Toc08 Goldthwaite Digitizing Your Backlist


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  • Toc08 Goldthwaite Digitizing Your Backlist

    1. 1. <ul><li>O’Reilly Tools of Change for Publishing Conference </li></ul><ul><li>February 13, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Rebecca Goldthwaite </li></ul><ul><li>Director, Strategic Partner Management – Cengage Learning </li></ul><xml> Digitizing Your Backlist Tutorial </xml>
    2. 2. <ul><li>1300 titles [textbooks, lab manuals, workbooks, etc.] </li></ul><ul><li>187,000 pages </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed content sources [Quark, PDF, OEB, Word, etc.] </li></ul><ul><li>1 internal project manager </li></ul><ul><li>10 internal technical point persons </li></ul><ul><li>3 offshore vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher-supplied onsite training </li></ul><ul><li>Internal & external QA </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking database w/web interface </li></ul>Backlist Project Background
    3. 3. <ul><li>1 Why Digitize Your Backlist? </li></ul><ul><li>2 Content Analysis & Business Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>3 The Backlist Project Team </li></ul><ul><li>4 Backlist Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>5 What’s Next? </li></ul>Digitizing Your Backlist Tutorial
    4. 4. <ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>Why Digitize Your Backlist? </li></ul><?xml?>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Media-neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Agile </li></ul><ul><li>Format-agnostic </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Media-neutral content </li></ul><ul><li>Quick updates </li></ul><ul><li>New business models </li></ul><ul><li>Custom publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Localized products </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated to-market schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Meet accessibility requirements / needs </li></ul>1 Why digitize your backlist?
    7. 7. <ul><li>Many products from one content base </li></ul><ul><li>Content readiness critical to keep up with evolving technology </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized structure/tags is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of assessment materials </li></ul>Media-neutral content
    8. 8. <ul><li>Web vs. print publishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy-sensitive disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-sensitive subject areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology-specific subject areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative publishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration vs. control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revision cycles </li></ul>Quick updates
    9. 9. <ul><li>Long Tail publishing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>eBooks </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic product [web, mobile, iPod] </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Learning Interchange </li></ul>New business models
    10. 10. <ul><li>Death of the Frankenbook </li></ul><ul><li>Custom curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillary products from core books </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing & certification test banks / study aids </li></ul><ul><li>State- or accreditation-specific products </li></ul>Customized publishing
    11. 11. <ul><li>Unit conversions, localized spellings </li></ul><ul><li>Easily create alternate editions </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cost/increased revenue in the international textbook market </li></ul>Localized products
    12. 12. <ul><li>Offer entire product family simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Share digital content between product types with confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard designs & automated composition to speed production cycle </li></ul>Accelerated to-market schedules
    13. 13. <ul><li>Braille </li></ul><ul><li>Large print </li></ul><ul><li>DAISY talking books </li></ul><ul><li>Audio files [text-to-speech transformations] </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive eBooks </li></ul>Meet accessibility requirements/needs
    14. 14. <ul><li>National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard [NIMAS]: </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Accessible Information SYstem [DAISY]: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Web Accessibility Initiative: </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe: http:// /accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508: & </li></ul>Accessibility links
    15. 15. <ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Organize & inventory your content </li></ul><ul><li>Get to know your content </li></ul><ul><li>Establish content standards </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to handle complex content </li></ul>2 Content analysis
    17. 17. <ul><li>Catalog content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printed books/journals, PDFs, application files, miscellaneous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of files/hardcopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider content integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive/print quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content accuracy [poor copyedit, etc.] </li></ul></ul>Organize & inventory your content
    18. 18. <ul><li>Ensure content is available and usable before your project begins </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t wait until the production phase </li></ul><ul><li>Volume forecasts, scheduling and budgeting are difficult if you do not have a clear understanding of what you have </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll discover missing images or other issues mid-conversion – minimize with time spent on your content inventory </li></ul>Lesson Learned Chasing your content is a waste of valuable time
    19. 19. <ul><li>Presentation vs. semantic markup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate content from presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul>Get to know your content
