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Ramayana  - Griffith Ramayana - Griffith Document Transcript

  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The RamayanaThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost andwith almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, giveit away or re-use it under the terms of the Project GutenbergLicense included with this eBook or online at http://www.guten-berg.org/licenseTitle: The RamayanaRelease Date: March 18, 2008 [Ebook 24869]Language: English***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOKTHE RAMAYANA***
  • The RÁMÁYAN of VÁLMÍKI Translated into English Verse by Ralph T. H. Griffith, M.A. Principal of the Benares College London: Trübner & Co. Benares: E. J. Lazarus and Co. 1870-1874
  • ContentsInvocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Book I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Canto I. Nárad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Canto II. Brahmás Visit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Canto III. The Argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Canto IV. The Rhapsodists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Canto V. Ayodhyá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Canto VI. The King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Canto VII. The Ministers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Canto VIII. Sumantras Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Canto IX. Rishyasring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Canto X. Rishyasring Invited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Canto XI. The Sacrifice Decreed. . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Canto XII. The Sacrifice Begun. . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Canto XIII. The Sacrifice Finished. . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Canto XIV. Rávan Doomed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Canto XV. The Nectar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Canto XVI. The Vánars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Canto XVII. Rishyasrings Return. . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Canto XVIII. Rishyasrings Departure. . . . . . . . . . 97 Canto XIX. The Birth Of The Princes. . . . . . . . . . 100 Canto XX. Visvámitras Visit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Canto XXI. Visvámitras Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Canto XXII. Dasarathas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Canto XXIII. Vasishthas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Canto XXIV. The Spells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Canto XXV. The Hermitage Of Love. . . . . . . . . . 120 Canto XXVI. The Forest Of Tádaká. . . . . . . . . . . 123 Canto XXVII. The Birth Of Tádaká. . . . . . . . . . . 128
  • iv The Ramayana Canto XXVIII. The Death Of Tádaká. . . . . . . . . . 130 Canto XXIX. The Celestial Arms. . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Canto XXX. The Mysterious Powers. . . . . . . . . . 138 Canto XXXI. The Perfect Hermitage. . . . . . . . . . . 140 Canto XXXII. Visvámitras Sacrifice. . . . . . . . . . 144 Canto XXXIII. The Sone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Canto XXXIV. Brahmadatta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Canto XXXV. Visvámitras Lineage. . . . . . . . . . . 156 Canto XXXVI. The Birth Of Gangá. . . . . . . . . . . 159 Canto XXXIX. The Sons Of Sagar. . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Canto XL. The Cleaving Of The Earth. . . . . . . . . . 165 Canto XLI. Kapil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Canto XLII. Sagars Sacrifice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Canto XLIII. Bhagírath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Canto XLIV. The Descent Of Gangá. . . . . . . . . . . 179 Canto XLV. The Quest Of The Amrit. . . . . . . . . . 186 Canto XLVI. Ditis Hope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Canto XLVII. Sumati. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Canto XLVIII. Indra And Ahalyá . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Canto XLIX. Ahalyá Freed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Canto L. Janak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Canto LI. Visvámitra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Canto LII. Vasishthas Feast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Canto LIII. Visvámitras Request. . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Canto LIV. The Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Canto LV. The Hermitage Burnt. . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Canto LVI. Visvámitras Vow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Canto LVII. Trisanku. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Canto LVIII. Trisanku Cursed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Canto LIX. The Sons Of Vasishtha. . . . . . . . . . . 234 Canto LX. Trisankus Ascension. . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Canto LXI. Sunahsepha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Canto LXII. Ambaríshas Sacrifice. . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Canto LXIII. Menaká. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
  • v Canto LXIV. Rambhá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Canto LXV. Visvámitras Triumph . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Canto LXVI. Janaks Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Canto LXVII. The Breaking Of The Bow. . . . . . . . 263 Canto LXVIII. The Envoys Speech. . . . . . . . . . . 266 Canto LXIX. Dasarathas Visit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Canto LXX. The Maidens Sought. . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Canto LXXI. Janaks Pedigree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Canto LXXII. The Gift Of Kine. . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Canto LXXIII. The Nuptials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Canto LXXIV. Ráma With The Axe. . . . . . . . . . . 286 Canto LXXV. The Parle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Canto LXXVI. Debarred From Heaven. . . . . . . . . 293 Canto LXXVII. Bharats Departure. . . . . . . . . . . 296BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Canto I. The Heir Apparent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Canto II. The Peoples Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Canto III. Dasarathas Precepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Canto IV. Ráma Summoned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Canto V. Rámas Fast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Canto VI. The City Decorated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Canto VII. Mantharás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Canto VIII. Mantharás Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Canto IX. The Plot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Canto X. Dasarathas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Canto XI. The Queens Demand. . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Canto XII. Dasarathas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Canto XIII. Dasarathas Distress. . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Canto XIV. Ráma Summoned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Canto XV. The Preparations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Canto XVI. Ráma Summoned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Canto XVII. Rámas Approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Canto XVIII. The Sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Canto XIX. Rámas Promise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
  • vi The Ramayana Canto XX. Kausalyás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Canto XXI. Kausalyá Calmed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Canto XXII. Lakshman Calmed. . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Canto XXIII. Lakshmans Anger. . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 Canto XXIV. Kausalyá Calmed. . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Canto XXV. Kausalyás Blessing. . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Canto XXVI. Alone With Sítá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Canto XXVII. Sítás Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Canto XXVIII. The Dangers Of The Wood. . . . . . . 440 Canto XXIX. Sítás Appeal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Canto XXX. The Triumph Of Love. . . . . . . . . . . 446 Canto XXXI. Lakshmans Prayer. . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Canto XXXII. The Gift Of The Treasures. . . . . . . . 456 Canto XXXIII. The Peoples Lament. . . . . . . . . . . 462 Canto XXXIV. Ráma In The Palace. . . . . . . . . . . 465 Canto XXXV. Kaikeyí Reproached. . . . . . . . . . . 472 Canto XXXVI. Siddhárths Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Canto XXXVII. The Coats Of Bark. . . . . . . . . . . 480 Canto XXXVIII. Care For Kausalyá . . . . . . . . . . 484 Canto XXXIX. Counsel To Sítá. . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Canto XL. Rámas Departure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 Canto XLI. The Citizens Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Canto XLII. Dasarathas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Canto XLIII. Kausalyás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Canto XLIV. Sumitrás Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Canto XLV. The Tamasá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Canto XLVI. The Halt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Canto XLVII. The Citizens Return. . . . . . . . . . . 518 Canto XLVIII. The Womens Lament. . . . . . . . . . 521 Canto XLIX. The Crossing Of The Rivers. . . . . . . . 525 Canto L. The Halt Under The Ingudí. . . . . . . . . . . 527 Canto LI. Lakshmans Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 Canto LII. The Crossing Of Gangá. . . . . . . . . . . . 534 Canto LIII. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
  • viiCanto LIV. Bharadvájas Hermitage. . . . . . . . . . . 551Canto LV. The Passage Of Yamuná. . . . . . . . . . . 557Canto LVI. Chitrakúta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561Canto LVII. Sumantras Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . 566Canto LVIII. Rámas Message. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570Canto LIX. Dasarathas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 574Canto LX. Kausalyá Consoled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579Canto LXI. Kausalyás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582Canto LXII. Dasaratha Consoled. . . . . . . . . . . . . 585Canto LXIII. The Hermits Son. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587Canto LXIV. Dasarathas Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . 593Canto LXV. The Womens Lament. . . . . . . . . . . 602Canto LXVI. The Embalming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606Canto LXVII. The Praise Of Kings. . . . . . . . . . . 608Canto LXVIII. The Envoys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612Canto LXIX. Bharats Dream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617Canto LXX. Bharats Departure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 619Canto LXXI. Bharats Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623Canto LXXII. Bharats Inquiry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628Canto LXXIII. Kaikeyí Reproached. . . . . . . . . . . 635Canto LXXIV. Bharats Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 638Canto LXXV. The Abjuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642Canto LXXVI. The Funeral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648Canto LXXVII. The Gathering Of The Ashes. . . . . . 651Canto LXXVIII. Manthará Punished. . . . . . . . . . . 654Canto LXXIX. Bharats Commands. . . . . . . . . . . 657Canto LXXX. The Way Prepared. . . . . . . . . . . . 659Canto LXXXI. The Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662Canto LXXXII. The Departure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665Canto LXXXIII. The Journey Begun. . . . . . . . . . . 669Canto LXXXIV. Guhas Anger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672Canto LXXXV. Guha And Bharat. . . . . . . . . . . . 675Canto LXXXVI. Guhas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 678Canto LXXXVII. Guhas Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
