From Creekology to Rocket Science:The Evolution of Remote Sensing/GIS     in Oil and Gas Exploration           A Presentat...
Becoming an Expert   takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck
Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck and the desire to show up
Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck the desire to show up and learning “dialogues of business”
Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck the desire to show up and learning “dialogues of business” and le...
Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck the desire to show up and learning “dialogues of business” and le...
Creekology: Seeing into the Earth
Creekology: Seeing into the Earth   „Seepology‟...Native Americans    extracted medicinal goo   The first oil wildcatter...
Creekology   Satellite data—large scale and highly    accurate—merged creekology with    geology.   Photogeologic work w...
How this will work   Agenda:    • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters;      environmental; damages & liabilities;    ...
Part 1: Case Studies ...Liabilities, Damages,     Operations and      Planning…
Case study #1   Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…)   What is a weed, after all?(everybody k...
Case study #1   Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…)   What is a weed, after all?(everybody k...
Case study #1   Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…)   What is a weed, after all?(everybody k...
Case study #1   Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…)   What is a weed, after all?(everybody k...
Case study #1   Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…)   What is a weed, after all?(everybody k...
Case study #2 300,000 acres burned up Whose land was damaged? What portions were grassland, crops,  trees? Where‟d the...
Mapping Wildfire
Wildfire 6 hrs later
Wildfire Damage Outline...LS5
Wildfire Burn Severity
Fire Severity on Property       Boundaries
High Water MarksCreating up-to-date information.A word about coastlines, tides, erosion (and where the fish are).
Freshwater or Ocean; currents and  thermal differences for fishing
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
Large-scale Data Management:   Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaThe goal wasto fomentexploration, sowe conductedaphotogeolo...
Large-scale Data Management:   Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaWe acquiredtopographicmaps at1:250,000 and1:100,000scales) ...
Large-scale Data Management:   Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaStructuralinterpretationswere madefrom andoverlaid ontothe ...
Large-scale Data Management:   Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaTheinterpretationswere overlaidonto topomaps toprovide auni...
Large-scale Data Management:   Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaA merge ofimagery, map,andinterpretation.
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
Landsat  bands 7, 4,       and 2; composited  as color onthe following         slide
Landsatcompositesfrom twodifferentdates. Also,thegeometrydiffers.
Regional (250K+) Interpretations
Regional + Local (24K)   Interpretations
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
Romania   Identify features of exploration    interest (e.g. fault/frax, structures,    tonal anomalies)   Update WWII-e...
Data Types & Sources: Multi-sensor merge           (Landsat + SPOT)  The area had only WWII-era maps....
Data Types & Sources: Multi-sensor merge            (Landsat + SPOT)This is the 5-meter panchromatic SPOT image that suppl...
Data Types & Sources: Multi-sensor merge           (Landsat + SPOT)The multi-band Landsat was encoded to hue andsaturation...
Data Types & Sources: Multisensor merge           (Landsat + SPOT) The photogeology interpretations are overlaid.
Data Types & Sources: Multisensor merge           (Landsat + SPOT)
Data Types & Sources: Multisensor merge           (Landsat + SPOT)
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
Paraguay Information NeededWhere are existing roads that can be used for moving equipment and laying out field work equipm...
Gold = Your New, Geometrically      Accurate Roadmap
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
Stress-Strain Ellipsoid
Compression at 100K Scale
Stress-Strain @6K Scale
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
“Remote Sensing Image Analysis    Toward Understanding   Sequestration Potential of      Southern Kansas”  DE-FE0002056 – ...
Information needed:   Is it safe to inject CO2?   Will it come back up?   How quickly?   Where?   Where might it get ...
Remote Sensing to the Rescue• Help map the subsurface   Conduits / Compartments;   Migration fairways / Sealing mechanis...
(Information, continued)All of which supports: Environmental Risk Analysis and Helps determine reservoir suitability for C...
Because knowing the contrasts of    Conduits vs. Compartmentalization                       and  Migration Pathways vs. Se...
Regional Gravity & Magnetics   Define Major Basement Block Boundaries, Structural Grain
Regional Gravity & Magnetics   Define Major Basement Block Boundaries, Structural Grain
Regional Satellite Photogeology
Local on top of Regional
Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
“Remote Sensing Image Analysis of the        Bemis-Schutts Field,       Ellis County, Kansas”        in support of U.S. De...
Stress/Strain Model
Regional-scale work
Local-Scale work
Local-scale interpretations
How this will work   Agenda:    • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters;      environmental; damages & liabilities;    ...
How satellites work:   They collect their data with    scanners. Other scanners are:     • video cameras,     • fax machi...
