THE EMERGENCE of DR. THOMAS WOODROW WILSON Office-hungry Democrats – the “outs” since 1897 – were jubilant over the disruptive Republican brawl at the convention in Chicago. If the Democrats could come up with an outstanding reformist leader, they had an excellent chance to win the White House. Such a leader emerged in Dr. WoodrowWilson, once a mild conservative but now a militant progressive. Provide a profile of Wilson. When the Democrats met at Baltimore in 1912, Wilson was nominated, aided by William Jennings Bryan’s switch to his side. The Democrats gave Wilson a strong progressive platform to run on; dubbed the “New Freedom” program. Identify the platform’s components.
THE “BULL MOOSE” CAMPAIGN of 1912TR formally split the Republican party when he became the presidential candidate on athird-party Progressive Republican ticket, championing the cause of social justice.By dividing the Republican vote, they virtually guaranteed a Democratic victory.The two antagonists tore into each other as only former friends can. What were theirchief insults to each other?
TR set out on a barn-storming campaign, desperately trying to win another term and re-igniting his progressive agenda.
Beyond the clashing personalities, the overshadowing question of the 1912 campaign waswhich of two varieties of progressivism would prevail – TR’s New Nationalism or Wilson’sNew Freedom. Both men favored a more active govt. role in economic & social affairs, butthey disagreed sharply over specific strategies.TR’s “NEW NATIONALISM” v. WILSON’S “NEW FREEDOM”•Favored continued consolidation of * Favored small enterprise, entrepreneur- trusts & labor unions, paralleled by the ship, and the free functioning of growth of powerful regulatory agencies unregulated and un-monopolized markets in Washington (Jeffersonian)•Called for woman’s suffrage and more * Shunned social welfare proposals social welfare (minimum wage laws)•Favored an activist welfare state like * Cornerstone was not regulation but the future New Deal program of FDR fragmentation of big business through enforcement of anti-trust laws
WOODROW WILSON: A MINORITY PRESIDENTWilson won the presidential contest handily. But with winning only 41% of the vote, Wilsonwas clearly a minority president, though the Democrats won a majority in Congress. The election results indicate that Progressivism, rather than Wilson was the runaway winner. How was Roosevelt’s lone-wolf course tragic for both himself and for the Republican party? What would be the fate for Taft?
Not to be ignored from the election results was the strong showing for Socialistcandidate Eugene Debs, who won more than 900,000 votes. Socialists dreamed of being inthe White House within eight years.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN TR & WILSON Both were born into “secure” families Both accepted conventional laissez-faire philosophy Both believed they stood for the general welfare rather than special interests Both were wary of organized labor & the Populist movement (socialist?) Both were suspicious of trusts Both were late converts to progressivism •The biggest difference between the two men was the ability and willingness of TR to work with political opponents/rivals. Wilson would not do this and he paid dearly.
THE NEW FREEDOM in ACTIONWilson aimed to attack the “Triple Wall of Privilege”, including tariffs, banks, andtrusts. Tariff Reform: Underwood Tariff (1912) 1. Substantially reduced tariffs 2. It was the first tariff reform since the Civil War 3. Generally still protectionist, but a more moderate level
Banking Reform: The Federal Reserve Act1. Ended the debate between a private or govt.-run banking system.2. Provided for an elastic money supply3. Passed as a result of the findings of the Pujo Commission4. The nation was divided into 12 federal 7. A Federal Reserve Board reserve districts would/could control interest5. Each central bank could clear checks & print rates money 8. The chairman would act6. Each central bank would serve as a banker’s independently of the 3 branches bank of govt.