  • viii The Ramayana Canto LXXXVIII. The Ingudí Tree. . . . . . . . . . . 683 Canto LXXXIX. The Passage Of Gangá. . . . . . . . . 687 Canto XC. The Hermitage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 Canto XCI. Bharadvájas Feast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 Canto XCII. Bharats Farewell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 Canto XCIII. Chitrakúta In Sight. . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 Canto XCIV. Chitrakúta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710 Canto XCV. Mandákiní. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 Canto XCVI. The Magic Shaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716 Canto XCVII. Lakshmans Anger. . . . . . . . . . . . 723 Canto XCVIII. Lakshman Calmed. . . . . . . . . . . . 727 Canto XCIX. Bharats Approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 Canto C. The Meeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732 Canto CI. Bharata Questioned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 Canto CII. Bharats Tidings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 Canto CIII. The Funeral Libation. . . . . . . . . . . . 741 Canto CIV. The Meeting With The Queens. . . . . . . 747 Canto CV. Rámas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 Canto CVI. Bharats Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755 Canto CVII. Rámas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759 Canto CVIII. Jávális Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762 Canto CIX. The Praises Of Truth. . . . . . . . . . . . 764 Canto CX. The Sons Of Ikshváku. . . . . . . . . . . . 770 Canto CXI. Counsel To Bharat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 Canto CXII. The Sandals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 Canto CXIII. Bharats Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782 Canto CXIV. Bharats Departure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 Canto CXV. Nandigrám. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787 Canto CXVI. The Hermits Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 790 Canto CXVII. Anasúyá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 Canto CXVIII. Anasúyás Gifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . 797 Canto CXIX. The Forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807 Canto I. The Hermitage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
  • ixCanto II. Virádha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810Canto III. Virádha Attacked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813Canto IV. Virádhas Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817Canto V. Sarabhanga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822Canto VI. Rámas Promise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828Canto VII. Sutíkshna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831Canto VIII. The Hermitage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835Canto IX. Sítás Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838Canto X. Rámas Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842Canto XI. Agastya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845Canto XII. The Heavenly Bow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856Canto XIII. Agastyas Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862Canto XIV. Jatáyus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865Canto XV. Panchavatí. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870Canto XVI. Winter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875Canto XVII. Súrpanakhá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880Canto XVIII. The Mutilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884Canto XIX. The Rousing Of Khara. . . . . . . . . . . 888Canto XX. The Giants Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891Canto XXI. The Rousing Of Khara. . . . . . . . . . . 895Canto XXII. Kharas Wrath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897Canto XXIII. The Omens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900Canto XXIV. The Host In Sight. . . . . . . . . . . . . 904Canto XXV. The Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910Canto XXVI. Dúshans Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915Canto XXVII. The Death Of Trisirás. . . . . . . . . . 920Canto XXVIII. Khara Dismounted. . . . . . . . . . . . 923Canto XXIX. Kharas Defeat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927Canto XXX. Kharas Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931Canto XXXI. Rávan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936Canto XXXII. Rávan Roused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944Canto XXXIII. Súrpanakhás Speech. . . . . . . . . . . 947Canto XXXIV. Súrpanakhás Speech. . . . . . . . . . 951Canto XXXV. Rávans Journey. . . . . . . . . . . . . 954
  • x The Ramayana Canto XXXVI. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 960 Canto XXXVII. Máríchas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 963 Canto XXXVIII. Máríchas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . 966 Canto XXXIX. Máríchas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 971 Canto XL. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974 Canto XLI. Máríchas Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978 Canto XLII. Márícha Transformed. . . . . . . . . . . . 980 Canto XLIII. The Wondrous Deer. . . . . . . . . . . . 985 Canto XLIV. Máríchas Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991 Canto XLV. Lakshmans Departure. . . . . . . . . . . 995 Canto XLVI. The Guest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 Canto XLVII. Rávans Wooing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005 Canto XLVIII. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011 Canto XLIX. The Rape Of Sítá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 Canto L. Jatáyus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020 Canto LI. The Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023 Canto LII. Rávans Flight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029 Canto LIII. Sítás Threats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035 Canto LIV. Lanká. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038 Canto LV. Sítá In Prison. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1042 Canto LVI. Sítás Disdain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047 Canto LVII. Sítá Comforted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051 Canto LVIII. The Brothers Meeting. . . . . . . . . . . 1055 Canto LIX. Rámas Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1058 Canto LX. Lakshman Reproved. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061 Canto LXI. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064 Canto LXII. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069 Canto LXIII. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073 Canto LXIV. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075 Canto LXV. Rámas Wrath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1079 Canto LXVI. Lakshmans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 1088 Canto LXVII. Ráma Appeased. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 Canto LXVIII. Jatáyus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1093 Canto LXIX. The Death Of Jatáyus. . . . . . . . . . . 1097
  • xi Canto LXX. Kabandha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102 Canto LXXI. Kabandhas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 Canto LXXII. Kabandhas Tale. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112 Canto LXXIII. Kabandhas Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . 1116 Canto LXXIV. Kabandhas Death. . . . . . . . . . . . 1119 Canto LXXV. Savarí. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 Canto LXXVI. Pampá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1129BOOK IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1134 Canto I. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1134 Canto II. Sugrívas Alarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151 Canto III. Hanumáns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155 Canto IV. Lakshmans Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1160 Canto V. The League. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1166 Canto VI. The Tokens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1170 Canto VII. Ráma Consoled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174 Canto VIII. Rámas Promise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1177 Canto IX. Sugrívas Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183 Canto X. Sugrívas Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186 Canto XI. Dundubhi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190 Canto XII. The Palm Trees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201 Canto XIII. The Return To Kishkindhá. . . . . . . . . 1206 Canto XIV. The Challenge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1210 Canto XV. Tárá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212 Canto XVI. The Fall Of Báli. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216 Canto XVII. Bális Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1220 Canto XVIII. Rámas Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1228 Canto XIX. Tárás Grief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236 Canto XX. Tárás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1240 Canto XXI. Hanumáns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1243 Canto XXII. Báli Dead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Canto XXIII. Tárás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250 Canto XXIV. Sugrívas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254 Canto XXV. Rámas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256 Canto XXVI. The Coronation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1262
  • xii The Ramayana Canto XXVII. Ráma On The Hill. . . . . . . . . . . . 1267 Canto XXVIII. The Rains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1272 Canto XXIX. Hanumáns Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . 1276 Canto XXX. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1280 Canto XXXI. The Envoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1284 Canto XXXII. Hanumáns Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . 1290 Canto XXXIII. Lakshmans Entry. . . . . . . . . . . . 1292 Canto XXXIV. Lakshmans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . 1299 Canto XXXV. Tárás Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1301 Canto XXXVI. Sugrívas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1304 Canto XXXVII. The Gathering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1306 Canto XXXVIII. Sugrívas Departure. . . . . . . . . . 1311 Canto XXXIX. The Vánar Host. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314 Canto XL. The Army Of The East. . . . . . . . . . . . 1318 Canto XLI. The Army Of The South. . . . . . . . . . . 1326 Canto XLII. The Army Of The West. . . . . . . . . . . 1331 Canto XLIII. The Army Of The North. . . . . . . . . . 1336 Canto XLIV. The Ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1339 Canto XLV. The Departure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1340 Canto XLVI. Sugrívas Tale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342 Canto XLVII. The Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344 Canto XLVIII. The Asurs Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1345 Canto XLIX. Angads Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1347 Canto L. The Enchanted Cave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1349 Canto LI. Svayamprabhá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1351 Canto LII. The Exit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1353 Canto LIII. Angads Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1356 Canto LIV. Hanumáns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1358 Canto LV. Angads Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1360 Canto LVI. Sampáti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1363 Canto LVII. Angads Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1365 Canto LVIII. Tidings Of Sítá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1367 Canto LIX. Sampátis Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1371 Canto LX. Sampátis Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