Part 2 (how images work)   About satellite data    • How it collects & organizes data    • Attributes of these data      ...
Part 2 (how images work)   About satellite data    • How data are collected & organized    • Attributes of these data    ...
WorldView-2
Docks and Cranes pre-quake
Docks and Cranes Collapsed in     Water (after quake)
Presidential Palace, post-quake
Relief Supplies Arrive
Haiti Damage Severity Map
Part 2 (how images work)   About satellite data    • How it works    • Attributes         Spectra, spatial, temporal   ...
ROY G BIV
Digital Image Processing“Pixel” =  “picture  element”  ...one  spatial  unit plus  the  spectra.
Part 2 (how images work)   About satellite data    • How it works    • Attributes         Spectra, spatial, temporal   ...
Landsat TM footprint
Reducing Data to InformationA typical project area encompasses:•2-6 Landsat scenes (600MB to 1.8 GB raw data)•12-36 USGS r...
Landsat TM processingLandsat Band 7 raw datawith brightness andcontrast stretchesapplied
Landsat TM processingSame area: Band 1 raw data       stretched
Landsat TM processingBand 3-2-1 composite ofraw data   Same, stretched
Landsat TM processingBand 7-5-4 composite ofraw data   Same, stretched
Landsat TM processingMultitemporal Principal Components Analysis        (or De-correlation Stretch).
Spatial Resolution…detail
Part 2   About satellite data    • How it works    • Attributes         Spectra, spatial, temporal   Photogeology for e...
At left, March 12 shows vegetation patterns inthe early spring (bright greens).     At right, December 23 vegetation is do...
Palo Pinto Landsat multi-temporal comparisons              September              and March
Multi-temporal 1m data comparison     for tax appraisal purposes
Part 2   About satellite data    • How it works    • Attributes         Spectra, spatial, temporal   Photogeology for e...
You can never have too  much informationWhat you do have:  production trends,  a regional framework,  well logs here an...
Available information is massive: Surface and subsurface geology maps Current and historic well logs Topographic maps ...
The ideal tool would:1) fill in every empty space of the   mosaic2) highlight anomalous conditions,   and map structure: l...
An even better tool would:a) sample at intervals in time (all seasons, wet and drought conditions, over decades), andb) of...
Two Kinds of Tools:•   Those that find structure•   Those that find anomalous    conditionsRemote sensing does both
The Crust of Earth is:•   Thin, unstable, and floats•   Bombarded with energy daily•   Generates soil @ 3 tons per acre   ...
Remote sensing photogeologyis a blend of several disciplines:      optics      physics      electronics      cartograp...
Patterns: Their causes and effectsSubsurface activity imprints the surface for many reasons : constant micro-earthquakes,...
Microbes are everywhere! We are 1/10                th us; 9/10th microbes. H.pylori causes 90% of peptic ulcers. Antib...
Healthy topsoil… retains water better, resists erosion, has more oxygen, better nutrients, Microbes and earthworms li...
Hydrocarbon-eating microbes Thrive above oil and gas reservoirs. Create a magnetic residue. Are counted. Deplete oxyge...
Finding Structure: Astrobleme
Astrobleme with magnetics
The Information in PhotogeologyLineaments:Faults, fractures, fracture orientation and joints can  have surface expression ...
The Information in PhotogeologyLineaments (continued): Linear vegetation patterns due to water  availability. Aligned no...
The Information in PhotogeologyPositive Structures at Depth can appear as… Surface tonal anomalies. Circular features ca...
Mapping and GIS: making it all fitGoogle Earth: “cans” and “can’ts”:Very popular new web tool;   •Fast and easy for findin...
How this will work   Agenda:    • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters;      environmental; damages & liabilities;    ...
Field Work    SupportRequires Leadership…Knowing where you‟re       going….
Field Work Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best   possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through   ($...
Wait a second: has yourarea been shot already?  “Earth Detective” work on  an unusual application for    (free) satellite ...
Has your area been shot? Google Earth Landsat 5 Landsat 7 Airphotos in archive    • Military    • DOT    • USDA    • F...
Has the area been shot?   The trouble with airphoto coverage:    • it is spotty    • often monochromatic    • often mono-...
No shoots as of 29Jan95
No shoots as of 21Oct05
No shoots as of 30Oct08
No shoots as of 29Nov09
Has the area been shot?   The trouble with airphoto coverage:    • it is spotty    • often monochromatic    • often mono-...
Yes, there were shoots in the area          as of 18July06
Only six months later, seeing it isdifficult due to the low sun angle:
What you should know about         supporting field work   Somebody is responsible. Apparently, it‟s you.   Good informa...
