Hear to Learn
Dr. Krista Yuskow
Brainworks Conference
November 2, 2013

Friday, 1 November, 13
Today’s Talk
1. Hearing vs. Listening
1. Barriers to Auditory Access
2. Auditory Processing
3. Strategies for the Classroo...
Listening

Cognition Attention

Memory

Hearing

Children are required to listen throughout
their day.
Friday, 1 November,...
Listening

Cognition Attention

Memory

Chemotherapy

Hearing

Children are required to listen throughout
their day.
Frida...
Listening

Radiation

Cognition Attention

Memory

Chemotherapy

Hearing

Children are required to listen throughout
their...
Listening

Radiation

Cognition Attention

Radiation

Memory

Chemotherapy

Hearing

Children are required to listen throu...
Listening

Radiation

Radiation

Cognition Attention

Radiation

Memory

Chemotherapy

Hearing

Children are required to l...
Listening

Radiation

Radiation

Radiation

Cognition Attention

Memory

Chemotherapy

Hearing

Difficulties
Processing

C...
Hearing
Ear level

Listening
Brain level

Passive process Hearing with attention
and intention
The ear’s ability
to detect...
Hearing
Ear level

Listening
Brain level

%
5
6

Passive process Hearing with attention
and intention
The ear’s ability
to...
The Role of Cognition for All
Listeners
Allows listening to focus on a target
Supports more complex processing of
inform...
Hearing is Assumed
… and often overlooked.

 If that’s true for hearing, even more true for listening
 Hearing/listening...
Audition and Cognition

Pichora-Fuller, 2006
Friday, 1 November, 13
Audition and Cognition
Audition

Cognitio
n

Pichora-Fuller, 2006
Friday, 1 November, 13
Audition and Cognition
Cognitio
n

Audition

Cognitio
n

Audition

Pichora-Fuller, 2006
Friday, 1 November, 13
Barriers to Auditory Access


Classroom Acoustics



Hearing Loss



Auditory processing



Speech level & clarity


...
Classroom Acoustics




noise
reverberation
distance

?

Co

h
ug

!

Co

ugh

Co

Friday, 1 November, 13

ug

!

h!
10

As the distance between teacher & student
increases, the amount of info the student is able
to understand decreases.

...
RATSI

Friday, 1 November, 13

11
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the front row to hear clearly!

F...
1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the front row to hear clearly!...
60 dBA

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the front row to hear ...
60 dBA

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the front row to hear ...
60 dBA

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the front row t...
54 dBA

60 dBA

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the fro...
54 dBA

60 dBA

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the fro...
54 dBA

5m

60 dBA

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough for the...
48 dBA

5m

54 dBA

60 dBA

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough...
48 dBA

5m

54 dBA

60 dBA

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only enough...
48 dBA

54 dBA

60 dBA

10 m

5m

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres –
only ...
42 dBA

48 dBA

54 dBA

60 dBA

10 m

5m

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres...
42 dBA

48 dBA

54 dBA

60 dBA

10 m

5m

2.5 m

1m
A typical teacher’s voice measures
60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres...
The Combined Effect

The farther the student is from the desired speaker the
more noise and reverberation will interfere w...
100
80
60
50dB
BGN

40

typical classroom noise

20
0

Friday, 1 November, 13

12
3
6
9
Distance from teacher in Metres
100
80
60
50dB
BGN

40

typical classroom noise

20
0

Friday, 1 November, 13

12
3
6
9
Distance from teacher in Metres
100
80
60
50dB
BGN

40

typical classroom noise

20
0

Friday, 1 November, 13

12
3
6
9
Distance from teacher in Metres
100
80
60
50dB
BGN

40

typical classroom noise

20
0

Friday, 1 November, 13

12
3
6
9
Distance from teacher in Metres
100
80
60
50dB
BGN

40

typical classroom noise

20
0

Friday, 1 November, 13

12
3
6
9
Distance from teacher in Metres
100
80
60
50dB
BGN

40

typical classroom noise

20
0

Friday, 1 November, 13

12
3
6
9
Distance from teacher in Metres
“Oh, they can hear me…
I have a loud voice”.