    20. 20. <ul><li>Presentation markup dictates the visual representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bold, italic, underline, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSS for web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic markup describes the content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells you what to expect between the tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List, chapter, title, name, etc. </li></ul></ul>Presentation vs. semantic markup
    21. 21. <ul><li>Rebecca Goldthwaite  |  Director Strategic Partner Management, Production Global Production & Manufacturing Services | Cengage Learning Inc A 5 Maxwell Drive, Clifton Park, NY 12065 | T  518-348-2396 |  C 518-698-6366 </li></ul><ul><li><bold> Rebecca Goldthwaite </bold> <plain>  |  </plain> <italic> Director Strategic Partner Management, Production </italic> <br> <plain> Global Production & Manufacturing Services | Cengage Learning Inc </plain> <br> <bold> A </bold> <plain> 5 Maxwell Drive, Clifton Park, NY 12065 | </plain> <bold> T </bold> <plain>  518-348-2396 |  </plain> <bold> C </bold> <plain> 518-698-6366 </plain> </li></ul>Presentation markup
    22. 22. <ul><li>Rebecca Goldthwaite  |  Director Strategic Partner Management, Production Global Production & Manufacturing Services | Cengage Learning Inc A 5 Maxwell Drive, Clifton Park, NY 12065 | T  518-348-2396 |  C 518-698-6366 </li></ul><ul><li><name> </li></ul><ul><li><first> Rebecca </first> </li></ul><ul><li><last> Goldthwaite </last> </li></ul><ul><li></name> </li></ul><ul><li><title> Director Strategic Partner Management, Production </title> </li></ul><ul><li><division> Global Production & Manufacturing Services </division> </li></ul><ul><li><company> Cengage Learning Inc <company> </li></ul>Semantic markup
    23. 23. When content = presentation
    24. 24. <ul><li>What is the smallest, salient chunk? </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread sampling of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t overlook the really old stuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every book/journal/article/etc. is different </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Editorial is a key participant–they are closest to the content </li></ul><ul><li>Build sample element lists </li></ul>Get to know your content
    25. 25. <ul><li>Determine if there are any standards </li></ul><ul><li>Develop title- or discipline-specific element lists & rules if appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Know how you will map to DTD/schema at a high level if using XML </li></ul><ul><li>Who will be the keeper of standards? </li></ul>Establish content standards
    26. 26. <ul><li>Math, chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry, readings </li></ul><ul><li>Annotations, arrows, callouts </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-content or accounting tables </li></ul><ul><li>Code examples </li></ul><ul><li>Multipart figures </li></ul><ul><li>Cross references </li></ul><ul><li>Position references </li></ul>Decide how to handle complex content
    27. 27. e = mc 2 Math content
    28. 28. Brubby Mommy, why is that man staring at Brubby? I’m not sure how old I was when I realized you were different from the other brothers. That man on the street saw you as something I could not, would not – still do not. Poetry
    29. 29. Annotations, arrows, callouts <ul><li>Multiple images need to be combined and saved as one – but don’t forget to save the native files separately as well </li></ul>
    30. 30. Complex tables
    31. 31. Code examples
    32. 32. Multipart figures <ul><li>Multipart figure with one caption for all three pieces and the two math operators, which most likely have not been set as part of the image file[s]. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Unreferenced figures <ul><li>Which piece of text does this unreferenced image need to anchor to in the XML? </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>This chunk…from the previous page </li></ul>Unreferenced figures cont.
    35. 35. Cross references <ul><li>What happens if you want to combine this with content from a title that uses the term modules ? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to the reference of ‘ previous ’ if the sections are rearranged? </li></ul><ul><li>What if the name of the referenced section changes? </li></ul><ul><li>What if the referenced section is deleted completely or not used when the Serving XML chunk is repurposed? </li></ul>
    36. 36. Position references <ul><li>What happens if this title were reformatted so that the image no longer ‘ followed ’ the callout? </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>Business Decisions </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>Set project goals </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for content reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a conversion format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML vs. PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vs. structured database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vs. hybrid approach </li></ul></ul>3 Business considerations
    39. 39. <ul><li>What are your goals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure you know what they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly articulate internally & externally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Each group will have its own agenda! </li></ul>Set project goals
    40. 40. <ul><li>Market needs </li></ul><ul><li>Community wants/desires </li></ul><ul><li>New product ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known & potential reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore new platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research industry trends & competitive products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meeting federal/state requirements </li></ul>Plan for content reuse
    41. 41. <ul><li>Consider the end product/platform/use </li></ul><ul><li>Consider future needs/use </li></ul><ul><li>Consider budgetary restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Consider schedule/deadlines </li></ul>Choose a conversion format In-depth content analysis is necessary regardless of final format chosen!