  • xiii Canto LXI. Sampátis Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375 Canto LXII. Sampátis Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377 Canto LXIII. Sampátis Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379 Canto LXIV. The Sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1381 Canto LXV. The Council. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1383 Canto LXVI. Hanumán. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1385 Canto LXVII. Hanumáns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 1389BOOK V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1392 Canto I. Hanumáns Leap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1392 Canto II. Lanká. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402 Canto III. The Guardian Goddess. . . . . . . . . . . . 1405 Canto IV. Within The City. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407 Canto VI. The Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1409 Canto VII. Rávans Palace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411 Canto VIII. The Enchanted Car. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413 Canto IX. The Ladies Bower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414 Canto X. Rávan Asleep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417 Canto XI. The Banquet Hall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1419 Canto XII. The Search Renewed. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1420 Canto XIII. Despair And Hope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1422 Canto XIV. The Asoka Grove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425 Canto XV. Sítá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426 Canto XVI. Hanumáns Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427 Canto XVII. Sítás Guard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1429 Canto XVIII. Rávan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1430 Canto XIX. Sítás Fear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1432 Canto XX. Rávans Wooing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1433 Canto XXI. Sítás Scorn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1436 Canto XXII. Rávans Threat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1438 Canto XXIII. The Demons Threats. . . . . . . . . . . 1441 Canto XXIV. Sítás Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1443 Canto XXV. Sítás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1444 Canto XXVI. Sítás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1446 Canto XXVII. Trijatás Dream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447
  • xiv The Ramayana Canto XXX. Hanumáns Deliberation. . . . . . . . . . 1449 Canto XXXI. Hanumáns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1452 Canto XXXII. Sítás Doubt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1453 Canto XXXIII. The Colloquy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1454 Canto XXXIV. Hanumáns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 1457 Canto XXXV. Hanumáns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 1459 Canto XXXVI. Rámas Ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1460 Canto XXXVII. Sítás Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1463 Canto XXXVIII. Sítás Gem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1466 Canto XLI. The Ruin Of The Grove. . . . . . . . . . . 1468 Canto XLII. The Giants Roused. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470 Canto XLIII. The Ruin Of The Temple. . . . . . . . . 1473 Canto XLIV. Jambumális Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474 Canto XLV. The Seven Defeated. . . . . . . . . . . . 1476 Canto XLVI. The Captains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1478 Canto XLVII. The Death Of Aksha. . . . . . . . . . . 1479 Canto XLVIII. Hanumán Captured. . . . . . . . . . . . 1481 Canto XLIX. Rávan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483 Canto L. Prahastas Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484 Canto LI. Hanumáns Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1486 Canto LII. Vibhishans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1488 Canto LIII. The Punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1489 Canto LIV. The Burning Of Lanká. . . . . . . . . . . . 1491 Canto LV. Fear For Sítá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1493 Canto LVI. Mount Arishta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1495 Canto LVII. Hanumáns Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1496 Canto LVIII. The Feast Of Honey. . . . . . . . . . . . 1498 Canto LXV. The Tidings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1500 Canto LXVI. Rámas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1501BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1504 Canto I. Rámas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1504 Canto II. Sugrívas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1505 Canto III. Lanká. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1506 Canto IV. The March. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1508
  • xvCanto V. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515Canto VI. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517Canto VII. Rávan Encouraged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519Canto VIII. Prahastas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521Canto IX. Vibhishans Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524Canto X. Vibhishans Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526Canto XI. The Summons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1529Canto XII. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1531Canto XIII. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1535Canto XIV. Vibhishans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1537Canto XV. Indrajíts Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1539Canto XVI. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1541Canto XVII. Vibhishans Flight. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1544Canto XVIII. Rámas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1550Canto XIX. Vibhishans Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1553Canto XX. The Spies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1556Canto XXI. Ocean Threatened. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1560Canto XXII. Ocean Threatened. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1562Canto XXIII. The Omens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1569Canto XXIV. The Spys Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1570Canto XXV. Rávans Spies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1574Canto XXVI. The Vánar Chiefs. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1578Canto XXVII. The Vánar Chiefs. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1581Canto XXVIII. The Chieftains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1583Canto XXIX. Sárdúla Captured. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1585Canto XXX. Sárdúlas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1588Canto XXXI. The Magic Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1589Canto XXXII. Sítás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1592Canto XXXIII. Saramá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1596Canto XXXIV. Saramás Tidings. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1599Canto XXXV. Malyaváns Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 1601Canto XXXVI. Rávans Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1604Canto XXXVII. Preparations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1606Canto XXXVIII. The Ascent Of Suvela. . . . . . . . . 1608
  • xvi The Ramayana Canto XXXIX. Lanká. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1610 Canto XL. Rávan Attacked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1611 Canto XLI. Rámas Envoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1614 Canto XLII. The Sally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618 Canto XLIII. The Single Combats. . . . . . . . . . . . 1620 Canto XLIV. The Night. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1622 Canto XLV. Indrajíts Victory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1625 Canto XLVI. Indrajíts Triumph. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1626 Canto XLVII. Sítá. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1629 Canto XLVIII. Sítás Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1631 Canto XLIX. Rámas Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1634 Canto L. The Broken Spell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1637 Canto LI. Dhúmrákshas Sally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1641 Canto LII. Dhúmrákshas Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1643 Canto LIII. Vajradanshtras Sally. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1646 Canto LIV. Vajradanshtras Death. . . . . . . . . . . . 1647 Canto LIX. Rávans Sally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1650 Canto LX. Kumbhakarna Roused. . . . . . . . . . . . 1660 Canto LXI. The Vánars Alarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1666 Canto LXII. Rávans Request. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1668 Canto LXIII. Kumbhakarnas Boast. . . . . . . . . . . 1670 Canto LXIV. Mahodars Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1672 Canto LXV. Kumbhakarnas Speech. . . . . . . . . . . 1674 Canto LXVI. Kumbhakarnas Sally. . . . . . . . . . . 1676 Canto LXVII. Kumbhakarnas Death. . . . . . . . . . . 1678 Canto LXVIII. Rávans Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1687 Canto LXIX. Narántaks Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1689 Canto LXX. The Death Of Trisirás. . . . . . . . . . . . 1692 Canto LXXI. Atikáyas Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1695 Canto LXXII. Rávans Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1700 Canto LXXIII. Indrajíts Victory. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1701 Canto LXXIV. The Medicinal Herbs. . . . . . . . . . . 1704 Canto LXXV. The Night Attack. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1708 Canto XCIII. Rávans Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1712
  • xvii Canto XCVI. Rávans Sally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1715 Canto C. Rávan In The Field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1717 Canto CI. Lakshmans Fall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1720 Canto CII. Lakshman Healed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1722 Canto CIII. Indras Car. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1724 Canto CVI. Glory To The Sun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1727 Canto CVIII. The Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730 Canto CIX. The Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1731 Canto CX. Rávans Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1733 Canto CXI. Vibhishans Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1734 Canto CXII. The Rákshas Dames. . . . . . . . . . . . 1736 Canto CXIII. Mandodarís Lament. . . . . . . . . . . . 1737 Canto CXIV. Vibhishan Consecrated. . . . . . . . . . 1741 Canto CXV. Sítás Joy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1743 Canto CXVI. The Meeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1746 Canto CXVII. Sítás Disgrace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1749 Canto CXVIII. Sítás Reply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1750 Canto CXIX. Glory To Vishnu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1753 Canto CXX. Sítá Restored. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1755 Canto CXXI. Dasaratha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1757 Canto CXXII. Indras Boon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1760 Canto CXXIII. The Magic Car. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1762 Canto CXXIV. The Departure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1764 Canto CXXV. The Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1766 Canto CXXVI. Bharat Consoled. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1768 Canto CXXVII. Rámas Message. . . . . . . . . . . . 1771 Canto CXXVIII. Hanumáns Story. . . . . . . . . . . . 1774 Canto CXXIX. The Meeting With Bharat. . . . . . . . 1775 Canto CXXX. The Consecration. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1780APPENDIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1787 Section XIII. Rávan Doomed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1787 Caput XIV. RATIO NECANDI RAVANAE EXCOG- ITATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1790