Friday, 1 November, 13
Miniature Adults?
 Children are not mini-versions of adults.
- Language development
- Auditory development

 Children re...
Think of the following words:
Walk
Walks
Walked
Talk
Talks
Talked
Top
Tops
Topped

Friday, 1 November, 13

Making your
voi...
Think of the following words:
Making your
voice louder
does not
necessarily
make your
voice heard.

Friday, 1 November, 13
Think of the following words:
Walk
Walks
Walked
Talk
Talks
Talked
Top
Tops
Topped

Friday, 1 November, 13

Making your
voi...
Hearing vs. Comprehending
 Gr.2 vs 400 level college course
 Auditory-Cognitive closure
 Young ears/brains cannot accur...
19

Auditory-Cognitive Closure
Friday, 1 November, 13
Hearing Loss
¼ of K/1 students in typical
classrooms do not hear normally on
any given day.

Flexor, Richards, Buie, Brand...
Why do children get ear infections?
Eustachian tube
 Becomes inflamed or
does not open properly

Friday, 1 November, 13
• Fluid builds up and cannot drain.
• Bacteria or viruses can move into this fluid.

May result in conductive hearing loss...
Some chemotherapies can result in high frequency hearing loss
Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
The Audiogram

Friday, 1 November, 13
I’m so misunderstood….

Friday, 1 November, 13
Auditory Processing
Hearing occurs at the ear level.
Processing occurs at the brain level.
“What we do with what we hea...
Friday, 1 November, 13
Friday, 1 November, 13
What is it?
 A breakdown in auditory abilities resulting in
diminished learning (e.g. comprehension)
through hearing.
Ev...
What Causes APD?
Developmental delays
CANS disorders
Neurologic disorders/disease
Genetic predisposition
 Reduced or ...
Auditory Processing is Typically Maturational
Children require:
a louder speech signal
a slower rate of speech

 repetiti...
 Children require a
more complete,
detailed auditory
signal.
 Young ears/brains
cannot accurately
‘repair’ what is
misse...
Bottom-Up Processing
 How the information gets from the ear to the brain.
 Bottom-up processing can result in incomplete...
Top-Down Processing
Once information is in the brain… how it is
categorized, organized, retrieved, etc.
 Applying meanin...
Fishin’ Talk

Friday, 1 November, 13
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Friday, 1 November, 13

Lobuddy.
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Lobuddy.

Binearlong?

Coplours.

Friday, 1 November, 13
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Lobuddy.

Binearlong?

Coplours.

Cetchanenny?

Goddafew.

Friday, 1 November, 13
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Lobuddy.

Binearlong?

Coplours.

Cetchanenny?

Goddafew.

Kindarthey?

Bassenperch.

Friday, 1 Nov...
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Lobuddy.

Binearlong?

Coplours.

Cetchanenny?

Goddafew.

Kindarthey?

Bassenperch.

Ennysizetoom?...
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Lobuddy.

Binearlong?

Coplours.

Cetchanenny?

Goddafew.

Kindarthey?

Bassenperch.

Ennysizetoom?...
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Lobuddy.

Binearlong?

Coplours.

Cetchanenny?

Goddafew.

Kindarthey?

Bassenperch.

Ennysizetoom?...
Fishin’ Talk
Hiyamac.

Lobuddy.

Binearlong?

Coplours.

Cetchanenny?

Goddafew.

Kindarthey?

Bassenperch.

Ennysizetoom?...
Students with APD often have
difficulties with the following
educational activities:

Friday, 1 November, 13
Hearing or understanding speech in a noisy
room or in groups of people
Following long conversations
Learning a second l...
Taking notes
Organizational skills
Following multi-step instructions
Spelling, reading and/or phonemic awareness skill...
Students with APD may additionally
experience difficulties with:

Friday, 1 November, 13
Exhibiting inappropriate behaviors because of
frustration
Peer relations and social confidence
Sensitivity to loud soun...
Management:
What Can I do to Help?

