The Hindu World
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The Hindu World

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http://www.amazon.com/Hindu-World-Routledge-Worlds/dp/0415215277

http://www.amazon.com/Hindu-World-Routledge-Worlds/dp/0415215277

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The Hindu World The Hindu World Document Transcript

  • THE HINDU WORLD A well-chosen spread of articles by a galaxy of outstanding scholars on the main topics within the Hindu traditions—it all adds up to the most exciting as well as informative guide yet. (John Brockington, Professor of Sanskrit, The University of Edinburgh) The Hindu World is the most authoritative and up-to-date single volume on Hinduism available today. In twenty-four chapters, written by leading international scholars, it provides a comprehensive and critical guide to the various literatures, traditions, and practices of Hinduism. Ideally tailored as an introduction to key topics in Hinduism and for use as a definitive reference source, the book offers fresh insights into many aspects of Hindu life that are organized under six headings: Oral Teachings and Textual Traditions, Theistic and Devotional Movements, Cosmic Order and Human Goals, Social Action and Social Structure, Vitality in Persons and in Places, and Linguistic and Philosophic Analysis. The Hindu World contains new research that defines the current study of Hinduism. It reflects upon the impact of recent poststructuralist approaches while emphasizing Hinduism’s classical heritage and everyday customs in ways that will be familiar to Hindus themselves. Exploring the enormous diversity of Hinduism’s multidimensional culture while considering its status as a category for analysis, the book achieves a distinctive creative balance between scholarly “outsider” perspectives, and the beliefs and values of practicing Hindus. Contributors: Surinder M. Bhardwaj, Francis X. Clooney, Madhav M. Deshpande, Kathleen M. Erndl, James L. Fitzgerald, Gavin Flood, Robert P. Goldman, Sally J. Sutherland Goldman, John A. Grimes, Alf Hiltebeitel, Barbara A. Holdrege, Walter O. Kaelber, R. S. Khare, Dermot Killingley, Randy Kloetzli, Klaus K. Klostermaier, Julius Lipner, James Lochtefeld, David N. Lorenzen, Mary McGee, McKim Marriott, Vasudha Narayanan, Laurie L. Patton, Velcheru Narayana Rao, Hartmut Scharfe, Tony K. Stewart, Herman W. Tull, and Susan S. Wadley. Sushil Mittal is Assistant Professor of Religion at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. He is founding editor of the International Journal of Hindu Studies. Gene Thursby is Associate Professor of Religion at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. He is author of The Sikhs (1992), and a member of the editorial boards of the International Journal of Hindu Studies and Nova Religio.
  • THE ROUTLEDGE WORLDS The Routledge Worlds are widely acclaimed one or two volume thematic surveys of key historical periods and cultures. Each is made up of specially written, original pieces by an international team of the leading experts in the field. The Routledge Worlds are ideal refer- ence works that bring their subjects to life and provide both a comprehensive overview and a real flavour of the newest research in the area. THE GREEK WORLD Edited by Anton Powell THE ROMAN WORLD Edited by John Wacher THE BIBLICAL WORLD Edited by John Barton THE EARLY CHRISTIAN WORLD Edited by Philip F. Esler THE CELTIC WORLD Edited by Miranda Green THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Edited by Peter Linehan and Janet L. Nelson THE REFORMATION WORLD Edited by Andrew Pettegree THE ENLIGHTENMENT WORLD Edited by Martin Fitzpatrick, Peter Jones, Christa Knellwolf and Iain McCalman THE HINDU WORLD Edited by Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby Forthcoming THE EGYPTIAN WORLD Edited by Toby Wilkinson THE BABYLONIAN WORLD Edited by Gwendolyn Leick THE VIKING WORLD Edited by Stefan Brink and Neil Price THE RENAISSANCE WORLD Edited by John Jeffries Martin
  • THE HINDU WORLD Edited by Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby
  • First published 2004 in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” © 2004 Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby for selection and editorial material; individual contributors their contributions All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-203-64470-0 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-67414-6 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0–415–21527–7 (hbk)
  • FOR ANKUR AND ADITI
  • CONTENTS Note on transliteration ix Contributors x Bh¨mikå 1 Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby PART I: INTRODUCING THE HINDU WORLD 1 On Hinduism and Hinduisms: The way of the banyan 9 Julius Lipner PART II: ORAL TEACHINGS AND TEXTUAL TRADITIONS 2 Veda and Upani‚ad 37 Laurie L. Patton 3 Mahåbhårata 52 James L. Fitzgerald 4 Råmåyana. 75 Robert P. Goldman and Sally J. Sutherland Goldman 5 Puråna . 97 Velcheru Narayana Rao PART III: THEISTIC AND DEVOTIONAL MOVEMENTS 6 Çaiva 119 Gavin Flood 7 Çåkta 140 Kathleen M. Erndl 8 Vai‚nava . 162 Francis X. Clooney and Tony K. Stewart 9 Bhakti 185 David N. Lorenzen vii