    42. 42. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely searchable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible – can be rendered many times in many different ways while leaving content intact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores content in a meaningful way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows seamless content repurposing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not human-eye friendly, will need to be rendered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So many decisions [DTD, schema] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more technical support & infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally a longer production cycle </li></ul></ul>XML
    43. 43. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-eye friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added interactivity can be useful to end users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally faster, cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited searchability –fully searchable PDFs can be almost as much work as XML conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content repurposing is evident to end user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content is not stored in a meaningful way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding metadata & links </li></ul></ul>PDF
    44. 44. <ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>The Backlist Project Team </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Functional areas & staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor[s] </li></ul>4 The backlist project team
    46. 46. <ul><li>Identify functional areas to include & determine team size </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss project goals to build consensus & gain support </li></ul><ul><li>Establish expectations & roles </li></ul>Functional areas & staffing Training Group Production Technology Rights & Permissions Vendor Management Content Services Production Editorial Project Management
    47. 47. <ul><li>Is staff dedicated to this project only? </li></ul><ul><li>Will volume of work be reasonable? </li></ul><ul><li>Are expectations clear? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you build consensus for this initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>Are appropriate technical resources available? </li></ul>Considerations
    48. 48. <ul><li>22+ team members </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus was not a focus </li></ul><ul><li>Production-centric initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing & Custom groups were not involved </li></ul>Our backlist team Custom Marketing Training Group 0 Production Technology 3 Rights & Permissions various reps Vendor Management 1 Content Services 6+ Production 11 TPPs Editorial reps from all lists Project Management 1
    49. 49. <ul><li>Recognize that engagement will vary </li></ul><ul><li>Hold weekly meetings to stay focused & on schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Hold team accountable, but with reasonable expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Make time commitments clear from the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain buy-in from both team members and their managers </li></ul><ul><li>An escalation plan is important for issues related to task execution, but make it your last resort </li></ul><ul><li>Back-up plans enable you to react quickly to lost resources </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize teamwork by being a team player yourself! </li></ul>Lesson Learned Team engagement can make or break your project
    50. 50. <ul><li>Internal vs. external </li></ul><ul><li>Individual vs. team </li></ul><ul><li>Experience considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Budget considerations </li></ul>Project management
    51. 51. <ul><li>Execution </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Project & process knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Planning & troubleshooting </li></ul>Critical PM competencies
    52. 52. <ul><li>Onshore vs. offshore </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Training requirements </li></ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency/quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing & tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test/pilot potential vendors </li></ul>Vendor[s]
    53. 53. <ul><li>True or False? Offshore teams are not fluent in English. </li></ul><ul><li>True or False? Offshore teams are only experienced in hard disciplines, such as mathematics and physics. </li></ul><ul><li>True or False? Offshore teams have working hours that make project implementation difficult and relationships complicated to build and maintain. </li></ul>Offshore vendor True or False
    54. 54. <ul><li>There are cultural & communication differences </li></ul><ul><li>The customer is always right, even when not </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions will be followed implicitly – what happens if you’re wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties with the N word – No </li></ul><ul><li>Building trust is critical </li></ul>Lesson Learned Working with an offshore vendors is worth the effort
    55. 55. <ul><li>5 </li></ul><ul><li>Backlist Project Management </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>Identify training requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Determine process and workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a quality assurance plan </li></ul><ul><li>Build a schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize your budget & pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Implement tracking & reporting mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for the unexpected </li></ul>5 Backlist project management
    57. 57. <ul><li>Identify training needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor[s] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create & execute training plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot & training packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for just-in-time training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onsite vs. remote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query/response plan </li></ul></ul>Training
    58. 58. <ul><li>Identify internal processes & workflows </li></ul><ul><li>Identify vendor processes & workflows </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze for potential problem areas </li></ul>Process & workflow
