Unit2 Ecology Ia Species

3,475 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,475
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
122
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Unit2 Ecology Ia Species

  1. 1. Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems Ecology I Species interactions, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  2. 2. ECOLOGY <ul><li>Ecology : the scientific study of relationships between organisms and their environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the study of the ecosystem structure and function </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  3. 3. Ecologist vs. Environmentalist <ul><li>Is an ecologist an environmentalist? </li></ul><ul><li>No, not necessarily </li></ul><ul><li>An ecologist is a scientist studying how ecosystems work and the relationship between organisms and their environment </li></ul><ul><li>An environmentalist is an individual interested in the environment (and may or may not be a scientist) </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  4. 4. Levels of organization in the living world: large scale to small scale Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  5. 5. Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism The sum total of living things on Earth and the areas they inhabit A functional system consisting of a community, its nonliving environment, and the interactions between them A set of populations of different species living together in a particular area A group of individuals of a species that live in a particular area An individual living thing Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  6. 6. Levels of organization in the living world <ul><li>Organism : an individual living thing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified by ancestry into species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.75 million named so far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe 3-100 million total </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  7. 7. <ul><li>Why are we still so unsure of the number of species on Earth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some areas remain little explored (hydrothermal vents, rainforest canopies, tropical soils). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many species are tiny and inconspicuous (microbes, roundworms, protists, fungi…). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some species are very similar in appearance (many taxa, even trees, birds, whales). </li></ul></ul>Levels of organization in the living world
  8. 8. Species <ul><li>One or more populations </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  9. 9. Species <ul><li>One or more populations whose members actually or potentially interbreed under natural conditions </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  10. 10. Species <ul><li>One or more populations whose members actually or potentially interbreed under natural conditions and produce fertile offspring. </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  11. 11. Levels of organization in the living world <ul><li>Organisms : </li></ul><ul><li>Population : group of individuals of same species occupying a given area at the same time </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  12. 12. Levels of organization in the living world <ul><li>Organisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Population: </li></ul><ul><li>Community : a set of populations of different species occupying a particular place </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  13. 13. Levels of organization in the living world <ul><li>Organisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Population: </li></ul><ul><li>Community: </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem: community(ies) interacting with one another and with the physical environment in a particular place </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  14. 14. Levels of organization in the living world <ul><li>Ecosystems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include abiotic factors such as climate, water, minerals and sunlight as well as biotic factors such as organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystems are the fundamental operational unit of ecology </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  15. 15. Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems Species: Distribution & Interrelationships
  16. 16. What determines whether a species will occur at any given place and time? <ul><li>I. It must be able to get there </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution, Immigration, Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>II. It must be able to survive there </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological and Physical Environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>III. It must be able to reproduce there </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable mates and environment, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  17. 17. I. Getting there <ul><li>1. Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Immigration: range expansion </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  18. 18. I. Getting there <ul><li>1. Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>3. Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced = exotic = alien species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>versus native and endemic species </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  19. 19. Introduction: Exotic Species Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems <ul><li>European Starling </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  21. 21. II. Surviving there <ul><li>1. Physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Biological environment </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  22. 22. II. Surviving there: Habitat <ul><li>An organism’s place or type of place in which it lives and thrives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes food, water, cover, and space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microhabitat : the part of the habitat the organism is “really” using </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  23. 23. Microhabitat: the part of the habitat the organism is “really” using Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  24. 24. II. Surviving there: Niche <ul><li>What the organism does in its habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all the physical and biological factors and interactions of the organism </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  25. 25. Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  26. 26. II. Surviving there: Niche <ul><li>Specialists versus Generalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals with narrow tolerance ranges and/or specific dietary constraints, etc. = Specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals with wide variety of habitats, foods, etc = Generalists </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  27. 27. II. Surviving there: Niche <ul><li>Specialists versus Generalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is more prone to extinction? </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems Wolf Coyote
  28. 28. II. Surviving there: Niche <ul><li>Which is more prone to extinction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wolf—a specialist (carnivore)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The coyote—a generalist (omnivore)? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answer: the wolf </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  29. 29. <ul><li>Fundamental versus Realized Niches </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems Wolf Coyote Surviving there: Niche Removal of wolf Allowed coyotes To expand to fill Fundamental niche
  30. 30. II. Surviving there: Physical Environment <ul><li>1. Range of tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The range of variability in a particular physical factor that an organism can withstand </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  31. 31. II. Surviving there: Physical Environment <ul><li>1. Range of tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What an organism can tolerate depends on… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation : (population level) due to past evolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acclimation : (individual level) Physiological changes within an individual to slowly changing new conditions </li></ul></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  32. 32. II. Surviving there: Physical Environment <ul><li>2. Limiting Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All it takes is one single factor to be outside of the range of tolerance to limit population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This factor is called the limiting factor </li></ul></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  33. 33. Limiting Factors and Saguaro distribution: saguaros are limited to the north by freezing temperatures and to the south by competition with other plants Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  34. 34. II. Surviving there: Biological Environment <ul><li>Mutualism : both gain </li></ul><ul><li>Predation : predator gains, prey loses </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism : parasite gains, host loses </li></ul><ul><li>Competition : both lose </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism : one species benefits; the other is unaffected </li></ul><ul><li>Biological environment=interrelationships </li></ul>Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
  35. 35. INTERRELATIONSHIPS Different ways to get along, or not get along Predation + - Competition - - Parasitism + - Commensalism + o Mutualism + + <ul><li>+ = benefit </li></ul><ul><li>= harmed </li></ul><ul><li>0 = unaffected </li></ul>
  36. 36. INTERRELATIONSHIPS Mutualism Which Type? Both gain
  37. 37. INTERRELATIONSHIPS Competition Which Type? Both the bobcat and coyote lose
  38. 38. INTERRELATIONSHIPS Parasitism Which Type? The parasite gains, the host loses
  39. 39. INTERRELATIONSHIPS Predation Which Type? Predator gains, Prey loses
  40. 40. INTERRELATIONSHIPS Commensalism Which Type? Snake gains home, rodent unaffected (hole abandoned long ago)
  41. 41. INTERRELATIONSHIPS: Review Mutualism Which Type? Both gain
  42. 42. INTERRELATIONSHIPS: Review Competition Which Type? Both lose available soil moisture
  43. 43. III. Reproduce there Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems <ul><li>Must find suitable mate </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring must be able to survive to reproductive age in order to ensure on-going presence of population </li></ul>

×