Field work Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best   possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through   ($...
The Subsurface   ...is where the treasure—water oroil—is: how can we  see down there?
On the Geology Side:Expensive subsurface surveys are useless  unless they produce a proper image of the  subsurface.Advanc...
Magnetics:“basement topography”
Regional Drainages
Topo on DEM
Satellite data on DEM: slippery slopes
Surface composition: i.e. slippery soils
The Subsurface in 3-D   Generate a model of the earth at depth    using:     • surface & subsurface structure maps,     •...
3-D Earth Model
Initial Design Test it to ensure that subsurface  coverage is not compromised. A full patch, 3D ray tracing shows:    • ...
3-D Ray Tracing
Final Design   Subsurface model is in place   Offset sources & receivers have been ray    traced in the model   Hazards...
Field Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best   possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through   ($), an...
Knowing What’s in  Real World… Dealing with it.
Realities of Designing Field Work The goals of field work and land  owners are often in conflict. It takes knowledge, ef...
Two Costly Philosophies   Being Rigorous:    • a strict technical design w/o regard for      obstacles on the ground…    ...
Five steps to planning        (and permit approval):Establishing the boundaries of the field workLocating sensitive sites ...
The Project begins. Money’s on the line. Somebody has to:Find the landownersEstablish their correct tract boundaries (for ...
assume that all information is  incorrect, regardless of sourceAll sources have incorrect data:  • Tax assessors,  • Land ...
Field Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best   possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through   ($), an...
Your Problem: Taxing agencies draw polygons to identify tracts, which is how they send tax bills… So, the shape and locati...
Example:  up-to-date satellite image vs. air        photo vs. topo mapSatellite data have greater detail and  geometric fi...
Satellite Data
Aerial Photography
Topographic maps
Red = GoodYellow = Costing You Money
Accurate Cadastral Boundaries   Corrected boundaries :    • Prevents trespass    • Builds confidence of landowners    • P...
Field Conditions        that Explode Your Budget:   Terrain & relief (slope)   Soil type & erodeability   Vegetation (i...
Knowing Slope & Surface GeologyAvoids This....Vibes can’t maintain coupling          on steep, rocky slopes
Knowing hydrology will avoid running cables    through drainages multiple times
Know your hydrology & soil typesso you can identify liquefaction areas     (caused when vibes shake)
Know about new construction...without planning  ahead, your sampling points will have to be        dropped or offset “on t...
How this will work   Agenda:    • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters;      environmental; damages & liabilities;    ...
Independent Explorationists:   Lean operations, often rely on the work of    consultants for photogeology.   Many could ...
Preparing for a Photogeology Study:   Objectives: frontier, previewing, to buy    leases or evaluate existing leases?   ...
The Future of Photogeology   Image data is more accessible (in terms of speed    and storage) with CDs, smaller computers...
Important Issues for Remote Sensing   Government space/business policy is    unstable…short-term government budgetary    ...
In Conclusion….   Seismic and well logs, gravity and basement magnetics can    confirm structures first detected photogeo...
From Creekology to Rocket Science:The Evolution of Remote Sensing/GIS     in Oil and Gas Exploration           A Presentat...
From Creekology to Rocket Science:The Evolution of Remote Sensing/GIS     in Oil and Gas Exploration           A Presentat...
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration
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From creekology to rocket science the evolution of remote sensing gis in oilgas exploration

  1. 1. From Creekology to Rocket Science:The Evolution of Remote Sensing/GIS in Oil and Gas Exploration A Presentation for 2011 Texas GIS Forum October 26, 2011 Austin, Texas David G. Koger Fort Worth
  2. 2. Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck
  3. 3. Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck and the desire to show up
  4. 4. Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck the desire to show up and learning “dialogues of business”
  5. 5. Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck the desire to show up and learning “dialogues of business” and learning after school‟s out
  6. 6. Becoming an Expert takes 10,000 hours, timing & luck the desire to show up and learning “dialogues of business” and learning after school‟s out e.g. the expert mortician
  7. 7. Creekology: Seeing into the Earth
  8. 8. Creekology: Seeing into the Earth „Seepology‟...Native Americans extracted medicinal goo The first oil wildcatters drilled at the bends in streams Early USGS maps showed rough stream drainage patterns
  9. 9. Creekology Satellite data—large scale and highly accurate—merged creekology with geology. Photogeologic work was now possible without troublesome mosaicking. Remotely sensed data are spatially and spectrally better than airphotos, and has A greater variety of sun angles, moisture conditions, and seasonal samplings.