    59. 59. <ul><li>Allow vendors to find efficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Insist on automation </li></ul><ul><li>Set clear expectations for deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a pilot before starting to establish true scope & test the process </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with vendor[s] </li></ul><ul><li>Your vendor does this for a living – you just think about it for a living – become partners </li></ul>Lesson Learned Don’t create a process that is too rigid or too fluid
    60. 60. <ul><li>QA tool decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Internal vs. external QA </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing files </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking QA issues </li></ul><ul><li>Automate, automate, automate!!! </li></ul>Quality assurance
    61. 61. <ul><li>Pilots/testing </li></ul><ul><li>Start-up </li></ul><ul><li>Ramp-up </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Completion </li></ul>Schedule phases
    62. 62. <ul><li>Be realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Meet both internal & vendor expectations and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Consider content complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate ramp-up </li></ul><ul><li>Account for bottlenecks & technology/tool hurdles </li></ul>Schedules should:
    63. 63. <ul><li>Determine titles/products/pages earmarked for conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Review pricing proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Identify $$ allocated </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a pricing model that works </li></ul><ul><li>Implement invoicing & budget-tracking procedures </li></ul>Budgets & pricing models
    64. 64. <ul><li>Identify the phases of production activity </li></ul><ul><li>Identify any interdependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Identify accountability for each phase [vendor vs. internal, for example] </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to separate discrete activities </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence phases based upon activities & appropriate interdependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Base pipeline reporting on these phases </li></ul>Mapping production activity
    65. 65. <ul><li>Establish tracking/reporting process & tools </li></ul><ul><li>Base data entry milestones on these activities </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate data entry responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Establish timing for data entry based upon when it will be pulled for trend tracking & reporting </li></ul>Tracking production activity
    66. 66. Sample production activity map Permissions gathering Source files to vendor Sample conversion Sample QA /approval Full conversion Full QA/approval Delivery readiness
    67. 67. Sample pipeline phasing Awaiting permissions Awaiting source files With vendor for conversion: sample Sample package with QA With vendor for conversion: full Full package with QA With vendor for delivery Final package delivered
    68. 68. Activity – pipeline correlation Awaiting permissions Awaiting source files With vendor for conversion: sample Sample package with QA With vendor for conversion: full Full package with QA With vendor for delivery Final package delivered Source files to vendor Sample QA/approval Full QA/approval Permissions gathering Sample conversion Full conversion Delivery readiness
    69. 69. <ul><li>Generate a pipeline report to identify bottlenecks </li></ul><ul><li>Use status meetings with both vendors and internal staff to resolve </li></ul>Pipeline reports for trend analysis
    70. 70. <ul><li>Content availability </li></ul><ul><li>Source file integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Permissions gathering delays </li></ul><ul><li>Content complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Internal staff workload </li></ul><ul><li>QA process & tools </li></ul><ul><li>Technology & tool hurdles </li></ul>Identifying & resolving obstacles
    71. 71. <ul><li>? </li></ul>Planning for the unexpected
    72. 72. <ul><li>6 </li></ul><ul><li>What’s Next? </li></ul>
    73. 73. <ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Findability </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul>6 What’s next?
    74. 74. <ul><li>Playing nicely with others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interacting with third party content/systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online & print mashups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subscription-based models w/third parties </li></ul><ul><li>Open-source learning management systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sakai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to convert your assessment content! </li></ul></ul>Interoperability
    75. 75. <ul><li>Importance of metadata & ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum based upon learning objectives / state educational standards </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic web applications/interoperability </li></ul>Findability
    76. 76. <ul><li>Content management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Linking digitized content to other assets & systems </li></ul><ul><li>Storing rights & permissions with your content </li></ul><ul><li>Access / editing considerations </li></ul>Storage XML/ PDFs R&P Images Metadata Other Systems
    77. 77. <ul><li>Modularity vs. linearity </li></ul><ul><li>Securing comprehensive rights </li></ul><ul><li>Authoring tools & templates for content consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic editing, proofing, revisions </li></ul>Authoring
    78. 78. <ul><li>Plan to Fail </li></ul><ul><li>Optimistic conversations about new initiatives often sound like this: “If we have this and this and this and this it will all work!” Yes, but what happens when some of those necessary pieces are not in place, or something breaks? The process breaks down. Plan on failure happening—often. There will be fewer surprises and the ones that you do encounter will be more manageable and less stressful. I truly believe that if you are successful on your first attempt at anything, you didn’t take enough risk and could have been far more successful in the long run by failing a few times and learning a lot along the way. </li></ul>