Friday, 1 November, 13
Management Myth
 The problem needs to be cured for the treatment
to have value.
 Conclusion: since there is no ‘cure’, n...
Make the classroom a good
listening environment.
 Improved bottom-up (CADS or pFM)
Seating placement/arrangement
 Reduc...
CADS
 Universal Design for Learning
CADS improves signal-to-noise ratio
CADS help to maximize speech/intelligibility
C...
44

SPEECH TRANSMISSION (RASTI)

Friday, 1 November, 13
Help the Student Focus on
What is Being Said
 Eye contact

Stay on topic

Identify and
paraphrase

Comprehension
Monit...
Watch for Signs of Frustration
Provide extra time to process
auditory information
Paraphrase rather than repeat.
Summar...
Other Strategies
 New concept/vocabulary support

 Provision of notes / technology to support
 Demonstrations and exper...
cs,
r acousti loss
Poo
ring
alth, hea g
he
sin
d proces n all
an
ca
ifficulties ibility
d
ellig
affect int ehension.
pr
an...
Questions???
k

Friday, 1 November, 13

epsb.ca
@
.yuskow
rista
APD Management: Auditory Training
 FastForWord
 Earobics
 Lindamood-Bell material (e.g. LiPS)
 Treating Auditory Proce...
APD Management: Direct Treatment
Communication repair strategy development
 Build in top-down skills.

Multiple modalit...
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Brainworks hear to learn 2013