  10. 10. How this will work Agenda: • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters; environmental; damages & liabilities; exploration; logistical support) • Part 2: Photogeology; how images work • Part 3: Field work: it costs a lot. Getting better data; saving time and money on your surveys • Part 4: Other stuff to know, time permitting
  11. 11. Part 1: Case Studies ...Liabilities, Damages, Operations and Planning…
  12. 12. Case study #1 Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…) What is a weed, after all?(everybody knows what a weed is, right?) Causing damage to the bushes and what‟s beneath the bushes (USLE). Putting it back(how hard can that be?)
  13. 13. Case study #1 Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…) What is a weed, after all?(everybody knows what a weed is, right?) Causing damage to the bushes and what‟s beneath the bushes (USLE). Putting it back(how hard can that be?)
  14. 14. Case study #1 Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…) What is a weed, after all?(everybody knows what a weed is, right?) Causing damage to the bushes and what‟s beneath the bushes (USLE). Putting it back(how hard can that be?)
  15. 15. Case study #1 Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…) What is a weed, after all?(everybody knows what a weed is, right?) Causing damage to the bushes and what‟s beneath the bushes (USLE). Putting it back(how hard can that be?)
  16. 16. Case study #1 Put it back the way you found it.(not an unreasonable request…) What is a weed, after all?(everybody knows what a weed is, right?) Causing damage to the bushes and what‟s beneath the bushes (USLE). Putting it back(how hard can that be?)
  17. 17. Case study #2 300,000 acres burned up Whose land was damaged? What portions were grassland, crops, trees? Where‟d the fire actually start? Who‟s responsible?
  18. 18. Mapping Wildfire
  19. 19. Wildfire 6 hrs later
  20. 20. Wildfire Damage Outline...LS5
  21. 21. Wildfire Burn Severity
  22. 22. Fire Severity on Property Boundaries
  23. 23. High Water MarksCreating up-to-date information.A word about coastlines, tides, erosion (and where the fish are).
  24. 24. Freshwater or Ocean; currents and thermal differences for fishing
  25. 25. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  26. 26. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  27. 27. Large-scale Data Management: Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaThe goal wasto fomentexploration, sowe conductedaphotogeologystudy ofNebraska atmedium scale,using satelliteimagery,gravity andmagnetics.
  28. 28. Large-scale Data Management: Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaWe acquiredtopographicmaps at1:250,000 and1:100,000scales) forspatialreference withthe satelliteimagery.
  29. 29. Large-scale Data Management: Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaStructuralinterpretationswere madefrom andoverlaid ontothe imagery.
  30. 30. Large-scale Data Management: Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaTheinterpretationswere overlaidonto topomaps toprovide auniversal mapreferencedisplay.
  31. 31. Large-scale Data Management: Photogeology Mapping of NebraskaA merge ofimagery, map,andinterpretation.
  32. 32. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  33. 33. Landsat bands 7, 4, and 2; composited as color onthe following slide
  34. 34. Landsatcompositesfrom twodifferentdates. Also,thegeometrydiffers.
  35. 35. Regional (250K+) Interpretations
  36. 36. Regional + Local (24K) Interpretations
  37. 37. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  38. 38. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  39. 39. Romania Identify features of exploration interest (e.g. fault/frax, structures, tonal anomalies) Update WWII-era maps Identify high-cost damage areas (e.g. vineyards....)
  40. 40. Data Types & Sources: Multi-sensor merge (Landsat + SPOT) The area had only WWII-era maps....
  41. 41. Data Types & Sources: Multi-sensor merge (Landsat + SPOT)This is the 5-meter panchromatic SPOT image that suppliedthe spatial detail in the study, while 28.5m Landsat dataprovided the spectral information.
  42. 42. Data Types & Sources: Multi-sensor merge (Landsat + SPOT)The multi-band Landsat was encoded to hue andsaturation, while the higher resolution SPOT wasassigned to intensity.
  43. 43. Data Types & Sources: Multisensor merge (Landsat + SPOT) The photogeology interpretations are overlaid.
  44. 44. Data Types & Sources: Multisensor merge (Landsat + SPOT)
  45. 45. Data Types & Sources: Multisensor merge (Landsat + SPOT)
  46. 46. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  47. 47. Paraguay Information NeededWhere are existing roads that can be used for moving equipment and laying out field work equipment,Where are the tracks of previous field work?Update maps...collect detailed knowledge of the area,Find water sources: rivers, ponds, springs.
