KA Flour Milling Presentation

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A brief introduction to the history of wheat, its production practices, and milling. Presented to King Arthur Employees 2009.

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KA Flour Milling Presentation

  1. 1. How and Where Our Flour is Milled Tod Bramble King Arthur Flour
  2. 2. History <ul><li>First Cultivation: 12000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq, Iran, Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Free threshing, kernels remain attached. </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads to Ethiopia, Great Britain, Spain: 5000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Winter wheat is brought to the US by Russian Menonites in 1874. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wheat
  4. 4. US Wheat By Class
  5. 5. Wheat Classes <ul><li>Description: </li></ul><ul><li>H ard/ S oft </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R ed or W hite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth Habit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W inter or S pring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classes: </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Red Winter (HRW) - blue </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Red Spring (HRS) - yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Soft Red Winter (SRW) - red </li></ul><ul><li>Hard White Winter (HWW) - green </li></ul>
  6. 7. KA Flour Mills
  7. 8. <ul><li>Endosperm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch -> Flour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future wheat plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Milling Process <ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Tempering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accentuates the differences between the 3 parts of the kernel. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Milling - “Gradual Reduction” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flour </li></ul>
  9. 11. Flour Attributes <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An estimate of the amount of gluten forming protein content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An estimate of the amount of bran in the flour. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Falling Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of a flour’s enzymatic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350 seconds + : low enzymatic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 sec +/- 30: suitable of yeast leavened bread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farinograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A description of the type of dough the flour will make upon being mixed with water. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Flour Types <ul><li>All Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10.5% – 11.5% protein, .50 ash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for a wide range of products including cookies, scones, muffins, and some breads. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11.7 – 12.7% protein, .50 ash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for breads, too strong for muffins, scones, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hi-Gluten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14% protein, .52 ash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A very strong flour used for hard rolls, bagels, pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whole Wheat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13% protein, 1.5 ash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all parts of the kernel good for bread. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pastry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9% protein, .45 ash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8% protein, .35 ash, bleached </li></ul></ul>
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