  • xviii The Ramayana Caput XIV. IL MEZZO STABILITO PER UC- CIDERE RÁVANO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1793 XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796 Uttarakánda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1799ADDITIONAL NOTES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812 Queen Fortune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812 Indra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1813 Vishnu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1813 Siva. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1815 Apsarases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1816 Vishnus Incarnation As Ráma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1817 Kusa and Lava. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1820 Parasuráma, Page 87. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1827 Yáma, Page 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1828 Fate, Page 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1829 Visvámitra, Page 76. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1829 Household Gods, Page 102. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1829 Page 107. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1830 Page 108. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1833 Page 109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1835 Page 110. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1835 Page 120. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1836 Page 125. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1836 Page 125. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838 Page 136. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838 Page 152. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838 Page 157. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1840 Page 161. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1840 Page 169. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1841 Page 174. The Praise Of Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1841 Page 176. Sálmalí. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1842 Page 178. Bharats Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1843 Page 183. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1844 Page 203. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1844
  • xix Page 219. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1845 Page 249. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1849 Page 250. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1849 Page 257. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1849 Page 286. Urvasí. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1854 Page 324. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1856 Page 326. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1856 Page 329. Rámas Alliance With Sugríva. . . . . . . . 1857 Page 342. The Fall Of Báli. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1858 Page 370. The Vánar Host. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1859 Page 372. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1861 Page 374. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1863 Page 378. Northern Kurus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1866 Page 428. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1868 Page 431. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1868 Page 434. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1869 Page 436. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1869 Page 452. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1869 Page 462. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1870 Page 466. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1870 Page 470. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1871 Page 497. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1871 Page 489. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1872 Page 489. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1873 Page 492. Rávans Funeral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1879 Page 496. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1880 Page 503. The Meeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1883 Final Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1885INDEX OF PRINCIPAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1893Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1921
  • [001]
  • Invocation.1Praise to Válmíki,2bird of charming song,3 Who mounts on Poesys sublimest spray,And sweetly sings with accent clear and strong Ráma, aye Ráma, in his deathless lay.Where breathes the man can listen to the strain That flows in music from Válmíkis tongue,Nor feel his feet the path of bliss attain When Rámas glory by the saint is sung! 1 The MSS. vary very considerably in these stanzas of invocation: many linesare generally prefixed in which not only the poet, but those who play the chiefparts in the poem are panegyrized. It is self-apparent that they are not by theauthor of the Rámáyan himself. 2 “Válmíki was the son of Varua, the regent of the waters, one of whosenames is Prachetas. According to the Adhyátmá Rámáyaa, the sage, althougha Bráhman by birth, associated with foresters and robbers. Attacking on oneoccasion the seven Rishis, they expostulated with him successfully, and taughthim the mantra of Ráma reversed, or Mará, Mará, in the inaudible repetition ofwhich he remained immovable for thousands of years, so that when the sagesreturned to the same spot they found him still there, converted into a valmík orant-hill, by the nests of the termites, whence his name of Válmíki.” WILSON{FNS. Specimens of the Hindu Theatre, Vol. I. p. 313. “Válmíki is said to have lived a solitary life in the woods: he is called botha muni and a rishi. The former word properly signifies an anchorite or hermit;the latter has reference chiefly to wisdom. The two words are frequently usedpromiscuously, and may both be rendered by the Latin vates in its earliestmeaning of seer: Válmíki was both poet and seer, as he is said to have sungthe exploits of Ráma by the aid of divining insight rather than of knowledgenaturally acquired.” SCHLEGEL{FNS. 3 Literally, Kokila, the Koïl, or Indian Cuckoo. Schlegel translates “luscini-
  • Invocation. 3The stream Rámáyan leaves its sacred fount The whole wide world from sin and stain to free.4The Prince of Hermits is the parent mount, The lordly Ráma is the darling sea.Glory to him whose fame is ever bright!Glory to him, Prachetas5 holy son!Whose pure lips quaff with ever new delight The nectar-sea of deeds by Ráma done.Hail, arch-ascetic, pious, good, and kind! Hail, Saint Válmíki, lord of every lore!Hail, holy Hermit, calm and pure of mind! Hail, First of Bards, Válmíki, hail once more!um.” 4 Comparison with the Ganges is implied, that river being called the purifierof the world. 5 “This name may have been given to the father of Válmíki allegorically. Ifwe look at the derivation of the word (pra, before, and chetas, mind) it is as ifthe poet were called the son of Prometheus, the Forethinker.” SCHLEGEL{FNS.
  • Book I.6 Canto I. Nárad.7 OM.8 To sainted Nárad, prince of those Whose lore in words of wisdom flows. Whose constant care and chief delight Were Scripture and ascetic rite,[002] The good Válmíki, first and best Of hermit saints, these words addressed:9 “In all this world, I pray thee, who Is virtuous, heroic, true? Firm in his vows, of grateful mind, To every creature good and kind? Bounteous, and holy, just, and wise, Alone most fair to all mens eyes? Devoid of envy, firm, and sage, 6 Called in Sanskrit also Bála-Káa, and in Hindí Bál-Ká, i.e. the Book describing Rámas childhood, bála meaning a boy up to his sixteenth year. 7 A divine saint, son of Brahmá. He is the eloquent messenger of the Gods, a musician of exquisite skill, and the inventor of the víá or Indian lute. He bears a strong resemblance to Hermes or Mercury. 8 This mystic syllable, said to typify the supreme Deity, the Gods collectively, the Vedas, the three spheres of the world, the three holy fires, the three steps of Vishu etc., prefaces the prayers and most venerated writings of the Hindus. 9 This colloquy is supposed to have taken place about sixteen years after Rámas return from his wanderings and occupation of his ancestral throne.
  • Canto I. Nárad. 5Whose tranquil soul neer yields to rage?Whom, when his warrior wrath is high,Do Gods embattled fear and fly?Whose noble might and gentle skillThe triple world can guard from ill?Who is the best of princes, heWho loves his peoples good to see?The store of bliss, the living mineWhere brightest joys and virtues shine?Queen Fortunes10 best and dearest friend,Whose steps her choicest gifts attend?Who may with Sun and Moon compare,With Indra,11 Vishu,12 Fire, and Air?Grant, Saint divine,13 the boon I ask,For thee, I ween, an easy task,To whom the power is given to knowIf such a man breathe here below.”Then Nárad, clear before whose eyeThe present, past, and future lie,1410 Called also rí and Lakshmí, the consort of Vishu, the Queen of Beauty aswell as the Dea Fortuna. Her birth “from the full-flushed wave” is described inCanto XLV of this Book. 11 One of the most prominent objects of worship in the Rig-veda, Indra wassuperseded in later times by the more popular deities Vishu and iva. He isthe God of the firmament, and answers in many respects to the Jupiter Pluviusof the Romans. See Additional Notes. 12 The second God of the Trimúrti or Indian Trinity. Derived from the rootvi to penetrate, the meaning of the name appears to be he who penetrates orpervades all things. An embodiment of the preserving power of nature, he isworshipped as a Saviour who has nine times been incarnate for the good of theworld and will descend on earth once more. See Additional Notes and MuirsSanskrit Texts passim. 13 In Sanskrit devarshi. Rishi is the general appellation of sages, and anotherword is frequently prefixed to distinguish the degrees. A Brahmarshi is atheologian or Bráhmanical sage; a Rájarshi is a royal sage or sainted king; aDevarshi is a divine or deified sage or saint. 14 Trikálaja. Literally knower of the three times. Both Schlegel and Gorresio
  • 6 The Ramayana Made ready answer: “Hermit, where Are graces found so high and rare? Yet listen, and my tongue shall tell In whom alone these virtues dwell. From old Ikshvákus15 line he came, Known to the world by Rámas name: With soul subdued, a chief of might, In Scripture versed, in glory bright, His steps in virtues paths are bent, Obedient, pure, and eloquent. In each emprise he wins success, And dying foes his power confess. Tall and broad-shouldered, strong of limb, Fortune has set her mark on him. Graced with a conch-shells triple line,[003] His throat displays the auspicious sign.16 futurorum eventuum in unguibus atque etiam in dentibus.” Though the palmy days of Indian chiromancy have passed away, the art is still to some extent studied and believed in. quote Homers.    ,   ,   . “That sacred seer, whose comprehensive view, The past, the present, and the future knew.” The Bombay edition reads trilokaja, who knows the three worlds (earth, air and heaven.) “It is by tapas (austere fervour) that rishis of subdued souls, subsisting on roots, fruits and air, obtain a vision of the three worlds with all things moving and stationary.” MANU{FNS, XI. 236. 15 Son of Manu, the first king of Koala and founder of the solar dynasty or family of the Children of the Sun, the God of that luminary being the father of Manu. 16 The Indians paid great attention to the art of physiognomy and believed that character and fortune could be foretold not from the face only but from marks upon the neck and hands. Three lines under the chin like those at the mouth of a conch (akha) were regarded as a peculiarly auspicious sign indicating, as did also the mark of Vishus discus on the hand, one born to be a chakravartin
  • Canto I. Nárad. 7High destiny is clear impressedOn massive jaw and ample chest,His mighty shafts he truly aims,And foemen in the battle tames.Deep in the muscle, scarcely shown,Embedded lies his collar-bone.His lordly steps are firm and free,His strong arms reach below his knee;17All fairest graces join to deckHis head, his brow, his stately neck,And limbs in fair proportion set:The manliest form eer fashioned yet.Graced with each high imperial mark,His skin is soft and lustrous dark.Large are his eyes that sweetly shineWith majesty almost divine.His plighted word he neer forgets;On erring sense a watch he sets.By nature wise, his teachers skillHas trained him to subdue his will.Good, resolute and pure, and strong,He guards mankind from scathe and wrong,And lends his aid, and neer in vain,The cause of justice to maintain.Well has he studied oer and oeror universal emperor. In the palmistry of Europe the line of fortune, as wellas the line of life, is in the hand. Cardan says that marks on the nails andteeth also show what is to happen to us: “Sunt etiam in nobis vestigia quædam 17 Long arms were regarded as a sign of heroic strength.
