Unit1b Introenvscie

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Unit1b Introenvscie

  1. 1. Introduction to Environmental Science Western Land Ethics, Science & Environmental Policy
  2. 2. THE ROLE OF LAND ETHICS & ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
  3. 3. Three categories of ethical perspectives on the environment and environmental management strategies
  4. 4. Anthropocentrism <ul><li>Human-centered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs and benefits of actions measured according to impact on humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilitarian conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy saves resources “for the greatest good, for the greatest number, for the longest time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Biocentric Preservation <ul><li>Life-centered; all life has value </li></ul><ul><li>Policies save resources and organisms because of the fundamental right of other organisms to exist and to pursue their own interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called preservation ethic </li></ul><ul><li>John Muir (1838-1914) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ecocentric Preservation <ul><li>Actions measured on basis of benefit or harm to whole ecological systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes non-living & living elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-being of an individual organisms less important than well-being of larger ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aldo Leopold (1887-1949) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aldo Leopold “The Land Ethic” From his 1949 Essay: “ All ethics so far evolved rest upon a single premise: that the individual is a member of a community of interdependent parts….The land ethic simply enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land…A land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it…It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such.”
  8. 8. ROLE OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
  9. 9. A model for addressing environmental problems (Raven and Berg, 2004) <ul><li>Scientific assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Public education and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Political action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  10. 10. A model for addressing environmental problems (Raven and Berg, 2004) <ul><li>Scientific assessment - define the problem, design experiments, collect data, evaluate results, develop a model </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Public education & involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Political action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  11. 11. A model for addressing environmental problems (Raven and Berg, 2004) <ul><li>Scientific assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis – Analyze the potential effects of intervention, consider remediation options </li></ul><ul><li>Public education and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Political action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  12. 12. A model for addressing environmental problems (Raven and Berg, 2004) <ul><li>Scientific assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Public education and involvement – inform the public, explain the problem, present alternatives for action, reveal probable costs and results of each choice </li></ul><ul><li>Political action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  13. 13. A model for addressing environmental problems (Raven and Berg, 2004) <ul><li>Scientific assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Public education and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Political action – the affected parties, through their elected officials, select a course of action, differences of opinion may result from economic or social considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  14. 14. A model for addressing environmental problems (Raven and Berg, 2004) <ul><li>Scientific assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Public education and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Political action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – results of any action should be carefully monitored, to see if the environmental problem is being addressed and to improve the initial assessment and modeling of the problem. </li></ul>
  15. 15. A model for addressing environmental problems (Raven and Berg, 2004) <ul><li>Scientific assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Public education and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Political action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Realistically… <ul><li>This model is an idealized approach to systematically addressing environmental problems. </li></ul><ul><li>It is rarely so systematic due to very complex problems, large scale, high costs, less obvious benefits </li></ul>
  17. 17. Where do we go from here? <ul><li>“ Now in order to answer the question, ‘Where do we go from here?’ which is our theme, we must first honestly recognize where we are now.” </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King </li></ul>
  18. 18. Global Scientific Assessment <ul><li>In 2005, over 2,000 scientists from over 100 nations completed the “Millennium Ecosystem Assessment,” a comprehensive scientific assessment of the present conditions of the world’s ecological systems and their ability to continue supporting our civilization. </li></ul>(Withgott and Brennan, 2007)
  19. 19. (Withgott and Brennan, 2007)

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