  48. 48. Gold = Your New, Geometrically Accurate Roadmap
  49. 49. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  50. 50. Stress-Strain Ellipsoid
  51. 51. Compression at 100K Scale
  52. 52. Stress-Strain @6K Scale
  53. 53. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  54. 54. “Remote Sensing Image Analysis Toward Understanding Sequestration Potential of Southern Kansas” DE-FE0002056 – “Modeling CO2 Sequestration in SalineAquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas” by David G. Koger Ralph N. Baker, PhD Fort Worth
  55. 55. Information needed: Is it safe to inject CO2? Will it come back up? How quickly? Where? Where might it get trapped? What are the cost trade-offs?
  56. 56. Remote Sensing to the Rescue• Help map the subsurface  Conduits / Compartments;  Migration fairways / Sealing mechanisms• Define structural & stratigraphic elements  these affect Fluid Movement
  57. 57. (Information, continued)All of which supports: Environmental Risk Analysis and Helps determine reservoir suitability for CO2 storage
  58. 58. Because knowing the contrasts of Conduits vs. Compartmentalization and Migration Pathways vs. Sealing Factors Must be understood & modeled to predict Fluid Movement and reservoir integrity because this is how we can know how and where groundwater flows and, therefore,How/if CO2 injections might affect the water table (e.g. we expect some CO2 leakage along fractures; high porosity/permeability zones are especially noteworthy….
  59. 59. Regional Gravity & Magnetics Define Major Basement Block Boundaries, Structural Grain
  60. 60. Regional Gravity & Magnetics Define Major Basement Block Boundaries, Structural Grain
  61. 61. Regional Satellite Photogeology
  62. 62. Local on top of Regional
  63. 63. Exploration Examples Nebraska Fayetteville Shale Marcellus Shale Romania Paraguay Costa Rica Kansas DOE three times
  64. 64. “Remote Sensing Image Analysis of the Bemis-Schutts Field, Ellis County, Kansas” in support of U.S. Dept of Energy/KS Geological Survey’sDE-FE0004566 – “Prototyping and testing a new volumetric curvature tool for modeling reservoir compartments and leakage pathways in the Arbuckle saline aquifer: reducing uncertainty in CO2 storage and permanence” by David G. Koger Ralph N. Baker, PhD Koger Remote Sensing, Fort Worth
  65. 65. Stress/Strain Model
  66. 66. Regional-scale work
  67. 67. Local-Scale work
  68. 68. Local-scale interpretations
  69. 69. How this will work Agenda: • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters; environmental; damages & liabilities; exploration; logistical support) • Part 2: Photogeology; how images work • Part 3: Field work: it costs a lot. Getting better data; saving time and money on your surveys • Part 4: Other stuff to know, time permitting
  70. 70. How satellites work: They collect their data with scanners. Other scanners are: • video cameras, • fax machines, • barcode readers, • Magnetic Resonance Imaging machines, • video game characters‟ vision...
  71. 71. Part 2 (how images work) About satellite data • How it collects & organizes data • Attributes of these data  Spectra, spatial, temporal Photogeology for exploration
  72. 72. Part 2 (how images work) About satellite data • How data are collected & organized • Attributes of these data  Spectra, spatial, temporal Photogeology for exploration
  73. 73. WorldView-2
  74. 74. Docks and Cranes pre-quake
  75. 75. Docks and Cranes Collapsed in Water (after quake)
  76. 76. Presidential Palace, post-quake
  77. 77. Relief Supplies Arrive
  78. 78. Haiti Damage Severity Map
  79. 79. Part 2 (how images work) About satellite data • How it works • Attributes  Spectra, spatial, temporal Photogeology for exploration
  80. 80. ROY G BIV
  81. 81. Digital Image Processing“Pixel” = “picture element” ...one spatial unit plus the spectra.
  82. 82. Part 2 (how images work) About satellite data • How it works • Attributes  Spectra, spatial, temporal Photogeology for exploration
  83. 83. Landsat TM footprint
  84. 84. Reducing Data to InformationA typical project area encompasses:•2-6 Landsat scenes (600MB to 1.8 GB raw data)•12-36 USGS raster topo sheets (500 Mb to 1.5 Gb)•Ancillary magnetics and gravity surveys (200 MB)•High resolution aerial imagery (800MB to 2 GB)For a total of 2.1 to 5 GB of raw dataColor composites, PCAs, structural interpretations, and ancillarydata can make 12-15 GB of additional filesAll this fuss over data selection, processing, and analysis isbecause the process must deliver the information needed tomake decisions.
  85. 85. Landsat TM processingLandsat Band 7 raw datawith brightness andcontrast stretchesapplied
  86. 86. Landsat TM processingSame area: Band 1 raw data stretched
  87. 87. Landsat TM processingBand 3-2-1 composite ofraw data Same, stretched
  88. 88. Landsat TM processingBand 7-5-4 composite ofraw data Same, stretched
  89. 89. Landsat TM processingMultitemporal Principal Components Analysis (or De-correlation Stretch).