Control of Trusts: The Clayton Anti-Trust Act1. Purpose: To rectify the weaknesses of the Sherman Act – what was its’ primary weakness?2. Provisions: a. Forbade the interlocking directorate b. Forbade stock pooling c. Restricted price fixing d. Corporate leaders personally responsible for violations e. Excluded labor as a “combination in restraint of trade” f. Federal Trade Commission established
OTHER NEW FREEDOM REFORMS* 17th Amendment: Direct election of senators * LaFollette Seaman’s Act: Regulated American merchant marine * Child Labor Laws: Prohibited interstate trade of goods made by the use of child labor (later declared unconstitutional) * Adamson Act: Provided an 8-hour work day for railroad workers * Federal Farm Loan Act: Provided for low interest loans to farmers * 19th Amendment: Women gained the right to vote (1920)Wilson was a southerner and a bigot. He believed blacks to be inferior and they were excluded fromhis New Freedom programs. He did support Louis Brandies, a Jew, for nomination to the SupremeCourt.
NEW DIRECTIONS in FOREIGN POLICYIn foreign policy areas, how was Wilson different from TR? What were his viewsregarding TR’s “big stick” diplomacy and Taft’s “dollar” diplomacy? But as mostpresidents quickly discover, political realities often temper or change a new president’spolicies.Despite his anti-imperialism views, political turmoil in Haiti forced Wilson to dispatchmarines to protect American lives and property, which resembled a move that TR wouldhave made.
In other imperialistic moves, Wilson dispatched marines to quell riots in the DominicanRepublic, which lasted for 8 years.In 1917 Wilson purchased from Denmark the Virgin Islands, located in the West Indies.Increasingly, the Caribbean Sea, with its vital approaches to the Panama Canal, was takingon the earmarks of Yankee reserve.
MORALISTIC DIPLOMACY in MEXICO Revolution and outside exploitation plagued Mexico during the first years of the 20th century. By 1913 American capitalists had sunk about a billion dollars into the under-developed but richly endowed country, and about 50,000 U.S. citizens lived in Mexico. In 1913 a murderous clique murdered the popular new revolutionary president and installed General Huerta, a full-blooded Indian, in the president’s chair. How did this turmoil impact the U.S.?
Wilson’s policy stood firmly against demands for intervention. It was “perilous,” hedeclared, to determine foreign policy, “in the terms of material interest.” But he alsorefused to officially recognize the govt. of Huerta, even though most foreign powersrecognized his regime. He also allowed American arms to flow to Huerta’s principalrivals, Venustiano Carranza and “Pancho” Villa.How was Wilson’s policy complicated by the Tampico Incident? What rescued Wilsonfrom war with Mexico?The Huerta regime collapsed in 1914 and Carranza took over the presidency. Was hepro-U.S.?
“Pancho” Villa emerged as the chief rival of President Carranza, whom Wilson reluctantlysupported with arms and diplomatic recognition. Villa hated Americans – explain theevents occurring in Columbus, New Mexico in 1916. What was Wilson’s response?
Pershing’s force of cavalry penetrated deep into Mexico, clashed with Carranza’sforces, mauled the Villistas, but missed capturing Villa.As the threat of war with Germany loomed, the invading force was withdrawn in January1917.
THUNDER ACROSS the SEA Europe’s powder magazine exploded in the summer of 1914 with a single gunshot. An explosive chain reaction followed and almost overnight most of Europe was locked in a fight to the death.
Identify the combating alliances. Official U.S. policy? What did we once againcount on to protect/insulate us?
A PRECARIOUS NEUTRALITY Peace-loving President Wilson, his grief over the war’s outbreak compounded by the recent death of his wife, sorrowfully issued the routine neutrality proclamation and called on Americans to be neutral in thought as well as deed. Such evenhandedness proved difficult. Both sides wooed the U.S.: a. British/French advantages? b. German advantages? c. American sentiment? Why? d. What was the hope of most Americans in 1914?
AMERICA EARNS BLOOD MONEYWhen WWI began, the U.S. was bogged down in a worrisome business recession. Fatefully, British andFrench war orders soon pulled American industry out of the hard times. What was the Germanreaction? Was the U.S. in violation? What prevented American trade with Germany?