  • 8 The RamayanaThe Vedas18 and their kindred lore.Well skilled is he the bow to draw,19Well trained in arts and versed in law;High-souled and meet for happy fate,Most tender and compassionate;The noblest of all lordly givers,Whom good men follow, as the riversFollow the King of Floods, the sea:So liberal, so just is he.18 “Veda means originally knowing or knowledge, and this name is given bythe Bráhmans not to one work, but to the whole body of their most ancientsacred literature. Veda is the same word which appears in the Greek , Iknow, and in the English wise, wisdom, to wit. The name of Veda is commonlygiven to four collections of hymns, which are respectively known by the namesof Rig-veda, Yajur-veda, Sáma-veda, and Atharva-veda.” “As the language of the Veda, the Sanskrit, is the most ancient type of theEnglish of the present day, (Sanskrit and English are but varieties of one andthe same language,) so its thoughts and feelings contain in reality the first rootsand germs of that intellectual growth which by an unbroken chain connects ourown generation with the ancestors of the Aryan race,—with those very peoplewho at the rising and setting of the sun listened with trembling hearts to thesongs of the Veda, that told them of bright powers above, and of a life to comeafter the sun of their own lives had set in the clouds of the evening. These menwere the true ancestors of our race, and the Veda is the oldest book we have inwhich to study the first beginnings of our language, and of all that is embodiedin language. We are by nature Aryan, Indo-European, not Semitic: our spiritualkith and kin are to be found in India, Persia, Greece, Italy, Germany: not inMesopotamia, Egypt, or Palestine.” Chips from a German Workshop, Vol. I. pp. 8. 4. 19 As with the ancient Persians and Scythians, Indian princes were carefully
  • Canto I. Nárad. 9The joy of Queen Kaualyás20 heart,In every virtue he has part:Firm as Himálayas21 snowy steep,Unfathomed like the mighty deep:The peer of Vishus power and might,And lovely as the Lord of Night;22Patient as Earth, but, roused to ire,Fierce as the world-destroying fire;In bounty like the Lord of Gold,23And Justice self in human mould. With him, his best and eldest son,By all his princely virtues wonKing Daaratha24 willed to shareHis kingdom as the Regent Heir.But when Kaikeyí, youngest queen,With eyes of envious hate had seenThe solemn pomp and regal statePrepared the prince to consecrate,She bade the hapless king bestowTwo gifts he promised long ago,That Ráma to the woods should flee,And that her child the heir should be. By chains of duty firmly tied,The wretched king perforce complied. [004]instructed in archery which stands for military science in general, of which,among Hindu heroes, it was the most important branch. 20 Chief of the three queens of Daaratha and mother of Ráma. 21 From hima snow, (Greek -, Latin hiems) and álaya abode, theMansion of snow. 22 The moon (Soma, Indu, Chandra etc.) is masculine with the Indians as withthe Germans. 23 Kuvera, the Indian Plutus, or God of Wealth. 24 The events here briefly mentioned will be related fully in the course of thepoem. The first four cantos are introductory, and are evidently the work of alater hand than Valmikis.
  • 10 The RamayanaRáma, to please Kaikeyí wentObedient forth to banishment.Then Lakshmas truth was nobly shown,Then were his love and courage known,When for his brothers sake he daredAll perils, and his exile shared.And Sítá, Rámas darling wife,Loved even as he loved his life,Whom happy marks combined to bless,A miracle of loveliness,Of Janaks royal lineage sprung,Most excellent of women, clungTo her dear lord, like RohiíRejoicing with the Moon to be.25The King and people, sad of mood,The heros car awhile pursued.But when Prince Ráma lighted downAt ringaveras pleasant town,Where Gangás holy waters flow,25 “Chandra, or the Moon, is fabled to have been married to the twenty-sevendaughters of the patriarch Daksha, or Aviní and the rest, who are in factpersonifications of the Lunar Asterisms. His favourite amongst them wasRohií to whom he so wholly devoted himself as to neglect the rest. Theycomplained to their father, and Daksha repeatedly interposed, till, finding hisremonstrances vain, he denounced a curse upon his son-in-law, in consequenceof which he remained childless and became affected by consumption. Thewives of Chandra having interceded in his behalf with their father, Dakshamodified an imprecation which he could not recall, and pronounced that thedecay should be periodical only, not permanent, and that it should alternatewith periods of recovery. Hence the successive wane and increase of the Moon.Padma, Puráa, Swarga-Khaa, Sec. II. Rohií in Astronomy is the fourthlunar mansion, containing five stars, the principal of which is Aldebaran.”WILSON{FNS, Specimens of the Hindu Theatre. Vol. I. p. 234. The Bengal recension has a different reading:“Shone with her husband like the lightAttendant on the Lord of Night.”
  • Canto I. Nárad. 11He bade his driver turn and go.Guha, Nishádas king, he met,And on the farther bank was set.Then on from wood to wood they strayed,Oer many a stream, through constant shade,As Bharadvája bade them, tillThey came to Chitrakúas hill.And Ráma there, with Lakshmas aid,A pleasant little cottage made,And spent his days with Sítá, dressedIn coat of bark and deerskin vest.26And Chitrakúa grew to beAs bright with those illustrious threeAs Merus27 sacred peaks that shineWith glory, when the Gods reclineBeneath them: ivas28 self betweenThe Lord of Gold and Beautys Queen.26 The garb prescribed for ascetics by Manu.27 “Mount Meru, situated like Kailása in the lofty regions to the north of theHimálayas, is celebrated in the traditions and myths of India. Meru and Kailásaare the two Indian Olympi. Perhaps they were held in such veneration be-cause the Sanskrit-speaking Indians remembered the ancient home where theydwelt with the other primitive peoples of their family before they descendedto occupy the vast plains which extend between the Indus and the Ganges.”GORRESIO{FNS. 28 The third God of the Indian Triad, the God of destruction and reproduction.See Additional Notes.
  • 12 The Ramayana The aged king for Ráma pined, And for the skies the earth resigned. Bharat, his son, refused to reign, Though urged by all the twice-born29 train. Forth to the woods he fared to meet His brother, fell before his feet, And cried, “Thy claim all men allow: O come, our lord and king be thou.” But Ráma nobly chose to be Observant of his sires decree. He placed his sandals30 in his hand A pledge that he would rule the land: And bade his brother turn again. Then Bharat, finding prayer was vain, The sandals took and went away; Nor in Ayodhyá would he stay. But turned to Nandigráma, where He ruled the realm with watchful care, Still longing eagerly to learn Tidings of Rámas safe return. Then lest the people should repeat Their visit to his calm retreat, Away from Chitrakúas hill[005] Fared Ráma ever onward till 29 The epithet dwija, or twice-born, is usually appropriate to Bráhmans, but is applicable to the three higher castes. Investiture with the sacred thread and initiation of the neophyte into certain religious mysteries are regarded as his regeneration or second birth. 30 His shoes to be a memorial of the absent heir and to maintain his right. Kálidása (Raghuvaa, XII. 17.) says that they were to be adhidevate or guardian deities of the kingdom.
  • Canto I. Nárad. 13Beneath the shady trees he stoodOf Daakás primeval wood,Virádha, giant fiend, he slew,And then Agastyas friendship knew.Counselled by him he gained the swordAnd bow of Indra, heavenly lord:A pair of quivers too, that boreOf arrows an exhaustless store.While there he dwelt in greenwood shadeThe trembling hermits sought his aid,And bade him with his sword and bowDestroy the fiends who worked them woe:To come like Indra strong and brave,A guardian God to help and save.And Rámas falchion left its traceDeep cut on úrpaakhás face:A hideous giantess who cameBurning for him with lawless flame.Their sisters cries the giants heard.And vengeance in each bosom stirred:The monster of the triple head.And Dúsha to the contest sped.But they and myriad fiends besideBeneath the might of Ráma died. When Ráva, dreaded warrior, knewThe slaughter of his giant crew:Ráva, the king, whose name of fearEarth, hell, and heaven all shook to hear:He bade the fiend Márícha aidThe vengeful plot his fury laid.In vain the wise Márícha triedTo turn him from his course aside:Not Rávas self, he said, might hope
  • 14 The RamayanaWith Ráma and his strength to cope.Impelled by fate and blind with rageHe came to Rámas hermitage.There, by Máríchas magic art,He wiled the princely youths apart,The vulture31 slew, and bore awayThe wife of Ráma as his prey.The son of Raghu32 came and foundJaáyu slain upon the ground.He rushed within his leafy cot;He sought his wife, but found her not.Then, then the heros senses failed;In mad despair he wept and wailed.Upon the pile that bird he laid,And still in quest of Sítá strayed.A hideous giant then he saw,Kabandha named, a shape of awe.The monstrous fiend he smote and slew,And in the flame the body threw;When straight from out the funeral flameIn lovely form Kabandha came,And bade him seek in his distressA wise and holy hermitess.By counsel of this saintly dameTo Pampás pleasant flood he came,And there the steadfast friendship wonOf Hanumán the Wind-Gods son.Counselled by him he told his grief31 Jaáyu, a semi-divine bird, the friend of Ráma, who fought in defence ofSítá. 32 Raghu was one of the most celebrated ancestors of Ráma whose commonestappellation is, therefore, Rághava or descendant of Raghu. Kálidása in theRaghuraa makes him the son of Dilípa and great-grandfather of Ráma. SeeIdylls from the Sanskrit, “Aja” and “Dilípa.”