  90. 90. Spatial Resolution…detail
  91. 91. Part 2 About satellite data • How it works • Attributes  Spectra, spatial, temporal Photogeology for exploration
  92. 92. At left, March 12 shows vegetation patterns inthe early spring (bright greens). At right, December 23 vegetation is dormant.Both images are “true.”
  93. 93. Palo Pinto Landsat multi-temporal comparisons September and March
  94. 94. Multi-temporal 1m data comparison for tax appraisal purposes
  95. 95. Part 2 About satellite data • How it works • Attributes  Spectra, spatial, temporal Photogeology for exploration
  96. 96. You can never have too much informationWhat you do have: production trends, a regional framework, well logs here and there, and maybe some field work.
  97. 97. Available information is massive: Surface and subsurface geology maps Current and historic well logs Topographic maps Seismic analyses Gravity surveys Magnetic surveys Satellite and aerial imagery Geochem surveys
  98. 98. The ideal tool would:1) fill in every empty space of the mosaic2) highlight anomalous conditions, and map structure: large folds and astroblemes or localized fracturing and reefs.
  99. 99. An even better tool would:a) sample at intervals in time (all seasons, wet and drought conditions, over decades), andb) offer adaptive scale to support either frontier or mature basin analysis.
  100. 100. Two Kinds of Tools:• Those that find structure• Those that find anomalous conditionsRemote sensing does both
  101. 101. The Crust of Earth is:• Thin, unstable, and floats• Bombarded with energy daily• Generates soil @ 3 tons per acre per year• Washed down and compacted daily
  102. 102. Remote sensing photogeologyis a blend of several disciplines:  optics  physics  electronics  cartography  natural science  computer sciences
  103. 103. Patterns: Their causes and effectsSubsurface activity imprints the surface for many reasons : constant micro-earthquakes, settling, erosion, micro-seepages.
  104. 104. Microbes are everywhere! We are 1/10 th us; 9/10th microbes. H.pylori causes 90% of peptic ulcers. Antibiotics fight harmful microbes. Yogurt has good ones. They‟re in amber, meteorites, Mars rocks, and 250 million-yr-old crystals. A billion microbes in 1 gram of topsoil. Dead microbes make topsoil. Other microbes clean up oil spills. A trillion are on each of your feet.
  105. 105. Healthy topsoil… retains water better, resists erosion, has more oxygen, better nutrients, Microbes and earthworms like it, compacts less, and is friendlier to roots.
  106. 106. Hydrocarbon-eating microbes Thrive above oil and gas reservoirs. Create a magnetic residue. Are counted. Deplete oxygen in soil. Do not build good soil. Seeps are mostly vertical; dynamic.These conditions have been recorded for 39 years....
  107. 107. Finding Structure: Astrobleme
  108. 108. Astrobleme with magnetics
  109. 109. The Information in PhotogeologyLineaments:Faults, fractures, fracture orientation and joints can have surface expression as: Linear escarpments. Changes in the directions they face can mean strike-slip faults. Linear and right angle bends in drainage courses. Drainages running in parallel. Aligned drainages on opposing sides of a drainage divide. Tributaries entering main streams in direct opposition. Moisture accumulation in linear patterns; alignment of water bodies
  110. 110. The Information in PhotogeologyLineaments (continued): Linear vegetation patterns due to water availability. Aligned notches on ridge crests. Subtle dip changes, varying lithologies or changes in rock texture. Variation in thermal signature. Large topographic trends align with basement lineaments. High fracture densities enhance hydrocarbon mobility at depth
  111. 111. The Information in PhotogeologyPositive Structures at Depth can appear as… Surface tonal anomalies. Circular features can indicate buried structure. Vegetation differences: health, leaf water content, population distribution. Differential compaction, loading, increased fracture density over and adjacent to buried structure. Soil color and texture alterations…staining, bleaching, cobbling. Local, slight topographic highs or lows. Subtle variations in moisture accumulation on the flanks of buried structure.
  112. 112. Mapping and GIS: making it all fitGoogle Earth: “cans” and “can’ts”:Very popular new web tool; •Fast and easy for finding places and routes •Reasonably accurate cartographic information; •High resolution imagery in some locations; •Excellent 3D visualization toolHowever: •Not accurate enough to be used as an exploration map •Image dates unknown •Most areas outside cities and large towns in low resolution •Color imagery not good enough for photogeologic analysis
  113. 113. How this will work Agenda: • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters; environmental; damages & liabilities; exploration; logistical support) • Part 2: Photogeology; how images work • Part 3: Field work: it costs a lot. Getting better data; saving time and money on your surveys • Part 4: Other stuff to know, time permitting
  114. 114. Field Work SupportRequires Leadership…Knowing where you‟re going….