The British controlled the sea-lanes, and they threw a noose-tight blockade of mines andships across the North Sea, gateway to German ports (British Order in Council 1914). Over the unavailing protests of American shippers, and manufacturers, the British began forcing American vessels off the high seas and into their ports. This harassment of American shipping proved highly effective, as trade between Germany and the U.S. virtually ceased.
Hard-pressed Germany did not tamely consent to being starved out. In retaliation for theBritish blockade, in February 1915 Berlin announced a submarine war area around theBritish Isles. The submarine was a weapon so new that existing international law could not be made to fit it. The old rules governing surface ships could hardly apply to submarines, which could easily be rammed or sunk if they surfaced.
The cigar-shaped marauders posed a direthreat to the U.S. – so long as Wilsoninsisted on maintaining America’s neutralrights.Berlin officials declared that they wouldtry not to sink neutral shipping, but theywarned that mistakes would probablyoccur.Wilson hoped that no high-seas incidentwould force the U.S. into war. Hewarned Germany that it would be held to“strict accountability” for any attacks onAmerican vessels or citizens.
The German submarines (U-boats or “undersea boat”) begantheir deadly work in early 1915. They sank about 90 ships inthe war zone.Evidence suggested that the British were using its passengerships to transport war materials. Berlin responded by issuingwarnings in newspapers that civilians sailing on vessels flyingthe flag of Great Britain, or her allies, would be sunk.The Lusitania ad ran in the New York Herald in May 1915, sixdays before German U-boats sunk her.
True to their word, the Germans sank the British passenger liner, Lusitania, off the coastof Ireland on May 7, 1915, with the loss of 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans.
The Lusitania was carrying 4,200 cases ofsmall-arms ammunition, a fact the Germansused to justify the sinking.But Americans were swept by a wave ofshock and anger at this act of “massmurder” and “piracy.”How did Wilson respond to the attack?Why did he respond in this manner?How did the sinking of the Arabicbecome a victory for Wilson?When the Germans sunk the Frenchpassenger liner, Sussex,enflamingAmerican anger, what was their pledge?What was Berlin’s condition attached tothe Sussex pledge? Was it realistic?And how did Wilson respond to Berlin’scondition?
WILSON WINS REELECTION in 1916Against a backdrop of possible war, the presidential campaign of 1916 gathered speed.The Progressives and the Republicans met in Chicago. The Progressives nominated TR –why did he refuse to run?
The Republicans nominated SupremeCourt Justice Charles Evans Hughes, aliberal intellectual and former governorof New York.What was the Republican platform?What did TR think of Hughes?Wilson was re-nominated and ran on theslogan, “He Kept Us Out of War.”Democrats warned that by electingHughes, the nation would be electing afight.
On election night, Wilson went to bed accepting defeat after seeing Hughes sweep theeast. New York newspapers were headlining the “new” president. But the rest of thecountry turned the tide, with California proving to be pivotal. Thus, Wilson barelysqueaked through, but peaceful expectations would soon be shattered.
CHAPTER POST-SCRIPTAmericans at all levels over-estimated the traditional isolation of the “great moat” (the world hadchanged).On the whole, American sympathies went out to the Allies: * We shared an ancestry & recent better relations with Britain * Many Americans continued to owe a debt of gratitude to the French * The British had a near-monopoly on war propaganda * Germany was viewed as a dangerous rival to U.S. interests * British war policy would force the Germans to attack cruise ships & other neutral shipping * By 1914 America as a world power would not be able to remain neutral * The Brits were thieves: the Germans were murderers. Americans picked the lesser of two evils
A.P. UNIT QUIZZES (IMPERIALISM; PROGRESSIVISM; ROAD TO WARhttp://www.historyteacher.net/USProjects/USQuizzes/Imperialism1.htmhttp://www.historyteacher.net/USProjects/USQuizzes/Imperialism2.htmhttp://www.historyteacher.net/USProjects/USQuizzes/Progressivism1.htmhttp://www.historyteacher.net/USProjects/USQuizzes/Progressivism2.htmhttp://www.historyteacher.net/USProjects/USQuizzes/Progressivism3.htm