  • Canto I. Nárad. 15To great Sugríva, Vánar chief,Who, knowing all the tale, beforeThe sacred flame alliance swore.Sugríva to his new-found friendTold his own story to the end:His hate of Báli for the wrongAnd insult he had borne so long.And Ráma lent a willing earAnd promised to allay his fear.Sugríva warned him of the mightOf Báli, matchless in the fight,And, credence for his tale to gain,Showed the huge fiend33 by Báli slain.The prostrate corse of mountain sizeSeemed nothing in the heros eyes;He lightly kicked it, as it lay,And cast it twenty leagues34 away.To prove his might his arrows throughSeven palms in line, uninjured, flew.He cleft a mighty hill apart,And down to hell he hurled his dart.Then high Sugrívas spirit rose,Assured of conquest oer his foes.With his new champion by his sideTo vast Kishkindhás cave he hied.Then, summoned by his awful shout,King Báli came in fury out,First comforted his trembling wife,Then sought Sugríva in the strife.One shaft from Rámas deadly bowThe monarch in the dust laid low.33 Dundhubi.34 Literally ten yojanas. The yojana is a measure of uncertain length variouslyreckoned as equal to nine miles, five, and a little less.
  • 16 The Ramayana Then Ráma bade Sugríva reign In place of royal Báli slain. Then speedy envoys hurried forth Eastward and westward, south and north, Commanded by the grateful king Tidings of Rámas spouse to bring. Then by Sampátis counsel led, Brave Hanumán, who mocked at dread, Sprang at one wild tremendous leap Two hundred leagues across the deep. To Lankás35 town he urged his way,[006] Where Ráva held his royal sway. There pensive neath Aoka36 boughs He found poor Sítá, Rámas spouse. He gave the hapless girl a ring, A token from her lord and king. A pledge from her fair hand he bore; Then battered down the garden door. Five captains of the host he slew, Seven sons of councillors oerthrew; Crushed youthful Aksha on the field, Then to his captors chose to yield. Soon from their bonds his limbs were free, But honouring the high decree Which Brahmá37 had pronounced of yore, 35 Ceylon. 36 The Jonesia Aoka is a most beautiful tree bearing a profusion of red blossoms. 37 Brahmá, the Creator, is usually regarded as the first God of the Indian Trinity, although, as Kálidása says: “Of Brahmá, Vishu, iva, each may be First, second, third, amid the blessed Three.” Brahmá had guaranteed Rávas life against all enemies except man.
  • Canto I. Nárad. 17He calmly all their insults bore.The town he burnt with hostile flame,And spoke again with Rámas dame,Then swiftly back to Ráma flewWith tidings of the interview. Then with Sugríva for his guide,Came Ráma to the ocean side.He smote the sea with shafts as brightAs sunbeams in their summer height,And quick appeared the Rivers King38Obedient to the summoning.A bridge was thrown by Nala oerThe narrow sea from shore to shore.39They crossed to Lankás golden town,Where Rámas hand smote Ráva down.Vibhisha there was left to reignOver his brothers wide domain.To meet her husband Sítá came;But Ráma, stung with ire and shame,With bitter words his wife addressedBefore the crowd that round her pressed.But Sítá, touched with noble ire,Gave her fair body to the fire.Then straight the God of Wind appeared,And words from heaven her honour cleared.And Ráma clasped his wife again,Uninjured, pure from spot and stain,Obedient to the Lord of FireAnd the high mandate of his sire.Led by the Lord who rules the sky,38 Ocean personified.39 The rocks lying between Ceylon and the mainland are still called RámasBridge by the Hindus.
  • 18 The RamayanaThe Gods and heavenly saints drew nigh,And honoured him with worthy meed,Rejoicing in each glorious deed.His task achieved, his foe removed,He triumphed, by the Gods approved.By grace of Heaven he raised to lifeThe chieftains slain in mortal strife;Then in the magic chariot throughThe clouds to Nandigráma flew.Met by his faithful brothers there,He loosed his votive coil of hair:Thence fair Ayodhyás town he gained,And oer his fathers kingdom reigned.Disease or famine neer oppressedHis happy people, richly blestWith all the joys of ample wealth,Of sweet content and perfect health.No widow mourned her well-loved mate,No sire his sons untimely fate.They feared not storm or robbers hand;No fire or flood laid waste the land:The Golden Age40 had come againTo bless the days of Rámas reign. From him, the great and glorious king,Shall many a princely scion spring.And he shall rule, beloved by men,40 “The Bráhmans, with a system rather cosmogonical than chronological,divide the present mundane period into four ages or yugas as they call them:the Krita, the Tretá, the Dwápara, and the Kali. The Krita, called also theDeva-yuga or that of the Gods, is the age of truth, the perfect age, the Tretá isthe age of the three sacred fires, domestic and sacrificial; the Dwápara is theage of doubt; the Kali, the present age, is the age of evil.” GORRESIO.{FNS
  • Canto II. Brahmás Visit 19Ten thousand years and hundreds ten,41And when his life on earth is pastTo Brahmás world shall go at last.” Whoeer this noble poem readsThat tells the tale of Rámas deeds,Good as the Scriptures, he shall beFrom every sin and blemish free.Whoever reads the saving strain,With all his kin the heavens shall gain.Bráhmans who read shall gather henceThe highest praise for eloquence.The warrior, oer the land shall reign,The merchant, luck in trade obtain;And údras listening42 neer shall failTo reap advantage from the tale.43 [007]Canto II. Brahmás Visit41 The ancient kings of India enjoyed lives of more than patriarchal length aswill appear in the course of the poem. 42 údras, men of the fourth and lowest pure caste, were not allowed to readthe poem, but might hear it recited. 43 The three lokes or distichs which these twelve lines represent are evidentlya still later and very awkward addition to the introduction.
  • 20 The RamayanaVálmíki, graceful speaker, heard,To highest admiration stirred.To him whose fame the tale rehearsedHe paid his mental worship first;Then with his pupil humbly bentBefore the saint most eloquent.Thus honoured and dismissed the seerDeparted to his heavenly sphere.Then from his cot Válmíki hiedTo Tamasás44 sequestered side,Not far remote from Gangás tide.He stood and saw the ripples rollPellucid oer a pebbly shoal.To Bharadvája45 by his sideHe turned in ecstasy, and cried:“See, pupil dear, this lovely sight,The smooth-floored shallow, pure and bright,With not a speck or shade to mar,And clear as good mens bosoms are.Here on the brink thy pitcher lay,And bring my zone of bark, I pray.Here will I bathe: the rill has not,To lave the limbs, a fairer spot.Do quickly as I bid, nor wasteThe precious time; away, and haste.”44 There are several rivers in India of this name, now corrupted into Tonse.The river here spoken of is that which falls into the Ganges a little belowAllahabad. 45 “In Book II, Canto LIV, we meet with a saint of this name presidingover a convent of disciples in his hermitage at the confluence of the Gangesand the Jumna. Thence the later author of these introductory cantos hasborrowed the name and person, inconsistently indeed, but with the intention ofenhancing the dignity of the poet by ascribing to him so celebrated a disciple.”SCHLEGEL.{FNS
  • Canto II. Brahmás Visit 21 Obedient to his masters hestQuick from the cot he brought the vest;The hermit took it from his hand,And tightened round his waist the band;Then duly dipped and bathed him there,And muttered low his secret prayer.To spirits and to Gods he madeLibation of the stream, and strayedViewing the forest deep and wideThat spread its shade on every side.Close by the bank he saw a pairOf curlews sporting fearless there.But suddenly with evil mindAn outcast fowler stole behind,And, with an aim too sure and true,The male bird near the hermit slew.The wretched hen in wild despairWith fluttering pinions beat the air,And shrieked a long and bitter cryWhen low on earth she saw him lie,Her loved companion, quivering, dead,His dear wings with his lifeblood red;And for her golden crested mateShe mourned, and was disconsolate. The hermit saw the slaughtered bird,And all his heart with ruth was stirred.The fowlers impious deed distressedHis gentle sympathetic breast,And while the curlews sad cries rangWithin his ears, the hermit sang:“No fame be thine for endless time,Because, base outcast, of thy crime,Whose cruel hand was fain to slay
  • 22 The RamayanaOne of this gentle pair at play!”Een as he spoke his bosom wroughtAnd laboured with the wondering thoughtWhat was the speech his ready tongueHad uttered when his heart was wrung.He pondered long upon the speech,Recalled the words and measured each,And thus exclaimed the saintly guideTo Bharadvája by his side:“With equal lines of even feet,With rhythm and time and tone complete,The measured form of words I spokeIn shock of grief be termed a loke.”46And Bharadvája, nothing slowHis faithful love and zeal to show,Answered those words of wisdom, “BeThe name, my lord, as pleases thee.” As rules prescribe the hermit tookSome lustral water from the brook.But still on this his constant thoughtKept brooding, as his home he sought;While Bharadvája paced behind,A pupil sage of lowly mind,And in his hand a pitcher boreWith pure fresh water brimming oer.Soon as they reached their calm retreatThe holy hermit took his seat;His mind from worldly cares recalled,And mused in deepest thought enthralled.46 The poet plays upon the similarity in sound of the two words: oka, meansgrief, loka, the heroic measure in which the poem is composed. It needscarcely be said that the derivation is fanciful.
