMEN FOR TESTING THE PEEL STRENGTH BETWEEN LAYERS I4 PROCEDURE I4.1 General The peel strength test shall be carried out on— (a) three of each specimen layer to layer at 23 ±2°C; and (b) three of each specimen layer to layer at the maximum operating temperature (T max ) ±2°C, if this is higher than 30°C. I4.2 Tapes The procedure shall be as follows: (a) Clamp the end of the two tapes into the grips of the tensile testing machine. (b) Precondition the test specimen at the specified test temperature for at least 0.5 h. (c) Maintain the specimen at the specified test temperature throughout the test. (d) Set the tensile testing machine in operation at a constant rate of separation of 100 mm/min. (e) Record the peeling force continuously. I4.3 Expression of results Calculate the mean value of the peel strength, in newtons per millimetre width, using at least 20 points at regular intervals. Disregard the first and last 50 mm of the peeling length. If any values are less than 75% of the specified peel strength, test a further three specimens. No further failure is allowed. Take the arithmetic mean value of the result of the three test specimens. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 63. 61 AS 4822—2008 I5 TEST REPORT A test report shall be provided and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity).www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 64. AS 4822—2008 62 APPENDIX J THERMAL AGEING RESISTANCE (Normative) J1 ELONGATION AT BREAK J1.1 General The test method consists of measuring the effect of subjecting test specimens of coating materials to dry heat in a thermostatically controlled oven. The effect of ageing is assessed by the change in elongation at break in compliance with AS 1145.3. J1.2 Apparatus A thermostatically controlled oven capable of being set to a temperature of 50°C or maximum operating temperature (T max ) + 20°C to an accuracy of 2°C shall be required. The oven shall be of sufficient size to allow test specimens to be suspended vertically without restriction. J1.3 Preparation of the test specimens Prepare three sheets of material (shrinkable materials after free shrinking according to the manufacturer’s instruction), sufficiently large to prepare at least five specimens from each sheet as specified in AS 1145.3. Identify each sheet as ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’. J1.4 Procedure Precondition all test specimens for 7 days at the ageing temperature (T max ) +20°C before testing, as follows. (a) Store sheet A in a dark room at room temperature for 100 days. (b) Hang sheet B in an oven at the ageing temperature for 70 days, followed by 30 days at room temperature in a dark room. (c) Hang sheet C in an oven at the ageing temperature for 100 days. After the ageing period prepare from each sheet at least five specimens as specified in AS 1145.3 and test all specimens within 8 h for elongation at break under identical conditions in accordance with AS 1145.3. The test temperature shall be 23 ±2°C. J1.5 Expression of result For the coating material calculate the ratios of the elongation at break E as follows: E 100/E 0 E 100/E 70 where E 0 = elongation at break without heat ageing (arithmetic mean of five results) E 70 = elongation at break after heat ageing for 70 days (arithmetic mean of five results) E 100 = elongation at break after heat ageing for 100 days (arithmetic mean of five results) © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 65. 63 AS 4822—2008 J2 PEEL STRENGTH BETWEEN LAYERS J2.1 General The test method consists of measuring the effect of subjecting test specimens (prepared as specified in Appendix I) to dry heat in a thermostatically controlled oven. The effect of ageing shall be assessed by the change in peel strength between layers in accordance with Appendix I. J2.2 Apparatus The apparatus specified in Paragraph J1.2 shall be used. J2.3 Preparation of the test specimens Three test specimens (for each ageing test) shall be prepared in accordance with Appendix I. The specimens shall be of the following types: (a) Inner layer to inner layer. (b) Outer layer to inner layer. (c) Outer layer to outer layer. Each specimen shall be identified as ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’. J2.4 Procedure Precondition all test specimens for seven days at the ageing temperature (T max ) +20°C as follows: (a) Hang specimen A in a dark room at room temperature for 100 days. (b) Hang specimen B for 70 days in an oven at the ageing temperature, followed by 30 days at room temperature in a dark room. (c) Hang specimen C for 100 days in an oven at the ageing temperature. After the ageing period, test all specimens within 8 h for peel strength between layers under identical conditions in accordance with Appendix I at a test temperature of 23 ±2°C. J2.5 Expression of result Calculate the arithmetic mean of the peel strength in accordance with Appendix I. Calculate the ratios of the peel strength as follows: P 100/P 0 P 100/P 70 where P 0 = peel strength between layers at 23°C without heat ageing P 70 = peel strength between layers at 23°C after heat ageing for 70 days P 100 = peel strength between layers at 23°C after heat ageing for 100 days J3 PEEL STRENGTH TO PIPE SURFACE J3.1 General The test method consists of measuring the effect of subjecting test pipes with metallic surface that is coated with the coating materials to dry heat in a thermostatically controlled oven. The effect of ageing is assessed by the change in peel strength to pipe surface in accordance with Appendix C.