  1. 1. Hear to Learn Dr. Krista Yuskow Brainworks Conference November 2, 2013 Friday, 1 November, 13
  2. 2. Today’s Talk 1. Hearing vs. Listening 1. Barriers to Auditory Access 2. Auditory Processing 3. Strategies for the Classroom Friday, 1 November, 13
  3. 3. Listening Cognition Attention Memory Hearing Children are required to listen throughout their day. Friday, 1 November, 13
  4. 4. Listening Cognition Attention Memory Chemotherapy Hearing Children are required to listen throughout their day. Friday, 1 November, 13
  5. 5. Listening Radiation Cognition Attention Memory Chemotherapy Hearing Children are required to listen throughout their day. Friday, 1 November, 13
  6. 6. Listening Radiation Cognition Attention Radiation Memory Chemotherapy Hearing Children are required to listen throughout their day. Friday, 1 November, 13
  7. 7. Listening Radiation Radiation Cognition Attention Radiation Memory Chemotherapy Hearing Children are required to listen throughout their day. Friday, 1 November, 13
  8. 8. Listening Radiation Radiation Radiation Cognition Attention Memory Chemotherapy Hearing Difficulties Processing Children are required to listen throughout their day. Friday, 1 November, 13
  9. 9. Hearing Ear level Listening Brain level Passive process Hearing with attention and intention The ear’s ability to detect sound Comprehending Brain Level Reception of information, meaning and intent Demands mental effort Involve hearing, cognition, attention and memory. Require cognitive and auditory processing. Friday, 1 November, 13
  10. 10. Hearing Ear level Listening Brain level % 5 6 Passive process Hearing with attention and intention The ear’s ability to detect sound Comprehending Brain Level Reception of information, meaning and intent Demands mental effort Involve hearing, cognition, attention and memory. Require cognitive and auditory processing. Friday, 1 November, 13
  11. 11. The Role of Cognition for All Listeners Allows listening to focus on a target Supports more complex processing of information Compensates by drawing on context and non-auditory issues (top down) Precision and uncertainty (Singh, 2012) Friday, 1 November, 13
  12. 12. Hearing is Assumed … and often overlooked.  If that’s true for hearing, even more true for listening  Hearing/listening skills are a scaffold for other types of information processing (language, attention, pragmatics, etc.)  All of this is wrapped in cognition Friday, 1 November, 13
  13. 13. Audition and Cognition Pichora-Fuller, 2006 Friday, 1 November, 13
  14. 14. Audition and Cognition Audition Cognitio n Pichora-Fuller, 2006 Friday, 1 November, 13
  15. 15. Audition and Cognition Cognitio n Audition Cognitio n Audition Pichora-Fuller, 2006 Friday, 1 November, 13
  16. 16. Barriers to Auditory Access  Classroom Acoustics  Hearing Loss  Auditory processing  Speech level & clarity  Language proficiency Friday, 1 November, 13
  17. 17. Classroom Acoustics    noise reverberation distance ? Co h ug ! Co ugh Co Friday, 1 November, 13 ug ! h!
  18. 18. 10 As the distance between teacher & student increases, the amount of info the student is able to understand decreases. Friday, 1 November, 13
  19. 19. RATSI Friday, 1 November, 13 11
  20. 20. A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  21. 21. 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  22. 22. 60 dBA 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  23. 23. 60 dBA 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  24. 24. 60 dBA 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  25. 25. 54 dBA 60 dBA 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  26. 26. 54 dBA 60 dBA 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  27. 27. 54 dBA 5m 60 dBA 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  28. 28. 48 dBA 5m 54 dBA 60 dBA 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  29. 29. 48 dBA 5m 54 dBA 60 dBA 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  30. 30. 48 dBA 54 dBA 60 dBA 10 m 5m 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  31. 31. 42 dBA 48 dBA 54 dBA 60 dBA 10 m 5m 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  32. 32. 42 dBA 48 dBA 54 dBA 60 dBA 10 m 5m 2.5 m 1m A typical teacher’s voice measures 60-65dB at a distance of 1.2 metres – only enough for the front row to hear clearly! Friday, 1 November, 13
  33. 33. The Combined Effect The farther the student is from the desired speaker the more noise and reverberation will interfere with speech understanding. Friday, 1 November, 13
  34. 34. 100 80 60 50dB BGN 40 typical classroom noise 20 0 Friday, 1 November, 13 12 3 6 9 Distance from teacher in Metres
  35. 35. 100 80 60 50dB BGN 40 typical classroom noise 20 0 Friday, 1 November, 13 12 3 6 9 Distance from teacher in Metres
  36. 36. 100 80 60 50dB BGN 40 typical classroom noise 20 0 Friday, 1 November, 13 12 3 6 9 Distance from teacher in Metres