  • Canto II. Brahmás Visit 23 Then glorious Brahmá,47 Lord Most High,Creator of the earth and sky, [008]The four-faced God, to meet the sageCame to Válmíkis hermitage.Soon as the mighty God he saw,Up sprang the saint in wondering awe.Mute, with clasped hands, his head he bent,And stood before him reverent.His honoured guest he greeted well,Who bade him of his welfare tell;Gave water for his blessed feet,Brought offerings,48 and prepared a seat.In honoured place the God Most HighSate down, and bade the saint sit nigh.There sate before Válmíkis eyesThe Father of the earth and skies;But still the hermits thoughts were bentOn one thing only, all intentOn that poor curlews mournful fateLamenting for her slaughtered mate;And still his lips, in absent mood,The verse that told his grief, renewed:47 Brahmá, the Creator, is usually regarded as the first person of the divinetriad of India. The four heads with which he is represented are supposed tohave allusion to the four corners of the earth which he is sometimes consideredto personify. As an object of adoration Brahmá has been entirely supersededby iva and Vishu. In the whole of India there is, I believe, but one templededicated to his worship. In this point the first of the Indian triad curiouslyresembles the last of the divine fraternity of Greece, Aïdes the brother of Zeusand Poseidon. “In all Greece, says Pausanias, there is no single temple ofAïdes, except at a single spot in Elis.” See Gladstones Juventus Mundi, p. 253. 48 The argha or arghya was a libation or offering to a deity, a Bráhman, orother venerable personage. According to one authority it consisted of water,milk, the points of Kúsa-grass, curds, clarified butter, rice, barley, and whitemustard, according to another, of saffron, bel, unbroken grain, flowers, curds,dúrbá-grass, kúsa-grass, and sesamum.
  • 24 The Ramayana“Woe to the fowlers impious handThat did the deed that folly planned;That could to needless death devoteThe curlew of the tuneful throat!” The heavenly Father smiled in glee,And said, “O best of hermits, see,A verse, unconscious, thou hast made;No longer be the task delayed.Seek not to trace, with labour vain,The unpremeditated strain.The tuneful lines thy lips rehearsedSpontaneous from thy bosom burst.Then come, O best of seers, relateThe life of Ráma good and great,The tale that saintly Nárad told,In all its glorious length unfold.Of all the deeds his arm has doneUpon this earth, omit not one,And thus the noble life recordOf that wise, brave, and virtuous lord.His every act to day displayed,His secret life to none betrayed:How Lakshma, how the giants fought;With high emprise and hidden thought:And all that Janaks child49 befellWhere all could see, where none could tell.The whole of this shall truly beMade known, O best of saints, to thee.In all thy poem, through my grace,No word of falsehood shall have place.Begin the story, and rehearseThe tale divine in charming verse.49 Sítá, daughter of Janak king of Míthilá.
  • Canto II. Brahmás Visit 25As long as in this firm-set landThe streams shall flow, the mountains stand,So long throughout the world, be sure,The great Rámáyan shall endure.50While the Rámáyans ancient strainShall glorious in the earth remain,To higher spheres shalt thou ariseAnd dwell with me above the skies.” He spoke, and vanished into air,And left Válmíki wondering there.The pupils of the holy man,Moved by their love of him, beganTo chant that verse, and ever moreThey marvelled as they sang it oer:“Behold, the four-lined balanced rime,Repeated over many a time,In words that from the hermit brokeIn shock of grief, becomes a loke.”This measure now Válmíki choseWherein his story to compose.In hundreds of such verses, sweetWith equal lines and even feet,The saintly poet, lofty-souled,The glorious deeds of Ráma told.50 “I congratulate myself,” says Schlegel in the preface to his, alas, unfinishededition of the Rámáyan, “that, by the favour of the Supreme Deity, I have beenallowed to begin so great a work; I glory and make my boast that I too after somany ages have helped to confirm that ancient oracle declared to Válmíki bythe Father of Gods and men:Dum stabunt montes, campis dum flumina current,Usque tuum toto carmen celebrabitur orbe.”
  • 26 The Ramayana Canto III. The Argument. The hermit thus with watchful heed Received the poems pregnant seed, And looked with eager thought around[009] If fuller knowledge might be found. His lips with water first bedewed,51 He sate, in reverent attitude On holy grass,52 the points all bent Together toward the orient;53 And thus in meditation he Entered the path of poesy. Then clearly, through his virtues might, All lay discovered to his sight, Whateer befell, through all their life, Ráma, his brother, and his wife: And Daaratha and each queen At every time, in every scene: His people too, of every sort; The nobles of his princely court: Whateer was said, whateer decreed, Each time they sate each plan and deed: For holy thought and fervent rite Had so refined his keener sight That by his sanctity his view The present, past, and future knew, And he with mental eye could grasp, Like fruit within his fingers clasp, 51 “The sipping of water is a requisite introduction of all rites: without it, says the Sámha Purána, all acts of religion are vain.” COLEBROOKE.{FNS 52 The darhha or kua (Pea cynosuroides), a kind of grass used in sacrifice by the Hindus as cerbena was by the Romans. 53 The direction in which the grass should be placed upon the ground as a seat for the Gods, on occasion of offerings made to them.
  • Canto III. The Argument. 27The life of Ráma, great and good,Roaming with Sítá in the wood.He told, with secret-piercing eyes,The tale of Rámas high emprise,Each listening ear that shall entice,A sea of pearls of highest price.Thus good Válmíki, sage divine,Rehearsed the tale of Raghus line,As Nárad, heavenly saint, beforeHad traced the storys outline oer.He sang of Rámas princely birth,His kindness and heroic worth;His love for all, his patient youth,His gentleness and constant truth,And many a tale and legend oldBy holy Vivámitra told.How Janaks child he wooed and won,And broke the bow that bent to none.How he with every virtue fraughtHis namesake Ráma54 met and fought.The choice of Ráma for the throne;The malice by Kaikeyí shown,Whose evil counsel marred the planAnd drove him forth a banisht man.How the king grieved and groaned, and cried,And swooned away and pining died.The subjects woe when thus bereft;And how the following crowds he left:With Guha talked, and firmly sternOrdered his driver to return.How Gangás farther shore he gained;By Bharadvája entertained,54 Parauráma or Ráma with the Axe. See Canto LXXIV.
  • 28 The RamayanaBy whose advice he journeyed stillAnd came to Chitrakúas hill.How there he dwelt and built a cot;How Bharat journeyed to the spot;His earnest supplication made;Drink-offerings to their father paid;The sandals given by Rámas hand,As emblems of his right, to stand:How from his presence Bharat wentAnd years in Nandigráma spent.How Ráma entered Daak woodAnd in Sutíkhas presence stood.The favour Anasúyá showed,The wondrous balsam she bestowed.How arabhangas dwelling-placeThey sought; saw Indra face to face;The meeting with Agastya gained;The heavenly bow from him obtained.How Ráma with Virádha met;Their home in Panchavaa set.How úrpaakhá underwentThe mockery and disfigurement.Of Triirás and Kharas fall,Of Ráva roused at vengeance call,Márícha doomed, without escape;The fair Videhan55 ladys rape.How Ráma wept and raved in vain,And how the Vulture-king was slain.How Ráma fierce Kabandha slew;Then to the side of Pampá drew,Met Hanumán, and her whose vowsWere kept beneath the greenwood boughs.55 Sítá. Videha was the country of which Míthilá was the capital.