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 66. AS 4822—2008 64 J3.2 Apparatus The apparatus specified in Paragraph J1.2 shall be used. J3.3 Preparation of the test specimens Three test specimens shall be prepared for testing peel strength to pipe surface in accordance with Appendix C for each ageing test. Each specimen shall be identified as ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’. J3.4 Procedure Precondition all test specimens for seven days at the ageing temperature before testing. Ageing temperature (T max ) +20°C, as follows: (a) Store specimen A in a dark room at room temperature for 100 days. (b) Store specimen B for 70 days in an oven at the ageing temperature, followed by 30 days at room temperature in a dark room. (c) Store specimen C for 100 days in an oven at the ageing temperature. After the ageing period, test all test specimens within 8 h for peel strength under identical conditions in accordance with Appendix C at the test temperature of 23 ±2°C. J3.5 Expression of result Calculate the arithmetic mean of the peel strength in accordance with Appendix C. Calculate the ratios of the peel strength as follows: A 100/A 0 A 100/A 70 where A 0 = peel strength to pipe surface at 23°C without heat ageing A 70 = peel strength to pipe surface at 23°C after heat ageing for 70 days A 100 = peel strength to pipe surface at 23°C after heat ageing for 100 days J4 TEST REPORT A test report shall be provided and shall include the following: (a) Name of the testing authority or inspector. (b) Date of test and report number. (c) Field joint coating type. (d) Test method. (e) Result (in the required unit or quantity). © Standards Australia www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 67. 65 AS 4822—2008 APPENDIX K GUIDE TO COMPATABILITY OF COATINGS (Informative) This Appendix has been compiled as a guide to the compatibility of FJC with pipeline coatings commonly used in Australia. NOTE: Note that it is for guidance only, and is not intended to provide recommendations for a specific FJC with a specific pipeline coating, nor it is intended to exclude the use of a specific FJC with a specific pipeline coating. Indications of suitable compatibility are shown in Table K1. The Table is based on FJCs complying with this Standard. In using the guide, specifiers should also consider the specific requirements of their particular pipeline, taking into account pipeline life, service temperatures, installation conditions, above-ground exposure, the application of cathodic protection, etc.www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 68. © Standards Australia AS 4822—2008 TABLE K1 GUIDE TO SATISFACTORY COMBINATIONS OF FJCs AND FACTORY APPLIED COATINGS FJC 1B, cold- Pipe coating 2A, heat- 2B, heat-shrinkable 3A, fusion bonded 4A, liquid 4B, liquid 4C, fibre- 1A, petrolatum applied 3B, FBE— shrinkable material over liquid epoxy—Single applied applied reinforced tape polymeric Two layer material applied epoxy layer epoxy polyurethane epoxy tape Fusion-bonded polyethylene, AS 4321 Extruded polyethylene, AS/NZS 1518 FBE, AS/NZS 3862 Three layer polyethylene NOTES: 1 Petrolatum tape is typically used to coat pipeline appurtenances, and also in some above-ground situations. It is not recommended for service temperatures above 30°C, or for below-ground use on cathodically protected pipelines. 66 2 This Table is intended as a guide only and does not preclude the use of other combinations. www.standards.org.auThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
  • 69. 67 AS 4822—2008 BIBLIOGRAPHY AS 1199 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes 1199.0 Part 0: Introduction to the ISO 2859 attribute sampling system 1199.1 Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot- by-lot inspection 2885 Pipelines—Gas and liquid petroleum 2885.1 Part 1: Design and construction 4321 Fusion-bonded medium-density polyethylene coating and lining for pipes and fittings AS/NZS 1518 External extruded high-density polyethylene coating system for pipes ISO 9004 Quality management systems—Guidelines for performance improvements HB 18.28 Conformity assessment—Guidance on a third-party certification system for productwww.standards.org.au © Standards Australia
  • 70. AS 4822—2008 68 NOTESThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing
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  • 72. For information regarding the development of Standards contact: Standards Australia Limited GPO Box 476 Sydney NSW 2001 Phone: 02 9237 6000 Fax: 02 9237 6010 Email: mail@standards.org.au Internet: www.standards.org.au For information regarding the sale and distribution of Standards contact: SAI Global Limited Phone: 13 12 42 Fax: 1300 65 49 49 Email: sales@sai-global.com ISBN 0 7337 8870 XThe Standard is downloaded from www.bzfxw.com Standard Sharing