  37. 37. 100 80 60 50dB BGN 40 typical classroom noise 20 0 Friday, 1 November, 13 12 3 6 9 Distance from teacher in Metres
  38. 38. 100 80 60 50dB BGN 40 typical classroom noise 20 0 Friday, 1 November, 13 12 3 6 9 Distance from teacher in Metres
  39. 39. 100 80 60 50dB BGN 40 typical classroom noise 20 0 Friday, 1 November, 13 12 3 6 9 Distance from teacher in Metres
  40. 40. “Oh, they can hear me… I have a loud voice”. Friday, 1 November, 13
  41. 41. Miniature Adults?  Children are not mini-versions of adults. - Language development - Auditory development  Children require a more complete, detailed auditory signal. Friday, 1 November, 13
  42. 42. Think of the following words: Walk Walks Walked Talk Talks Talked Top Tops Topped Friday, 1 November, 13 Making your voice louder does not necessarily make your voice heard.
  43. 43. Think of the following words: Making your voice louder does not necessarily make your voice heard. Friday, 1 November, 13
  44. 44. Think of the following words: Walk Walks Walked Talk Talks Talked Top Tops Topped Friday, 1 November, 13 Making your voice louder does not necessarily make your voice heard.
  45. 45. Hearing vs. Comprehending  Gr.2 vs 400 level college course  Auditory-Cognitive closure  Young ears/brains cannot accurately ‘repair’ what is missed or misheard.  The importance of high frequency information Friday, 1 November, 13
  46. 46. 19 Auditory-Cognitive Closure Friday, 1 November, 13
  47. 47. Hearing Loss ¼ of K/1 students in typical classrooms do not hear normally on any given day. Flexor, Richards, Buie, Brandy; 1994 Friday, 1 November, 13
  48. 48. Why do children get ear infections? Eustachian tube  Becomes inflamed or does not open properly Friday, 1 November, 13
  49. 49. • Fluid builds up and cannot drain. • Bacteria or viruses can move into this fluid. May result in conductive hearing loss Friday, 1 November, 13
  50. 50. Some chemotherapies can result in high frequency hearing loss Friday, 1 November, 13
  51. 51. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  52. 52. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  53. 53. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  54. 54. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  55. 55. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  56. 56. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  57. 57. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  58. 58. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  59. 59. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  60. 60. The Audiogram Friday, 1 November, 13
  61. 61. I’m so misunderstood…. Friday, 1 November, 13
  62. 62. Auditory Processing Hearing occurs at the ear level. Processing occurs at the brain level. “What we do with what we hear.” (Katz) Friday, 1 November, 13
  63. 63. Friday, 1 November, 13
  64. 64. Friday, 1 November, 13
  65. 65. What is it?  A breakdown in auditory abilities resulting in diminished learning (e.g. comprehension) through hearing. Even if peripheral hearing sensitivity is normal. Deficits in auditory processing are often associated with listening, comprehension, language, and learning difficulties. Friday, 1 November, 13
  66. 66. What Causes APD? Developmental delays CANS disorders Neurologic disorders/disease Genetic predisposition  Reduced or inconsistent auditory stimulation  Brain injury  Demeylinating Diseases Friday, 1 November, 13
  67. 67. Auditory Processing is Typically Maturational Children require: a louder speech signal a slower rate of speech  repetition of information  more time. * Children with auditory processing difficulties as a result of radiation/chemotherapy treatments, hearing loss or other nonmaturational causes may not develop listening skills to that of their peers. http://www.learningthroughlistening.org/Listening-A-Powerful-Skill/The-Science-of-Listening/History-and-Overview-of-Listening/91/ Friday, 1 November, 13
  68. 68.  Children require a more complete, detailed auditory signal.  Young ears/brains cannot accurately ‘repair’ what is missed or misheard. Friday, 1 November, 13
  69. 69. Bottom-Up Processing  How the information gets from the ear to the brain.  Bottom-up processing can result in incomplete information. Sound Waves Auditory Identification Aud/Lang Processing Concept Undrstng To compensate for incomplete information we use top-down processing. Friday, 1 November, 13
  70. 70. Top-Down Processing Once information is in the brain… how it is categorized, organized, retrieved, etc.  Applying meaning to language (Beck, 2012) Friday, 1 November, 13
  71. 71. Fishin’ Talk Friday, 1 November, 13
  72. 72. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Friday, 1 November, 13 Lobuddy.
  73. 73. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Lobuddy. Binearlong? Coplours. Friday, 1 November, 13
  74. 74. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Lobuddy. Binearlong? Coplours. Cetchanenny? Goddafew. Friday, 1 November, 13
