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Guest lecture - Uppsala Universitet - Introducing Agile

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A guest lecture for students at Uppsala University, on the topic of introducing agile software development.

A guest lecture for students at Uppsala University, on the topic of introducing agile software development.

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  • 1. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Introducing Agile Guest lecture at Uppsala University, September 2009 Tobias Fors, Citerus AB tobias.fors@citerus.se 0709-43 90 86 My company: www.citerus.se My blog: www.tobiasfors.se Twitter: @tofo 1
  • 2. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se, 0709-43 90 86 About Citerus • Citerus is a consulting company specialized in helping clients succeed with their software development projects. Since 1996, we have developed software, led projects, refined engineering practices and improved management methods for companies from a diverse set of trades. We gain break-through results by raising the quality bar, putting people first and reducing bureaucracy. About Tobias Fors ‣ Consultant since 1999, developer, project mgr, consultant, coach ‣ Experience from being a scrum master in both development and change projects ‣ Helped introduce Scrum as development method at Tain, Readsoft, Entraction, Wireless Car ‣ Trained and coached Scrum projects at SMHI, Arbetsmiljöverket, Siemens, Digital Illusions ‣ Certified Scrum Trainer, Scrum Alliance. Has trained staff of many of Sweden’s big consulting companies ‣ Also: project startups, planning, workshops, evaluations, retrospectives ‣ Introduced kanban for eTraveli operations and marketing 2
  • 3. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Agenda 1. Start 2. A Little About Change 3. Introducing Agile 4. Assignment 5. End 3
  • 4. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Start • Times? • Format! • Why are we here today? • Who am I? • Why did you choose to come here today? • What do you expect from today? 4
  • 5. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se A Little About Change 5
  • 6. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Going Agile - In Plain Language We want to use agile software development We want to change the way we act Some of us want to change the way some of us act 6
  • 7. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Exercise: Perspective • A man is driving his car, and stops by a hotel. He realizes that he is bankrupt, gives up, and becomes very disappointed. • What happened? • I will answer your questions about the situation with a yes or a no. • The answer to this exercise is simple 7
  • 8. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se The Blind Men and the Elephant 8
  • 9. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Violent and Non-Violent Change Violent Non-Violent 9
  • 10. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Non-Violent Change First: Then: Understand Change 10
  • 11. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Using Resistance as a Resource “No matter how it “Assume they are seems, people are rational.” trying to be helpful” - Russell Ackoff - Jerry Weinberg 11
  • 12. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Exercise: Understand Forces For and Against • What are some forces that work or against agile? Plan: For Introducing Against • Let’s put these in a force field Agile analysis For-force 1 Against-force 1 For-force 2 Against-force 2 ... ... 12
  • 13. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se The Dangers of Pressure Pressure can crush things for good When pressure stops, Pressure Change to Change change stops 13
  • 14. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se A Too Simplified Model of Change Performance Need to change Time 14
  • 15. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se A More Nuanced Model of Change Performance New status quo Integration Foreign element Late status quo Time Resistance Transforming idea Chaos Learn more here: http://www.stevenmsmith.com/my-articles/article/the-satir-change-model.html 15
  • 16. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Exercise: Experience Change • Grab a blank index card and a pen • Write your full name on the card • Turn the note over • Write your name again - but this time with the other hand • What are your reactions to this experience? ✎ • Will you share an experience of change you’ve been part of? ✎ Thank you Steve Smith for this exercise! 16
  • 17. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Chaos -> survival -> short term thinking “Fear makes the short term almost the only thing that people see or focus on.” -- Pfeffer, Sutton, 2000 17
  • 18. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Survival Instincts in Management • “Teamwork sounds good, but …” • “Let’s just test it in the live system …” • “I hear what you’re saying, but …” “It can’t be done” What would it take for this to be possible? 18
  • 19. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Example: The Reward Once You Make it Through “I’ve gotten more done the last three weeks than the previous three years here.” – Developer, gaming company “The way we talk to each other now, we’ve never talked before.” – Project member, another gaming company “Before, I always felt like a pain in the ass when I came in with questions and suggestions. Now I feel really welcome.” – Product owner 19
  • 20. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Simple Works Better “We observed that organizations that were better at learning and translating knowledge into action understood the virtue of simple language, simple structures, and and the power of common sense …” – Pfeffer, Sutton, 2000 Don’t forget the Law of Strawberry Jam 20
  • 21. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Introducing Agile 21