  115. 115. Field Work Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through ($), and3) Tools that will help you
  116. 116. Wait a second: has yourarea been shot already? “Earth Detective” work on an unusual application for (free) satellite data....
  117. 117. Has your area been shot? Google Earth Landsat 5 Landsat 7 Airphotos in archive • Military • DOT • USDA • Farm Service
  118. 118. Has the area been shot? The trouble with airphoto coverage: • it is spotty • often monochromatic • often mono-temporal Satellite data • have an archive that goes back 29 years • they‟re inexpensive…mostly free • they cover 10,000 square miles • you get to choose:  the right sun angle  the right soil moisture  the right vegetation cover
  119. 119. No shoots as of 29Jan95
  120. 120. No shoots as of 21Oct05
  121. 121. No shoots as of 30Oct08
  122. 122. No shoots as of 29Nov09
  123. 123. Has the area been shot? The trouble with airphoto coverage: • it is spotty • often monochromatic • often mono-temporal Satellite data • have an archive that goes back 29 years • they‟re inexpensive…mostly free • they cover 10,000 square miles • you get to choose:  the right sun angle  the right soil moisture  the right vegetation cover
  124. 124. Yes, there were shoots in the area as of 18July06
  125. 125. Only six months later, seeing it isdifficult due to the low sun angle:
  126. 126. What you should know about supporting field work Somebody is responsible. Apparently, it‟s you. Good information won‟t just happen…it demands good planning. List all the things that can go wrong in the field. Plan for them. Field work is expensive. Your project will go over budget unless good information supports your plan.... Collecting the best quality field data results from a good plan.
  127. 127. Field work Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through ($), and3) Tools that will help you
  128. 128. The Subsurface ...is where the treasure—water oroil—is: how can we see down there?
  129. 129. On the Geology Side:Expensive subsurface surveys are useless unless they produce a proper image of the subsurface.Advanced modeling—before the shoot design—of the strata below will dictate your: • receiver and source spacing, • the location and spacing of lines • the geometric organization of the signal source and receiver locations, i.e. the design.
  130. 130. Magnetics:“basement topography”
  131. 131. Regional Drainages
  132. 132. Topo on DEM
  133. 133. Satellite data on DEM: slippery slopes
  134. 134. Surface composition: i.e. slippery soils
  135. 135. The Subsurface in 3-D Generate a model of the earth at depth using: • surface & subsurface structure maps, • velocity information, and • other seismic data. Ray tracing from the target horizons will identify your optimum shoot parameters
  136. 136. 3-D Earth Model
  137. 137. Initial Design Test it to ensure that subsurface coverage is not compromised. A full patch, 3D ray tracing shows: • which parameters will best image your target. 3-D ray tracing may be re-run after “no permit areas” or other obstacles are found.
  138. 138. 3-D Ray Tracing
  139. 139. Final Design Subsurface model is in place Offset sources & receivers have been ray traced in the model Hazards are identified Protocol for handling offsets is established …meaning: geophysical decisions are not left to the field crew We‟re now ready to go to the field
  140. 140. Field Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through ($), and3) Tools that will help you
  141. 141. Knowing What’s in Real World… Dealing with it.
  142. 142. Realities of Designing Field Work The goals of field work and land owners are often in conflict. It takes knowledge, effort, and time, to: • identify the project‟s requirements and • endure the permitting process. A third party consultant will save you time and money.
  143. 143. Two Costly Philosophies Being Rigorous: • a strict technical design w/o regard for obstacles on the ground… Your field personnel have to deal with whatever obstacles they encounter. Being Serendipitous: • personnel are sent to the field w/no coordination... They wander around—on your dime—until a solution develops You get degraded results, waste your time and money, and you never establish professional proficiency.
  144. 144. Five steps to planning (and permit approval):Establishing the boundaries of the field workLocating sensitive sites and hazardsDetermining how you will avoid or minimize effects to sensitive areas (i.e. establish protocols)Instructing your working teams about how they‟ll implement the protocolsMonitoring in-the-field performance (somebody must be the “Coach”)
  145. 145. The Project begins. Money’s on the line. Somebody has to:Find the landownersEstablish their correct tract boundaries (for permitting and ground control)And you: must assume that all the information that you carefully collected is incorrect.