  • Contents PART IV: COSMIC ORDER AND HUMAN GOALS 10 Dharma 213 Barbara A. Holdrege 11 Artha 249 Hartmut Scharfe 12 Kåma 264 Dermot Killingley 13 Mok‚a 288 Klaus K. Klostermaier PART V: SOCIAL ACTION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE 14 Karma 309 Herman W. Tull 15 Saµskåra 332 Mary McGee 16 Varna and Jåti . 357 McKim Marriott 17 Åçrama 383 Walter O. Kaelber PART VI: VITALITY IN PERSONS AND IN PLACES 18 Anna 407 R. S. Khare 19 Gråma 429 Susan S. Wadley 20 Ålaya 446 Vasudha Narayanan 21 T⁄rtha 478 Surinder M. Bhardwaj and James G. Lochtefeld PART VII: LINGUISTIC AND PHILOSOPHIC ANALYSIS 22 Bhå‚å 505 Madhav M. Deshpande 23 Darçana 531 John A. Grimes 24 Kåla 553 Randy Kloetzli and Alf Hiltebeitel References cited 587 Index 627 viii
  • NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION We have, in general, adhered to the standard transliteration system for each of the Indic languages. Although Indic languages make no distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters, we use capitals to indicate proper names and titles; all other Indic terms, with the exception of those used as adjectives, are italicized and not capitalized. Terms that have been anglicized in form or have come into English usage are nevertheless given in their standard transliterated forms, with diacritics (e.g. karma, pa~∂ita, and yoga). Modern place- names are given in their current transliterated forms, but without diacritics. If references to such places are made in a literary or historical context, however, they are given in their stan- dard transliterated forms, with diacritics. Modern proper names are given in their current transliterated forms, but without diacritics. All premodern proper names, however, are in their standard transliterated forms with diacritics. ix
  • CONTRIBUTORS Surinder M. Bhardwaj is Professor in the Department of Geography, Kent State University. Francis X. Clooney, S.J., is Professor in the Department of Theology, Boston College. Madhav M. Deshpande is Professor in the Department of Asian Languages and Cultures, University of Michigan. Kathleen M. Erndl is Associate Professor in the Department of Religion, Florida State University. James L. Fitzgerald is Professor in the Department of Religious Studies, University of Tennessee. Gavin Flood is Professor in the Department of Religious Studies, University of Stirling. Robert P. Goldman is Professor in the Department of South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. Sally J. Sutherland Goldman is Lecturer in the Department of South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. John A. Grimes is at Kodaikanal International School, Tamilnadu, India. Alf Hiltebeitel is Professor in the Department of Religion, George Washington University. Barbara A. Holdrege is Associate Professor in the Department of Religious Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara. Walter O. Kaelber is Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion, Wagner College. R. S. Khare is Professor in the Department of Anthropology, University of Virginia. Dermot Killingley, now retired, was Reader in the Department of Religious Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Randy Kloetzli is an Independent Scholar. x
  • Contributors Klaus K. Klostermaier is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Religion, University of Manitoba. Julius Lipner is Professor in the Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge. James G. Lochtefeld is Associate Professor in the Department of Religion, Carthage College. David N. Lorenzen is Professor in the Centro de Estudios de Asia y Africa, El Colegio de México. Mary McGee is Dean of Students in the School of General Studies, Columbia University. McKim Marriott is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Anthropology and in Social Sciences College, University of Chicago. Sushil Mittal is Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion, James Madison University. Vasudha Narayanan is Professor in the Department of Religion, University of Florida. Laurie L. Patton is Professor in the Department of Religion, Emory University. Velcheru Narayana Rao is Professor in the Department of Languages and Cultures of Asia, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Hartmut Scharfe is Professor Emeritus in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, University of California, Los Angeles. Tony K. Stewart is Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion, North Carolina State University. Gene Thursby is Associate Professor in the Department of Religion, University of Florida. Herman W. Tull is Lecturer in the Department of Classics, Princeton University. Susan S. Wadley is Professor in the Department of Anthropology, Syracuse University. xi
  • BHÁMIKÅ Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby he Hindu World is a contribution to a series of books on great cultures of the world. T Compare The Greek World (1995) edited by Anton Powell, an earlier volume in the series and another large book like this one that brings tog