  • 22. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se An Old Source of Conflict: How Should We Develop? Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. Kent Beck James Grenning Robert C. Martin Mike Beedle Jim Highsmith Steve Mellor Arie van Bennekum Andrew Hunt Ken Schwaber Alistair Cockburn Ron Jeffries Jeff Sutherland Ward Cunningham Jon Kern Dave Thomas Martin Fowler Brian Marick 22
  • 23. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Do We Really Need Something New? “Second, research demonstrates that the success of most interventions designed to improve organizational performance depends largely on implementing what is already known, rather than from adopting new or previously unknown ways of doing things.” – Pfeffer, Sutton, 2000 23
  • 24. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Vision: Towards, not Away From 24
  • 25. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se The Vision: A Goal Beyond “Introducing Agile” “We really don’t have any problems, it’s just that we think that it would be convenient to have a new way of working.” • Quality? • Time? • Cost? • Quality of work life? 25
  • 26. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Exercise: Vision of Change • Think for a minute: Can you identify a powerful vision you’ve encountered, that attracted either you or someone else • What made the vision so compelling? ✎ • Have you felt alienated from a vision at some time? • What made you feel alienated? ✎ • What are the ingredients of a powerful vision? ✎ 26
  • 27. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Find Change Owner and a Change Team “Anyone who is to use Scrum would benefit from trying it once in an environment where it is truly supported by management, as I got to do.” – Product owner 27
  • 28. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Invite Everyone Early • Start with retrospectives • Capture experiences • Reduces speculation and rumors Y! are hereby invited to a chan" for #e be$er of us all • What you co-create, you: • understand • believe • own • develop 28
  • 29. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Example: You Can Do it With the Entire Group • Goal: Design and implement visual management system • Constraint: work cannot stop • Method: workshop with laptops and cell phones on • Result: a popular and very efficient management system 29
  • 30. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Forming Effective Teams Goal ues o d , val Meth • Create teams that can complete valuable functionality as indepently as possible “Our part of the system” 30
  • 31. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se You’ll Need Agile Change Artists • Key role in change work • Teams and rest of organization need support and coaching • Understands and teaches agile • Gently pushes on “Fish bone diagram” • Helps when someone falls Policies Process Impedi- ment People Product 31
  • 32. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Training and coaching • The development process itself • Solid engineering practices • Steering the product • Building in quality 32
  • 33. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Define Done • Needed for estimation of work • Enables cooperation • Clarifies expectations • Minimum: frequent testing, frequent integration, effective release management • Expand as learning happens 33
  • 34. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Tip: Behavior Influences Attitude “There is a large literature demonstrating that attitudes follow behavior. That means that people accepts new beliefs as a result of changing their behavior.” – Pfeffer, Sutton, 2000 34
  • 35. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Common Challenges 35
  • 36. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Challenge: The Change is Reverted 36
  • 37. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Challenge: Inadequate Engineering Practices • Critical challenge if you lack: • Effective configuration management (late integration, merge conflicts) • Test automation at several levels • Smooth release management (builds, packaging, deployment) • Going forward: • Expand your definition of done • Coach, train, practice 37
  • 38. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Challenge: Going From Expert to Team Player Expert: Instructions, veto right, knows Team players: Helps, supports, best teaches 38
  • 39. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Challenge: Cherry Picking From a System • Can you “cherry pick” specific practices? • Scrum, for example, is a system where the parts interact to give a result • When you take the parts out of the system, they no longer function the same way • Example: You cannot take one leg of a chair and expect to get a certain percentage of “chair functionality” 39
  • 40. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Tip: Be “Programatic” Dogmatic “Progmatic” Pragmatic 1. Think about consequences 2. Make the change 3. Evaluate the result 40
  • 41. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Common Challenge: Disruptive Incentive Systems • Rewarding lines of code produced • Acknowledging heroes • Collisions between the individual and the team 41
  • 42. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Assignment 42
  • 43. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Assignment: More Change • When you go from your home to class the next time, take a different route • After this, start a new mail in your favorite mail client • Journal for exactly 5 minutes about your reflections on this change • If you want to (and I’d love it if you did), send the text to me tobias.fors@citerus.se 43
  • 44. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se References 44
  • 45. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Suggested Reading • Pfeffer, Sutton: The Knowing-Doing Gap • Schmaltz: The Blind Men and the Elephant • Kotter: Leading Change • Everything by Jerry Weinberg, for example: Quality Software Management I – IV 45
  • 46. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se End 46
  • 47. Citerus - Tobias Fors, 2009 - tobias.fors@citerus.se Return on Time Invested ‣ Was today a good time investment? “ROTI” ‣ 2 = “Even Steven” ‣ 4 = An excellent investment ‣ 0 = Wasted time 4 3 2 1 0 47