  146. 146. assume that all information is incorrect, regardless of sourceAll sources have incorrect data: • Tax assessors, • Land companies, • Digitized plats, • Other public and private domain data.
  147. 147. Field Support in Three Parts1) Strategies to get you the best possible data2) Logistical hoops to jump through ($), and3) Tools that will help you get (and make...) correct information
  148. 148. Your Problem: Taxing agencies draw polygons to identify tracts, which is how they send tax bills… So, the shape and location of the tract doesn‟t really matter to them.Your Solution: current aerial photography or satellite imagery, ortho-rectified to obvious, photo- identifiable ground control points.
  149. 149. Example: up-to-date satellite image vs. air photo vs. topo mapSatellite data have greater detail and geometric fidelity. They are only a few days old, and they‟re cheap.Air photos are old, don‟t show recent construction activity, new structures or ponds.Topo maps are even more out of date.
  150. 150. Satellite Data
  151. 151. Aerial Photography
  152. 152. Topographic maps
  153. 153. Red = GoodYellow = Costing You Money
  154. 154. Accurate Cadastral Boundaries Corrected boundaries : • Prevents trespass • Builds confidence of landowners • Plan source and receiver offsets in “no permit” areas • Provides surveyors with correct mapping • Provides client with correct land mapping
  155. 155. Field Conditions that Explode Your Budget: Terrain & relief (slope) Soil type & erodeability Vegetation (i.e. what it is, what it will cost if damaged) Hydrologic features & drainage basins WeatherArrange to get the right equipment in position in advance of need.
  156. 156. Knowing Slope & Surface GeologyAvoids This....Vibes can’t maintain coupling on steep, rocky slopes
  157. 157. Knowing hydrology will avoid running cables through drainages multiple times
  158. 158. Know your hydrology & soil typesso you can identify liquefaction areas (caused when vibes shake)
  159. 159. Know about new construction...without planning ahead, your sampling points will have to be dropped or offset “on the fly”.
  160. 160. How this will work Agenda: • Part 1: Case studies (natural disasters; environmental; damages & liabilities; exploration; logistical support) • Part 2: Photogeology; how images work • Part 3: Field work: it costs a lot. Getting better data; saving time and money on your surveys • Part 4: Other stuff to know, time permitting
  161. 161. Independent Explorationists: Lean operations, often rely on the work of consultants for photogeology. Many could be using remotely sensed data interactively. Work on hand is insufficient to support a remote sensing specialist of their own. Some are familiar with photogeology. One RSPg project can high-grade enough areas to support prospect-generation for two or three years.
  162. 162. Preparing for a Photogeology Study: Objectives: frontier, previewing, to buy leases or evaluate existing leases? What is the land type, topographic relief, jungle, arid.... Best platform. Cost, budget, savings. Time of year. Scales. Using same data for logistics and documentation
  163. 163. The Future of Photogeology Image data is more accessible (in terms of speed and storage) with CDs, smaller computers, better software and training (more cross- pollenization with other disciplines). Small, special-purpose satellites are taking the place of large, multipurpose systems. There are no technological barriers to satellite data design or use; only markets are lacking. Precision Agriculture will drive the remote sensing market even more.
  164. 164. Important Issues for Remote Sensing Government space/business policy is unstable…short-term government budgetary processes make business‟ long-term planning needs treacherous. Government interests are long-term but business has short-term profit motives. Government/Industry partnerships are necessary if our nation is to stay competitive…other nations realize this critical need to cooperate and it is the U.S.s critical shortcoming.
  165. 165. In Conclusion…. Seismic and well logs, gravity and basement magnetics can confirm structures first detected photogeologically. Detecting rising hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-induced chemical changes in soils can be done remotely and cheaply, especially as a lead tool. Select a contractor who speaks in terms you understand and impose the same standards you apply to other tools. The need to constrain Landsat interpretations with all available geologic data cannot be overemphasized. Remote sensing photogeology replaces no common tools; rather, it aids in the planning and layout of more expensive methods. Oil industry observers say “new technologies” will help today‟s explorationist survive in the face of rising costs and regulations. Few specify how, but it is clear that remote sensing photogeology can lower finding costs.
  166. 166. From Creekology to Rocket Science:The Evolution of Remote Sensing/GIS in Oil and Gas Exploration A Presentation for 2011 Texas GIS Forum October 26, 2011 Austin, Texas David G. Koger Fort Worth
  167. 167. From Creekology to Rocket Science:The Evolution of Remote Sensing/GIS in Oil and Gas Exploration A Presentation for 2011 Texas GIS Forum October 26, 2011 Austin, Texas David G. Koger Fort Worth
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