THE ELECTION of 1800 THE “REVOLUTION of 1800”The candidates were John Adams (last Federalist president) versus Thomas Jefferson(Dem.-Rep.). The choice seemed clear: Describe the platform contrasts. What werethe handicaps impeding the Federalist effort? Explain the Federalist campaignstrategy.
Jefferson defeated Adams by a majority of 73 electoral votes to 65. Jeffersonian joywas dampened by an expected deadlock with his vice presidential candidate, Aaron Burr.How was the tie resolved?Jefferson later claimed that the election of 1800 was a “revolution.” Explain thesignificance of this statement.
THE FEDERALIST FINALEJohn Adams was the last Federalist president of the United States. His party sankslowly into the mire of political oblivion and ultimately disappeared completely in thedays of Andrew Jackson. Identify & describe the “strengths” of the Federalist Party. By 1800, why were the Federalists “out of place” in the U.S.?
One of the “midnight judges” of 1801 presented John Marshall with a historicopportunity. He was William Marbury, whom out-going President Adams had named ajustice of the peace for the District of Columbia.When Marbury learned that his commission was being shelved by the new secretary ofstate, James Madison, he sued for its delivery. Marbury Marshall Madison
Chief Justice Marshall knew that hisJeffersonian rivals would not enforce awrit to deliver the commission to hisfellow Federalist, Marbury.He therefore dismissed Marbury’s suit,avoiding a direct political showdown.
JEFFERSON, A RELUCTANT WARRIOROne of Jefferson’s first actions as president was to reduce the military establishmentto a mere police force. He believed that a powerful military threatened republicanideals. But Jefferson, the non-interventionist, the pacifist, and the critic of a largemilitary, was forced to fight the Pasha of Tripoli in 1801. These pirates were extortingand plundering American shipping.After four years of intermittent fighting, Jefferson succeeded in extorting a treaty ofpeace from Tripoli in 1805. The success against the pirates earned America newrespect abroad. But Jefferson’s idea of a naval fleet of “Jeffs” proved woefullyinadequate and a waste of money.
Robert Livingston negotiated a treaty with Paris that culminated with the U.S.purchasing Louisiana on April 30, 1803, for $15 million. Robert Livingston
Jefferson was startled by the swiftness and magnitude of the deal – he had bought awilderness to get a city. Describe the dilemma that the “two” Jeffersons wrestledwith over the purchase.The Senate, buoyed by public support, promptly approved the transaction (presidentialprecedent had been set). Ironically, many Federalists opposed the deal – why?
LOUISIANA in the LONG VIEWJefferson’s deal with France was epochal – the U.S. greatly expanded its territory andit established a precedent for acquiring foreign territory by purchase.Jefferson’s purchase proved to be a landmark in American foreign policy – avoided warand entangling alliances.The Louisiana Territory boosted national unity – a once restive West now toastedJefferson. LA Purchase Ceremony
In 1804, Jefferson dispatched his personal secretary, Meriweather Lewis, and WilliamClark to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition lasted 2 ½years. Zebulon Pike explored the southern portion.
In 1803, the preliminary portion of the expedition included a six-week stay in the frontiertown of Pittsburgh.
THE AARON BURR CONSPIRACIESRelations soured between Burr and Jefferson when Jefferson dropped him from hiscabinet during his second term. Burr joined with a group of Federalist extremists toplot the secession of New England and New York. Hamilton, though no friend ofJefferson, exposed and foiled the conspiracy.
Incensed, Burr challenged Hamilton to aduel. Hamilton deplored the practice ofdueling, but he felt his honor was at stake,so he met Burr’s challenge.When Hamilton refused to fire, Burr killedhim with one shot. With that shot, Burrdestroyed the Federalist’s one remaininghope of effective leadership.
Burr turned his secession plot to thetrans-Mississippi West.But Burr’s partner, Gen. James Wilkerson,betrayed him when he learned thatJefferson had discovered the plot.Burr was arrested and tried for treason.He was acquitted by Chief JusticeMarshall and he fled to Europe.
Why did the Battle of Trafalgar alter America’s neutrality? Britain issued a seriesof Orders inCouncil in 1806 – how did these edicts affect the U.S.? How did theFrench respond to this Britishaction? And, for a time, America seemed willing toavoid war in order to make good profits.
Even more galling to American pride than the seizure of ships was the seizure ofAmerican seamen. Impressment – the forcible enlistment of sailors – was a crude formof conscription that the British had employed for over 400 years. London authoritiesset limits on the practice but Americans were targeted – why? From 1808-1811, approx.6,000 Americans were impressed – how did the British justify American impressment?Explain how the Chesapeake incident (1807) further enflamed Anglo-American relations.
THE HATED EMBARGONational honor demanded action against the British & French, but America had few options– why?The combatants in Europe depended heavily upon the U.S. for raw materials and food –Jefferson seized on this opportunity. Congress passed the Embargo Act in 1807. Itforbade the export of all goods from the U.S.; it was a compromise between submissionand shooting.Explain why the embargo was a failure. Did any good come from the embargo?Congress repealed the embargo and passed the Non-Intercourse Act.Describe how thiswould work. Thus, economic coercion would be the foreign policy of the U.S. until 1812.
To Madison’s dismay, Congress dismantled the embargo completely with a bargainingmeasure known as Macon’s Bill No. 2 – explain the provisions of this legislation.How did Napoleon exploit Macon’s Bill No. 2?Madison knew better than to trust Napoleon, but he accepted his word – why?What wasthe British reaction and the American counter reaction? This meant the end ofAmerican neutrality and the final step toward war.
TECUMSEH and the PROPHETThe complexion of the Twelfth Congress differed markedly from that of itspredecessor. Recent elections had swept away many of the older “submission men” andreplaced them with young hotheads, many from the South and West. Fiery Henry Claywas elected speaker of the house.
Western “war hawks” were eager to wipe out the Indian threat supported by the British.The “war hawks” wanted “free trade and sailor’s rights,” as well as free land.They finally engineered a declaration of war in June, 1812. The West & South supportedthe war; the East generally opposed it.
Two remarkable Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, known to non-Indians asthe “Prophet,” decided to use force to stem the onrushing pioneer tide. They created afar-flung confederacy of all tribes east of the Mississippi, inspiring a movement of Indianunity and cultural renewal.
In the fall of 1811, William HenryHarrison, governor of IndianaTerritory, gathered an army andattacked Tecumseh’s headquarters atthe junction of the Wabash andTippecanoe Rivers.Harrison won and became a nationalhero. Tecumseh would fight with theBritish during the War of 1812 and diein battle in 1813. With him perishedthe dream of an Indian confederacy.
MR. MADISON’S WARBy the spring of 1812, Madison believed war with Britain to be inevitable. Why didAmerica fight Britain rather than France? The French had committed nearly as manymaritime offenses.
And despite blatant British violations of American neutrality and British efforts topersuade Americans not to wage war against Britain, American sailors, in particular, wereprepared to fight for their neutral rights.
The War of 1812 ranks as one of America’s worst-fought due to widespread disunity.America plunged into armed conflict against Britain. There was not any national anger,seafaring New England merchants damned the war, and Federalists condemned the war.