  75. 75. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Lobuddy. Binearlong? Coplours. Cetchanenny? Goddafew. Kindarthey? Bassenperch. Friday, 1 November, 13
  76. 76. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Lobuddy. Binearlong? Coplours. Cetchanenny? Goddafew. Kindarthey? Bassenperch. Ennysizetoom? Couplapowns. Friday, 1 November, 13
  77. 77. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Lobuddy. Binearlong? Coplours. Cetchanenny? Goddafew. Kindarthey? Bassenperch. Ennysizetoom? Couplapowns. Hittinhard? Sordalike. Friday, 1 November, 13
  78. 78. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Lobuddy. Binearlong? Coplours. Cetchanenny? Goddafew. Kindarthey? Bassenperch. Ennysizetoom? Couplapowns. Hittinhard? Sordalike. Igoddago. Seyaroun. Friday, 1 November, 13
  79. 79. Fishin’ Talk Hiyamac. Lobuddy. Binearlong? Coplours. Cetchanenny? Goddafew. Kindarthey? Bassenperch. Ennysizetoom? Couplapowns. Hittinhard? Sordalike. Igoddago. Seyaroun. Yatakideezy. Guluk. Friday, 1 November, 13
  80. 80. Students with APD often have difficulties with the following educational activities: Friday, 1 November, 13
  81. 81. Hearing or understanding speech in a noisy room or in groups of people Following long conversations Learning a second language Learning challenging vocabulary words Remembering spoken information/instructions Maintaining focus in the presence of noise Friday, 1 November, 13
  82. 82. Taking notes Organizational skills Following multi-step instructions Spelling, reading and/or phonemic awareness skills Keeping up with classroom work Paying attention and may be easily distracted Friday, 1 November, 13
  83. 83. Students with APD may additionally experience difficulties with: Friday, 1 November, 13
  84. 84. Exhibiting inappropriate behaviors because of frustration Peer relations and social confidence Sensitivity to loud sounds Locating traffic and other environmental sounds Fatigue and may tire more easily than classmates Passive learning: students with miss important information when the conversation is not directed towards them Friday, 1 November, 13
  85. 85. Management: What Can I do to Help? Friday, 1 November, 13
  86. 86. Management Myth  The problem needs to be cured for the treatment to have value.  Conclusion: since there is no ‘cure’, nothing can be done. The “diagnosis as treatment” model: Recognize that the disorder exists. Current research in neuralplasticity suggests that changes occur over a long time frame (The Brain that Changes Itself by Norman Doidge, 2007) Whitelaw, 2012 Friday, 1 November, 13
  87. 87. Make the classroom a good listening environment.  Improved bottom-up (CADS or pFM) Seating placement/arrangement  Reduce classroom noise  Slow rate of speech Friday, 1 November, 13
  88. 88. CADS  Universal Design for Learning CADS improves signal-to-noise ratio CADS help to maximize speech/intelligibility CADS provide redundancy to the bottom-up system. Be aware that the use of technology is NOT a panacea for children with APD. Friday, 1 November, 13
  89. 89. 44 SPEECH TRANSMISSION (RASTI) Friday, 1 November, 13
  90. 90. Help the Student Focus on What is Being Said  Eye contact Stay on topic Identify and paraphrase Comprehension Monitoring Visual cues/ supports* Provide short breaks “Chunk” information Friday, 1 November, 13 Self advocacy / Mindfulness
  91. 91. Watch for Signs of Frustration Provide extra time to process auditory information Paraphrase rather than repeat. Summarize discussions. Friday, 1 November, 13
  92. 92. Other Strategies  New concept/vocabulary support  Provision of notes / technology to support  Demonstrations and experiments  Exam accommodations  Multiple means of representation  Elbow partner Friday, 1 November, 13
  93. 93. cs, r acousti loss Poo ring alth, hea g he sin d proces n all an ca ifficulties ibility d ellig affect int ehension. pr and com Friday, 1 November, 13
  94. 94. Questions??? k Friday, 1 November, 13 epsb.ca @ .yuskow rista
  95. 95. APD Management: Auditory Training  FastForWord  Earobics  Lindamood-Bell material (e.g. LiPS)  Treating Auditory Processing Difficulties in Children (Sloane)  Rosner’s approach (good home material)  Helping Children Overcome Learning Difficulties; pages 189-210. Rosner's books and tests can be found in Academic Therapy Publication catalog.  Noise desensitization training  Training in areas of deficit, including speech perception training  Moncrieff: Dichotic listening skills - dichotic interaural intensity difference training  Sweetow, LACE  Jirsa, P-300 research; Kraus, BioMAP research Friday, 1 November, 13
  96. 96. APD Management: Direct Treatment Communication repair strategy development  Build in top-down skills. Multiple modality input may be beneficial  However in some cases, global/multiple modality processing issues arise. Friday, 1 November, 13

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