  • Canto III. The Argument. 29How Raghus son, the lofty-souled,On Pampás bank wept uncontrolled,Then journeyed, Rishyamúk to reach,And of Sugríva then had speech.The friendship made, which both had sought:How Báli and Sugríva fought.How Báli in the strife was slain,And how Sugríva came to reign.The treaty, Táras wild lament;The rainy nights in watching spent.The wrath of Raghus lion son;The gathering of the hosts in one.The sending of the spies about,And all the regions pointed out.The ring by Rámas hand bestowed;The cave wherein the bear abode.The fast proposed, their lives to end;Sampati gained to be their friend. [010]The scaling of the hill, the leapOf Hanumán across the deep.Oceans command that bade them seekMaináka of the lofty peak.The death of Sinhiká, the sightOf Lanká with her palace brightHow Hanumán stole in at eve;His plan the giants to deceive.How through the square he made his wayTo chambers where the women lay,Within the Aoka garden cameAnd there found Rámas captive dame.His colloquy with her he sought,And giving of the ring he brought.How Sítá gave a gem oerjoyed;How Hanumán the grove destroyed.
  • 30 The RamayanaHow giantesses trembling fled,And servant fiends were smitten dead.How Hanumán was seized; their ireWhen Lanká blazed with hostile fire.His leap across the sea once more;The eating of the honey store.How Ráma he consoled, and howHe showed the gem from Sítás brow.With Ocean, Rámas interview;The bridge that Nala oer it threw.The crossing, and the sitting downAt night round Lankás royal town.The treaty with Vibhísha made:The plan for Rávas slaughter laid.How Kumbhakara in his prideAnd Meghanáda fought and died.How Ráva in the fight was slain,And captive Sítá brought again.Vibhísha set upon the throne;The flying chariot Pushpak shown.How Brahmá and the Gods appeared,And Sítás doubted honour cleared.How in the flying car they rodeTo Bharadvájas cabin abode.The Wind-Gods son sent on afar;How Bharat met the flying car.How Ráma then was king ordained;The legions their discharge obtained.How Ráma cast his queen away;How grew the peoples love each day.Thus did the saint Válmíki tellWhateer in Rámas life befell,And in the closing verses allThat yet to come will once befall.
  • Canto IV. The Rhapsodists. 31Canto IV. The Rhapsodists.When to the end the tale was brought,Rose in the sages mind the thought;“Now who throughout this earth will go,And tell it forth that all may know?”As thus he mused with anxious breast,Behold, in hermits raiment dressed,Kuá and Lava56 came to greetTheir master and embrace his feet.The twins he saw, that princely pairSweet-voiced, who dwelt beside him thereNone for the task could be more fit,For skilled were they in Holy Writ;And so the great Rámáyan, fraughtWith lore divine, to these he taught:The lay whose verses sweet and clearTake with delight the listening ear,That tell of Sítás noble lifeAnd Rávas fall in battle strife.Great joy to all who hear they bring,Sweet to recite and sweet to sing.For musics sevenfold notes are there,And triple measure,57 wrought with careWith melody and tone and time,And flavours58 that enhance the rime; 56 The twin sons of Ráma and Sítá, born after Ráma had repudiated Sítá, andbrought up in the hermitage of Válmíki. As they were the first rhapsodiststhe combined name Kuílava signifies a reciter of poems, or an improvisatore,even to the present day. 57 Perhaps the bass, tenor, and treble, or quick, slow and middle times. weknow but little of the ancient music of the Hindus. 58 Eight flavours or sentiments are usually enumerated, love, mirth, tender-ness, anger, heroism, terror, disgust, and surprise; tranquility or content, or
  • 32 The Ramayana Heroic might has ample place, And loathing of the false and base, With anger, mirth, and terror, blent With tenderness, surprise, content. When, half the hermits grace to gain, And half because they loved the strain, The youth within their hearts had stored The poem that his lips outpoured, Válmíki kissed them on the head, As at his feet they bowed, and said; “Recite ye this heroic song In tranquil shades where sages throng: Recite it where the good resort, In lowly home and royal court.” The hermit ceased. The tuneful pair, Like heavenly minstrels sweet and fair, In musics art divinely skilled, Their saintly masters word fulfilled. Like Rámas self, from whom they came,[011] They showed their sire in face and frame, As though from some fair sculptured stone Two selfsame images had grown. Sometimes the pair rose up to sing, Surrounded by a holy ring, Where seated on the grass had met Full many a musing anchoret. Then tears bedimmed those gentle eyes, As transport took them and surprise, And as they listened every one Cried in delight, Well done! Well done! paternal tenderness, is sometimes considered the ninth. WILSON{FNS. See the Sáhitya Darpaa or Mirror of Composition translated by Dr. Ballantyne and Bábú Pramadádása Mittra in the Bibliotheca Indica.
  • Canto IV. The Rhapsodists. 33Those sages versed in holy lorePraised the sweet minstrels more and more:And wondered at the singers skill,And the bards verses sweeter still,Which laid so clear before the eyeThe glorious deeds of days gone by.Thus by the virtuous hermits praised,Inspirited their voice they raised.Pleased with the song this holy manWould give the youths a water-can;One gave a fair ascetic dress,Or sweet fruit from the wilderness.One saint a black-deers hide would bring,And one a sacrificial string:One, a clay pitcher from his hoard,And one, a twisted munja cord.59One in his joy an axe would find,One braid, their plaited locks to bind.One gave a sacrificial cup,One rope to tie their fagots up;While fuel at their feet was laid,Or hermits stool of fig-tree made.All gave, or if they gave not, noneForgot at least a benison.Some saints, delighted with their lays,Would promise health and length of days;Others with surest words would addSome boon to make their spirit glad.In such degree of honour thenThat song was held by holy men:That living song which life can give,59 Saccharum Munja is a plant from whose fibres is twisted the sacred stringwhich a Bráhman wears over one shoulder after he has been initiated by a ritewhich in some respects answers to confirmation.
  • 34 The RamayanaBy which shall many a minstrel live.In seat of kings, in crowded hall,They sang the poem, praised of all.And Ráma chanced to hear their lay,While he the votive steed60 would slay,And sent fit messengers to bringThe minstrel pair before the king.They came, and found the monarch highEnthroned in gold, his brothers nigh;While many a minister below,And noble, sate in lengthened row.The youthful pair awhile he viewedGraceful in modest attitude,And then in words like these addressedHis brother Lakshma and the rest:“Come, listen to the wondrous strainRecited by these godlike twain,Sweet singers of a story fraughtWith melody and lofty thought.” The pair, with voices sweet and strong,Rolled the full tide of noble song,With tone and accent deftly blentTo suit the changing argument.Mid that assembly loud and clearRang forth that lay so sweet to hear,That universal rapture stoleThrough each mans frame and heart and soul.“These minstrels, blest with every signThat marks a high and princely line, In holy shades who dwell,Enshrined in Saint Válmíkis lay,60 A description of an Avamedha or Horse Sacrifice is given in Canto XIII.of this Book.
  • Canto V. Ayodhyá. 35A monument to live for aye, My deeds in song shall tell.”Thus Ráma spoke: their breasts were fired,And the great tale, as if inspired, The youths began to sing,While every heart with transport swelled,And mute and rapt attention held The concourse and the king.Canto V. Ayodhyá. “Ikshvákus sons from days of oldWere ever brave and mighty-souled.The land their arms had made their ownWas bounded by the sea alone.Their holy works have won them praise,Through countless years, from Manus days.Their ancient sire was Sagar, heWhose high command dug out the sea:61With sixty thousand sons to throngAround him as he marched along.From them this glorious tale proceeds:The great Rámáyan tells their deeds.This noble song whose lines containLessons of duty, love, and gain,We two will now at length recite,While good men listen with delight.61 This exploit is related in Canto XL.
  • 36 The Ramayana On Sarjús62 bank, of ample size,[012] The happy realm of Koal lies, With fertile length of fair champaign And flocks and herds and wealth of grain. There, famous in her old renown, Ayodhyá63 stands, the royal town, In bygone ages built and planned By sainted Manus64 princely hand. Imperial seat! her walls extend Twelve measured leagues from end to end, And three in width from side to side, With square and palace beautified. Her gates at even distance stand; Her ample roads are wisely planned. Right glorious is her royal street Where streams allay the dust and heat. On level ground in even row Her houses rise in goodly show: Terrace and palace, arch and gate The queenly city decorate. High are her ramparts, strong and vast, By ways at even distance passed, 62 The Sarjú or Ghaghra, anciently called Sarayú, rises in the Himalayas, and after flowing through the province of Oudh, falls into the Ganges. 63 The ruins of the ancient capital of Ráma and the Children of the Sun may still be traced in the present Ajudhyá near Fyzabad. Aju